CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 678e
authors Aish, Robert
year 1986
title Three-dimensional Input and Visualization
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 68-84
summary The aim of this chapter is to investigate techniques by which man-computer interaction could be improved, specifically in the context of architectural applications of CAD. In this application the object being designed is often an assembly of defined components. Even if the building is not actually fabricated from such components, it is usually conceptualized in these terms. In a conventional graphics- based CAD system these components are usually represented by graphical icons which are displayed on the graphics screen and arranged by the user. The system described here consists of three- dimensional modelling elements which the user physically assembles to form his design. Unlike conventional architectural models which are static (i.e. cannot be changed by the users) and passive (i.e. cannot be read by a CAD system), this model is both 'user generated' and 'machine readable'. The user can create, edit and view the model by simple, natural modelling activities and without the need to learn complex operating commands often associated with CAD systems. In particular, the user can view the model, altering his viewpoint and focus of attention in a completely natural way. Conventional computer graphics within an associated CAD system are used to represent the detailed geometry which the different three-dimensional icons may represent. In addition, computer graphics are also used to present the output of the performance attributes of the objects being modelled. In the architectural application described in this chapter an energy- balance evaluation is displayed for a building designed using the modelling device. While this system is not intended to offer a completely free-form input facility it can be considered to be a specialist man-machine interface of particular relevance to architects or engineers.
series CAAD Futures
email Robert.Aish@bentley.com
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 8e02
authors Brown, A.G.P. and Coenen, F.P.
year 2000
title Spatial reasoning: improving computational efficiency
source Automation in Construction 9 (4) (2000) pp. 361-367
summary When spatial data is analysed the result is often very computer intensive: even by the standards of contemporary technologies, the machine power needed is great and the processing times significant. This is particularly so in 3-D and 4-D scenarios. What we describe here is a technique, which tackles this and associated problems. The technique is founded in the idea of quad-tesseral addressing; a technique, which was originally applied to the analysis of atomic structures. It is based on ideas concerning Hierarchical clustering developed in the 1960s and 1970s to improve data access time [G.M. Morton, A computer oriented geodetic database and a new technique on file sequencing, IBM Canada, 1996.], and on atomic isohedral (same shape) tiling strategies developed in the 1970s and 1980s concerned with group theory [B. Grunbaum, G.C. Shephard, Tilings and Patterns, Freeman, New York, 1987.]. The technique was first suggested as a suitable representation for GIS in the early 1980s when the two strands were brought together and a tesseral arithmetic applied [F.C. Holdroyd, The Geometry of Tiling Hierarchies, Ars Combanitoria 16B (1983) 211–244.; S.B.M. Bell, B.M. Diaz, F.C. Holroyd, M.J.J. Jackson, Spatially referenced methods of processing raster and vector data, Image and Vision Computing 1 (4) (1983) 211–220.; Diaz, S.B.M. Bell, Spatial Data Processing Using Tesseral Methods, Natural Environment Research Council, Swindon, 1986.]. Here, we describe how that technique can equally be applied to the analysis of environmental interaction with built forms. The way in which the technique deals with the problems described is first to linearise the three-dimensional (3-D) space being investigated. Then, the reasoning applied to that space is applied within the same environment as the definition of the problem data. We show, with an illustrative example, how the technique can be applied. The problem then remains of how to visualise the results of the analysis so undertaken. We show how this has been accomplished so that the 3-D space and the results are represented in a way which facilitates rapid interpretation of the analysis, which has been carried out.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id a241
authors Freund, Dwight D.
