CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 81 to 100 of 206

_id c898
authors Gero, John S.
year 1986
title An Overview of Knowledge Engineering and its Relevance to CAAD
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 107-119
summary Computer-aided architectural design (CAAD) has come to mean a number of often disparate activities. These can be placed into one of two categories: using the computer as a drafting and, to a lesser extent, modelling system; and using it as a design medium. The distinction between the two categories is often blurred. Using the computer as a drafting and modelling tool relies on computing notions concerned with representing objects and structures numerically and with ideas of computer programs as procedural algorithms. Similar notions underly the use of computers as a design medium. We shall return to these later. Clearly, all computer programs contain knowledge, whether methodological knowledge about processes or knowledge about structural relationships in models or databases. However, this knowledge is so intertwined with the procedural representation within the program that it can no longer be seen or found. Architecture is concerned with much more than numerical descriptions of buildings. It is concerned with concepts, ideas, judgement and experience. All these appear to be outside the realm of traditional computing. Yet architects discoursing use models of buildings largely unrelated to either numerical descriptions or procedural representations. They make use of knowledge - about objects, events and processes - and make nonprocedural (declarative) statements that can only be described symbolically. The limits of traditional computing are the limits of traditional computer-aided design systems, namely, that it is unable directly to represent and manipulate declarative, nonalgorithmic, knowledge or to perform symbolic reasoning. Developments in artificial intelligence have opened up ways of increasing the applicability of computers by acquiring and representing knowledge in computable forms. These approaches supplement rather than supplant existing uses of computers. They begin to allow the explicit representations of human knowledge. The remainder of this chapter provides a brief introduction to this field and describes, through applications, its relevance to computer- aided architectural design.
series CAAD Futures
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id a6a9
authors Goebel, Martin and Kroemker, Detlef
year 1986
title A Multi-Microprocessor GKS Workstation
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications July, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 54-60 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary Implementers of graphical application systems hesitate to interface their applications to the GKS standard not only because GKS functionality seems to be less sufficient for a particular application but also because the use of GKS -- as it is offered in portable software implementations -- usually means a loss of system performance. This article describes an installation of GKS on a multi-microprocessor that is based on functional distribution principles as well as on the object-oriented distribution of a graphics system. The main concepts and advantages of a GKS workstation using more than one processing unit with at least one output pipeline are described. The flexibility of this approach opens a perspective view to a GKS workstation that is configurable to application requirements
keywords standards, GKS, graphs, systems, hardware
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 68aa
authors Greenberg, Donald P.
year 1986
title Computer Graphics and Visualization
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 63-67
summary The field of computer graphics has made enormous progress during the past decade. It is rapidly approaching the time when we will be able to create images of such realism that it will be possible to 'walk through' nonexistent spaces and to evaluate their aesthetic quality based on the simulations. In this chapter we wish to document the historical development of computer graphics image creation and describe some techniques which are currently being developed. We will try to explain some pilot projects that we are just beginning to undertake at the Program of Computer Graphics and the Center for Theory and Simulation in Science and Engineering at Cornell University.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id ad96
authors Gudes, Ehud and Bracha, Gilad
year 1986
title GCI : A Tool for Developing Interactive CAD User Interfaces
source 26 p. : ill. Israel: 1986? includes bibliography
summary GCI is a Unix based tool for developing interactive CAD programs. By separating command/menu definitions from the program, GCI makes it easier to change and extend the user interface. The language provided by GCI is used to define syntax of commands, menus, messages, and help text. Generally, GCI supports a static hierarchical structure of commands and menus. However, through a program interface, an application program has the freedom to change environments, commands and menus. This flexibility of run-time control of the user interface is essential for developing highly responsive interfaces in a CAD environment. This paper presents the main concepts and definition language of GCI. It then discusses architectural and implementation issues, and finally presents a typical application's view of using the tool
keywords user interface, design, management, systems, tools, CAD
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 896b
authors Haider, Jawaid
year 1986
title A Conceptual Framework for Communication -Instruction in Architectural Design
source Pennsylvania State University
summary Existing design models, it is generally acknowledged, are inadequate to deal with the complexity of contemporary situations; and an assessment of self-conscious design manifests a slow development in the power and scope of conceptualizing. The quality of knowledge and conceptual tools available to the designer largely determine his ability to conceive and accomplish; conversely, the limitations of method are reflected in design solutions. Some emerging social problem-solving paradigms, which seek to construct a cognitive psychology of problem solving, have a direct relevance to architectural design. Notwithstanding the traditional criticism and scepticism, problem solving is predicated by task environment and problem space as these have a significant impact on design synthesis. Despite a rigorous search for theoretical perspectives and methods, the concern for the quality of the physical environment persists unabated. Historically, architecture has depended on other disciplines for its theoretical insight; but the application of borrowed theories without a viable framework for translation has often resulted in misinterpretation. Aggravating the problem is the art-science controversy which has consequences for architectural practice and education. What is required is a unified approach encompassing the scientific and artistic modes of inquiry. But a unified perspective, involving vast and disparate areas of human knowledge, demands a conceptual framework for integrative learning. The proposed model of this study provides such a framework and calls for a re-examination of the conventional boundaries of design disciplines. It advocates an interdisciplinary approach and recognizes the design process as inherently a learning process; this shifts the emphasis from product to process and allows students to plan and assess their own design/learning experience. While the study focuses on substantive issues, it identifies a strategy for integrative learning applicable within the existing context of design education. Despite its untested nature, the proposed model can become a vehicle for stimulating coordination of all facets of human knowledge and experience toward creative design synthesis. It inculcates a sense of critical assessment of generative ideas by presenting a conceptually clearer picture of the design process to elicit a response to and a better understanding of the task environment of architecture.