year 1986
title A Note : An Interactive Procedure for Constructing Line and Circle Tangencies
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. April, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 59-63 : ill. includes bibliography
summary This note describes a procedure that enables a designer or draftsperson with limited mathematical training to discover interactively the construction of a wide variety of tangency and intersection problems. Requiring very little code to implement, it supplements the standard tangency constructions available on commercial turnkey computer-aided-design systems with a flexibility unavailable even through the inclusion of the numerous special-purpose algorithms available in the literature
keywords drawings, circles, computational geometry, user interface
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id a35a
authors Arponen, Matti
year 2002
title From 2D Base Map To 3D City Model
source UMDS '02 Proceedings, Prague (Czech Republic) 2-4 October 2002, I.17-I.28
summary Since 1997 Helsinki City Survey Division has proceeded in experimenting and in developing the methods for converting and supplementing current digital 2D base maps in the scale 1:500 to a 3D city model. Actually since 1986 project areas have been produced in 3D for city planning and construction projects, but working with the whole map database started in 1997 because of customer demands and competitive 3D projects. 3D map database needs new data modelling and structures, map update processes need new working orders and the draftsmen need to learn a new profession; the 3D modeller. Laser-scanning and digital photogrammetry have been used in collecting 3D information on the map objects. During the years 1999-2000 laser-scanning experiments covering 45 km2 have been carried out utilizing the Swedish TopEye system. Simultaneous digital photography produces material for orto photo mosaics. These have been applied in mapping out dated map features and in vectorizing 3D buildings manually, semi automatically and automatically. In modelling we use TerraScan, TerraPhoto and TerraModeler sw, which are developed in Finland. The 3D city model project is at the same time partially a software development project. An accuracy and feasibility study was also completed and will be shortly presented. The three scales of 3D models are also presented in this paper. Some new 3D products and some usage of 3D city models in practice will be demonstrated in the actual presentation.
keywords 3D City modeling
series other
email matti.arponen@hel.fi
more www.udms.net
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id a6f1
authors Bridges, A.H.
year 1986
title Any Progress in Systematic Design?
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 5-15
summary In order to discuss this question it is necessary to reflect awhile on design methods in general. The usual categorization discusses 'generations' of design methods, but Levy (1981) proposes an alternative approach. He identifies five paradigm shifts during the course of the twentieth century which have influenced design methods debate. The first paradigm shift was achieved by 1920, when concern with industrial arts could be seen to have replaced concern with craftsmanship. The second shift, occurring in the early 1930s, resulted in the conception of a design profession. The third happened in the 1950s, when the design methods debate emerged; the fourth took place around 1970 and saw the establishment of 'design research'. Now, in the 1980s, we are going through the fifth paradigm shift, associated with the adoption of a holistic approach to design theory and with the emergence of the concept of design ideology. A major point in Levy's paper was the observation that most of these paradigm shifts were associated with radical social reforms or political upheavals. For instance, we may associate concern about public participation with the 1970s shift and the possible use (or misuse) of knowledge, information and power with the 1980s shift. What has emerged, however, from the work of colleagues engaged since the 1970s in attempting to underpin the practice of design with a coherent body of design theory is increasing evidence of the fundamental nature of a person's engagement with the design activity. This includes evidence of the existence of two distinctive modes of thought, one of which can be described as cognitive modelling and the other which can be described as rational thinking. Cognitive modelling is imagining, seeing in the mind's eye. Rational thinking is linguistic thinking, engaging in a form of internal debate. Cognitive modelling is externalized through action, and through the construction of external representations, especially drawings. Rational thinking is externalized through verbal language and, more formally, through mathematical and scientific notations. Cognitive modelling is analogic, presentational, holistic, integrative and based upon pattern recognition and pattern manipulation. Rational thinking is digital, sequential, analytical, explicatory and based upon categorization and logical inference. There is some relationship between the evidence for two distinctive modes of thought and the evidence of specialization in cerebral hemispheres (Cross, 1984). Design methods have tended to focus upon the rational aspects of design and have, therefore, neglected the cognitive aspects. By recognizing that there are peculiar 'designerly' ways of thinking combining both types of thought process used to perceive, construct and comprehend design representations mentally and then transform them into an external manifestation current work in design theory is promising at last to have some relevance to design practice.
series CAAD Futures
email a.h.bridges@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 81ae
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Parks, Linda M.
year 1986
title Expert Systems and Engineering Design Knowledge
source Electronic Computation Conference Proceedings (9th : 1986 : Birmingham, AL) American Society of Civil Engineers, pp. 28-42. CADLINE has abstract only.
summary Of all the contributions of artificial intelligence (AI), expert systems show some of the most significant promise for engineering applications. An expert system provides a framework for acquiring, representing, and using knowledge about a particular application's domain. The role of knowledge in engineering design merits closer attention so that AI-oriented computer-aided engineering (CAE) systems can be developed and maintained systematically. Because 'knowledge' in engineering applications is loosely defined, it is necessary to identify knowledge types and the correlations between them before widespread engineering design applications can be achieved. The types of domain knowledge; facts, procedures, judgments, and control; differ from the classes of that knowledge; creative, innovative, and routine. Feasible engineering tasks for expert systems can be determined based on these types and classes of knowledge. Prototype expert systems have been developed for civil engineering applications to assist with interpretation, design, planning, diagnosis, control, and other engineering system functions. A number of these are described herein. Interpretive tasks require reasoning about a task in light of the knowledge available, while generative tasks create potential solutions to be tested against constraints. Only after classifying the domain by type and level can the engineer select an appropriate knowledge-engineering tool for the domain being considered. The critical features to be weighed after problem classification are knowledge representation techniques, control strategies, interface requirements, compatibility with traditional systems, and economic considerations. After considering all of these factors in the selection of the expert system took, the engineer can then proceed with the acquisition of knowledge and the construction and use of the expert system
keywords design, knowledge, civil engineering, expert systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 452c
authors Vanier, D. J. and Worling, Jamie
year 1986
title Three-dimensional Visualization: A Case Study
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 92-102
summary Three-dimensional computer visualization has intrigued both building designers and computer scientists for decades. Research and conference papers present an extensive list of existing and potential uses for threedimensional geometric data for the building industry (Baer et al., 1979). Early studies on visualization include urban planning (Rogers, 1980), treeshading simulation (Schiler and Greenberg, 1980), sun studies (Anon, 1984), finite element analysis (Proulx, 1983), and facade texture rendering (Nizzolese, 1980). With the advent of better interfaces, faster computer processing speeds and better application packages, there had been interest on the part of both researchers and practitioners in three-dimensional -models for energy analysis (Pittman and Greenberg, 1980), modelling with transparencies (Hebert, 1982), super-realistic rendering (Greenberg, 1984), visual impact (Bridges, 1983), interference clash checking (Trickett, 1980), and complex object visualization (Haward, 1984). The Division of Building Research is currently investigating the application of geometric modelling in the building delivery process using sophisticated software (Evans, 1985). The first stage of the project (Vanier, 1985), a feasibility study, deals with the aesthetics of the mode. It identifies two significant requirements for geometric modelling systems: the need for a comprehensive data structure and the requirement for realistic accuracies and tolerances. This chapter presents the results of the second phase of this geometric modelling project, which is the construction of 'working' and 'presentation' models for a building.
series CAAD Futures
email Dana.Vanier@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 69c7
authors Woodbury, Robert F.