series thesis:PhD
email jxh40@psu.edu
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id d37c
authors Haines, Eric A. and Greenberg, Donald P.
year 1986
title The Light Buffer: A Ray Tracer Shadow Testing Accelerator
source Comput. Graph. and App., vol. 6, no. 9, pp. 6-16, IEEE, Sept. 1986
summary The basic ideas presented are classifying objects from the light's viewpoint, and caching shadowing objects. The classification scheme uses a modified z-buffer to create lists of objects in sorted order for each "pixel" the light sees and determining depths beyond which no light passes. The other technique presented is caching the object that was last intersected by a shadow ray and immediately testing this object for the next shadow ray for the same light at the same location in the ray tree. Shadow caching is simple and applicable to almost any ray tracer. Dieter Bayer implemented the light buffer for POV-Ray.
series other
email erich@acm.org
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id e65f
authors Haines, Eric A. and Greenberg, Donald P.
year 1986
title The Light Buffer: A Shadow-Testing Accelerator
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. September, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 6-16 : col. ill. includes bibliography
summary In one area of computer graphics, realistic image synthesis, the ultimate goal is to produce a picture indistinguishable from a photograph of a real environment. A particularly powerful technique for simulating light reflection - an important element in creating this realism - is called ray tracing. This method produces images of excellent quality, but suffers from lengthy computation time that limits its practical use. This article presents a new method to reduce shadow testing time during ray tracing. The technique involves generating light buffers, each of which partitions the environment with respect to an individual light source. These partition descriptions are then used during shadow testing to quickly determine a small subset of objects that may have to be tested for intersection. The results of timing tests illustrate the beneficial performance of these techniques. The tests compare the standard ray-tracing algorithm to light buffers of varying resolution
keywords realism, synthesis, ray tracing, algorithms, computer graphics, shadowing
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 2b40
authors Hanson, N.L.R. and Radford, Antony D.
year 1986
title Living on the Edge : A Grammar For Some Country Houses by Glenn Murcutt
source Architecture Australia. 1986. vol. 75: pp. 66-73
summary Glenn Murcutt is an award-winning Australian architect whose work displays a consistent pattern of development in its response to the environment and brief. A set of syntactic and abductive rules is developed that models the generation of a subset of his work. The model and the architect's response to its operation is described
keywords architecture, shape grammars, applications
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 7f64
authors Harfmann, A.C., Swerdloff, L.M. and Kalay, Y.E.
year 1986
title The Terminal Crit
source ACADIA Workshop 86 Proceedings - Houston (Texas - USA) 24-26 October 1986, pp. 79-87
summary Numerous attempts have been made to develop formal design methods with -the purpose of increasing the predictability, consistency and dissemination of the design process and improving the quality of the objects produced. The ill- structured nature of design, and the perception of design activities as intuitive and experience dependent have frustrated many of the efforts to structure these process. The growing complexity of the built environment and advances in technology have led to a more rigorous effort to understand and externalize creative activities. Computer aided design tools have recently been playing an important role in the evolution of the design process as a rationally defined activity. The use of- computers for drafting, analysis, and 2 or 3 dimensional modeling is rapidly becoming an accepted method in many design schools and practitioners. A next logical step in the externalization of the design process is to endow the computer with the ability to manipulate and critique parts of the design. Under this scenario, the "terminal crit" is redefined to mean critiques that are carried out by both the designer and the computer. The paper presents the rationalization of the design process as a continuum into which CAD has been introduced. The effects of computers on the design process are studied through a specific incorporation of CAD tools into a conventional design studio, and a research project intended to advance the role of CAD in design.
series ACADIA
email HARFMAAC@UCMAIL.UC.EDU
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 2156
authors Hashimshony, Rivka, Roth, J. and Wachman, A.
year 1986
title A Model for Generating Floor-Plans in Multi-Story Buildings
source International Journal of Design Computing. April, 1986. vol. 1: pp. 136-157 : ill. includes bibliography
summary A graph-theoretic method for computer generation of rectangular floor plans for multi-story buildings is outlined. The problem formulation takes account of adjacency requirements of rooms, dimensional constraints, and the need for vertical alignments of elements such as stairs and elevators. The solution method is to first turn the required adjacencies graph into a layout graph by adding edges, then color and direct the layout graph, cut the colored directed graph into two subgraphs, and finally use the PERT technique to dimension the plan. An example problem of design of a medical clinic is formulated and solved using this method
keywords space allocation, architecture, CAD, floor plans, synthesis, graphs, dimensioning
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 2ceb
authors Hearn, Donald and Baker, Pauline M.
year 1986
title Windowing and Clipping -- - Chapter 6
source Computer Graphics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ.: Prentice Hall, 1986. pp. 123-141 : ill. includes a short bibliography
summary Applications programs define pictures in a world coordinate system. This can be any Cartesian coordinate system that a user finds convenient. Pictures defined in world coordinates are then mapped by the graphics system into device coordinates. Typically, a graphics package allows a user to specify which area of the picture definition is to be displayed and where it is to be placed on the display device. A single area could be chosen for display, or several areas could be selected. These areas can be placed in separate display locations, or one area can serve as a small insert into a larger area. This transformation process involves operations for translating and scaling selected areas and for deleting picture parts outside the areas. These operations are referred to as windowing and clipping
keywords clipping, windowing, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ccb4
authors Helman, Paul and Veroff, Robert
year 1986
title Intermediate Problem Solving and Data Structure : Walls and Mirrors
source xxi, 612 p. : ill Menlo Park, California: The Benjamin/Cumming Company,inc., 1986. includes index.
summary An intermediate level presentation of recursion and recursive problem solving. The book integrates both problem solving and programming skills and uses the Pascal language for implementation
keywords programming, data structures, problem solving, recursion, PASCAL
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id e12d
authors Johnson, Robert E.
year 1986
title Micro-computers and Computer Aided Design Instruction
source ACADIA Workshop 86 Proceedings - Houston (Texas - USA) 24-26 October 1986, pp. 173-181
summary During the past few years we have been involved in a variety of experiments that teach the use of computers to non-computer oriented architecture students. These teaching experiences have led to the development of an experimental, entry-level course in computer-aided architectural design using the Macintosh personal computer. Objectives of this course included: a) to provide an introductory course to students with little or no prior computer experience, b) to use the course as a vehicle for illustrating principles of computer-aided design, c) to course so that it would be applicable to design in general, not just architectural design, and d) whenever possible, to use "off the shelf', generic, readily accessible software. The history of these developments will be presented along with a very preliminary evaluation of results.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/10/10 12:26

_id 67d2
authors Kajiya, J.T. and Kay, T.L.
year 1986
title Ray tracing complex scenes
source Computer Graphics, 20 4, 269-78
summary A new algorithm for speeding up ray-object intersection calculations is presented. Objects are bounded by a new type of extent, which can be made to fit convex hulls arbitrarily tightly. The objects are placed into a hierarchy. A new hierarchy traversal algorithm is presented which is efficient in the sense that objects along the ray are queried in ancient order. Furthermore , we demonstrate that it is currently possible to raytrace scenes containing hundreds of thousands of objects.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id e26f
authors Kalay, Y. (ed.)
year 1987
title Computability of Design
source New York: Wiley & Sons
summary Computer-aided design (CAD) has promised to transform the art and science of architectural design. Yet, despite some significant achievements in the past 3 decades, it has so far failed to do so. This stimulating volume, derived from a symposium held at SUNY, Buffalo in December 1986, explores the reasons why design is so difficult to support by computational means, and what can be done to alleviate this difficulty. Written by an interdisciplinary panel of experts, it presents a varied and comprehensive view of the ways creative design processes can be modelled. The contributors do not all reach the same conclusions, which makes this book lively reading. Topics are arranged into four parts: constructing models of the design process, the computational representation of design knowledge (including spatial information and implicit design intent), methods for computing the design process as a whole (including mathematical programming, expert systems, and shape grammars), and the integration of CAD with traditional design practices.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id c55f
authors Kalay, Yehuda E.