year 1986
title VEGA : A Geometric Modelling System
source 11 p. : ill. Engineering Design Research Center, CMU, April 1986. DRC-48-03-87. includes bibliography
summary VEGA is a program which models rigid solid objects in three dimensions. Specifically, its domain is assemblies of planar faced polyhedra. VEGA supports a variety of operations to create, modify, query and delete these assemblies. VEGA is intended to serve two purposes: that of a new medium of representation for the design process; and of a programming package to support geometric applications in a wide variety of domains. Here the author addresses primarily the first of these purposes, that of a new medium for design. Designers of physical objects use an external medium, traditionally paper or physical models, not only to record their work, but to provide information which assists in the understanding of implications of design decisions. Designers proceed by performing operations, which reflect internal design decisions, on this external medium. The operations used in design are generally reflective of these physical media. For example, models built of clay tend to be formed by a subtractive processes, whereas models built of wood tend to be additive in nature. Designers who use drawings as their medium still tend to use operations which reflect operations on physical models. Computers provide the fascinating potential to provide a much wider variety of operations at a much greater speed than is available with the traditional means of representation. In addition, a computer based representation can provide quantitative information not easily accessible from traditional forms. This opens the potential for the inclusion of formal means of evaluation in the design process; something which is generally almost absent in traditional design teaching. A computer program which effectively and 'naturally' models physical objects and operations on them would be a valuable assistance to both the teaching and practice design. VEGA has been designed with these objectives in mind. VEGA represents physical objects with a scheme known as boundary representation and provides a wide variety of operations on these objects. VEGA also provides means to associate other, non-geometric, information with the objects it represents. VEGA is implemented under the ANDREW system. It communicates to ANDREW through a graphics package, also developed by the author's group. VEGA is intended to serve as a medium for future studio courses in the Architecture, Industrial Design and Arts education
keywords geometric modeling, solid modeling, CAD, education, assemblies, B-rep, systems
series CADline
email rob_woodbury@sfu.ca
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 1083
authors Wu, Rui
year 2002
title Computer Aided Dimensional Control in Building Construction
source Eindhoven University of Technology
summary Dimensional control in the building industry can be defined as the operational techniques and activities that are necessary, during the construction process of a building, for the assurance of the defined dimension quality of a building (Hoof, 1986). Efficient and precise dimensional control of buildings under construction is becoming ever more important because of changes in the construction industry. More prefabricated components are used; more regulations appear; newly designed buildings have more complex shapes, and building construction is speeding up. To ensure the predefined dimensional quality, a plan of dimensional control must be designed, on the basis of building drawings and specifications delivered by architects, before the building is constructed. The dimensional control plan must provide site personnel with adequate information on, among others, setting out and assembling building components, which can often be done by means of Total Stations. The essence of designing a dimensional control plan is to find out which points should be used as positioning points, which points should be set out in advance or controlled afterwards, and not to forget why. In an effort to contribute to the improvement of the dimensional control of on-site construction projects, this research tries to capture the knowledge required to design an adequate dimensional control plan and make that knowledge more generally available, and build a digital connection between CAD systems and Total Stations, focusing on prefabricated concrete building structural elements. The instrument developed in this research for capturing of essential dimensional control information and knowledge makes use of Product Data Technology (PDT) and Knowledge Technology (KT). The chosen solution supports the stochastic analysis of optimal positioning points taking account of various sorts of deviations and their mutual relationships. The resulting information model has been written in a standardized information modelling language called UML (Unified Modelling Language). The model has been implemented in a Dimensional Control System (DCS) and applied in the “La Tour” construction project in Apeldoorn, the Netherlands. The DCS provides a digital way to bridge the floor plan design with dimensional control, predict dimensional deviation limits and output the data needed for a Total Station. The case study of “La Tour” tests the UML model and prototype of the DCS. The results prove that direct positioning of objects (by putting reflectors on the objects and using a Total Station and by inputting coordinates extracted and calculated from the AutoCAD drawings) provides higher speed, accuracy and reliability. It also shows a way to (pre)position free form objects in 3D where traditional methods cannot. In conclusion: (1) it seems to be justified to expect that the application of the DCS will contribute to increased confidence in dimensional control and the reduction of costs of failure, which potentially could support the increased use of cheaper construction methods, and will also contribute to the improvement of building design and construction process. (2) the scientific contribution of this research is a first step towards providing dimensional quality in a construction process covered by stochastic dimensional uncertainty, even for positioning of free form objects.
keywords Construction Management; Constructional Engineering; Computer Applications
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 4ed0
authors Bartels, R.H., Beatty, J.C. and Barsky, B.A.