year 1986
title The Impact of CAD On Architectural Design Education in the United States
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 348-355
summary Computer-Aided Design (CAD) began to appear in schools of architecture in the United States over 15 years ago. By 1982, over 50% of all accredited schools of architecture in North America included some form of CAD in their curricula. This number has continued to steadily increase. For the most part, the use of CAD has been restricted to the few individuals working on special "CAD projects" and to the researchers developing CAD products. The reasons for this limitation have included the low availability, difficulty of use, restricted access and high cost of the CAD systems, as well as limited faculty and administrative support. Recently, however, partly due to the introduction of micro- computer CAD software, and partly due to the growing awareness of the importance of CAD in architectural education and practice, some schools have begun to introduce CAD as part of the general design curriculum.
series eCAADe
email kalay@ced.berkeley.edu
last changed 1998/08/18 08:27

_id 8e43
authors Katz, R., Chang, E. and Bhateja, R.
year 1986
title Version Modeling concepts for Computer-Aided Design Databases
source ACM SIGMOD Intl. Conf On Management of Data
summary We describe a semantic object-oriented data model for representing how a complex design database evolves over time. Structural relationships, introduced by the data management system, are imposed on the objects created by existing CAD tools. The relationships supported by the model are (1) version histories, (2) time-varying configurations, and (3) equivalences among objects of different types. We describe mechanisms for (1) identifying current versions, (2) supporting dynamic configuration binding, and (3) verifying equivalence relationships. The data model is being implemented in a Version Server, under development at the University of California, Berkeley.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ed11
authors Kieffer, Bruce D.
year 1986
title An Interactive CAD Based System Integrating Visual Analysis & Design
source ACADIA Workshop 86 Proceedings - Houston (Texas - USA) 24-26 October 1986, pp. 191-202
summary The paper describes the development of an enhanced CAD based instructional system specifically focusing on a linkage between the analytical and creative tasks necessary during the early schematic or conceptual design. The first two components of the system are fairly conventional items and include a tutorial and library of six (6) two and three dimensional CAD design files which document the visual and organizational aspects of archetype buildings and spaces. The CAD facility allows a user to selectively highlight and combine for review, various features of a buildings design. This allows its users to literally, "build-up" an understanding of the complexity of factors at work in recognizably good building. The final component to a customized CAD environment allowing users to develop their own designs with the same tools used during analysis of the archetypes. In addition to a description of the system, the paper identifies the effectiveness measures and instructional setting being established for evaluation of the system.
series ACADIA
email bkieffer@wisc.edu
last changed 2003/04/28 13:22

_id 682d
authors Kim, Uk
year 1986
title Model for an Integrated Design Evaluation System using Knowledge Bases
source ACADIA Workshop 86 Proceedings - Houston (Texas - USA) 24-26 October 1986, pp. 204-215
summary Computer-aided architectural design (CAAD) systems need to be integrated so that one unified system can generate and do various analysis and evaluation of building models. A data system can not solve this problem because all design concepts can not be stored in the database before the design is completed. As design stage proceeds, design concept and necessary information for analysis and evaluation become complex and detailed. In order to accommodate increasing entities and new relationships between them, knowledge-based systems are integrated into the database of building models. frame structure and production rules are adopted to represent knowledge about the database, and to represent evaluation rules respectively. The system is implemented in Prolog on an Apollo workstation.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/10/10 12:26

_id ac18
authors Knight, Terry W.
year 1986
title Transformations of Languages of Designs
source University of California, Graduate School of Architecture and Urban PIanning, Los Angeles
summary Stylistic change and innovation is a central and traditional issue in art and architecture. In this study, a formal model is developed for representing stylistic change. Styles are defined in terms of rule-based systems called shape grammars that generate languages of designs. Changes in styles are represented as transformations of the shape grammars that define these styles. The model is first sketched informally and considered in relation to other, traditional approaches to style and change. It is then presented in detail and illustrated with numerous simple examples. Last, the model is applied to describe actual, historical examples of stylistic transformations: one in the decorative arts, one in the fine arts, and one in architecture.
series thesis:PhD
email tknight@mit.edu
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

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