year 1986
title An Introduction to Splines for Use in Computer Graphics and Geometric Modeling
source xiv, 476 p. : ill. (some col.) Los Altos, California: Morgan Kaufmann Pub. Inc., 1986. Forewords by Pierre Bezier and Robin A. Forrest. Includes bibliography: p. 455-465 and index
summary Discusses the use of splines from the point of view of the computer scientist concentrating on parametric spline curves and parametric,tensor-product spline surfaces
keywords splines, theory, computer graphics, computational geometry
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:42

_id 09b3
authors Bier, Eric A. and Sloan, Kenneth R. Jr.
year 1986
title Two-Part Texture Mappings
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications September, 1986. pp. 40-53 : col. ill. includes bibliography.
summary Most published techniques for mapping two-dimensional texture patterns onto three-dimensional curved surfaces assume that either the texture pattern has been predistorted to compensate for the distortion of the mapping or the curved surfaces are represented parametrically. The authors address the problem of mapping undistorted planar textures onto arbitrarily represented surfaces. Their mapping technique is done in two parts. First the texture pattern is embedded in 3- space on an intermediate surface. Then the pattern is projected onto the target surface in a way that depends only on the geometry of the target object (not on its parametrization). Both steps have relatively low distortion, so the original texture need not be predistorted. The authors also discuss interactive techniques that make two-part mapping practical
keywords texture mapping, curved surfaces, computer graphics, rendering
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 4418
authors Franklin, Randolph, Wu, Peter, Y. F. and Samaddar, Sumitro (et al)
year 1986
title Prolog and Geometry Projects
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. November, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 46-55 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Prolog is a useful tool for geometry and graphics implementations because its primitives, such as unification, match the requirements of many geometric algorithms. During the last two years, programs have been implemented to solve several problems in Prolog, including a subset of the Graphical Kernel System, convex-hull calculation, planar graph traversal, recognition of groupings of objects, Boolean combinations of polygons using multiple precision rational numbers, and cartographic map overlay. Certain paradigms or standard forms of geometric programming in Prolog are becoming evident. They include applying a function to every element of a set, executing a procedure so long as a certain geometric pattern exists, and using unification to propagate a transitive function. This article describes the experiences, including paradigms of programming that seem useful, and finally lists those considered as the advantages and disadvantages of Prolog
keywords geometric modeling, computer graphics, PROLOG, programming
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 0354
authors Goodman, Gary and Reddy, Raj D.
year 1978
title Alternative Control Structures for Speech Understanding Systems
source 1978 ? [13] p. : ill. includes bibliography Control structures are an essential part of any speech recognition system. They are the devices by which passive knowledge about the task and language is transformed into active and effective processes. In the chapter, three areas of control structures are defined and discussed: knowledge source interaction, knowledge source activation, and knowledge source focusing. Discussion relates the concepts presented to systems developed during the five-year ARPA speech understanding project. speech recognition / systems / control / structures / AI. 64. Goodman, Tim and Keith Unsworth. 'Manipulating Shape and Producing Geometric Continuity in B-spline Curves.' IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. February, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 50-56 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary This article examines some of the desirable features of B- splines that make them particularly suitable for computer- aided design. First, a theoretical analysis is presented regarding the effects upon the shape of a design curve when the bias and tension parameters are allowed to vary in certain ways. Second, the concept of geometric continuity is discussed, and conditions are derived upon the control vertices to ensure that the design curve has second-order geometric continuity. Illustrations of B-spline curves are presented to support the theoretical conclusions
keywords computational geometry, B-splines, curves, CAD
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 4e59
authors Koparkar, P. A. and Mudur, S.P.
year 1986
title Generation of Continuous Smooth Curves Resulting from Operations on Parametric Surface Patches
source Computer Aided Design. May, 1986. pp. 193-206 : ill. includes bibliography
summary In recent years a number of techniques based on the subdivision principle have been suggested for detecting the curves resulting from the intersection of two parametrically defined surface patches. Silhouette curves of surfaces can also be detected using analogous techniques. Usually the output is a set of pixels or line segments which form the complete curve, though not necessarily in an ordered manner. This paper presents data structures for maintaining the result of subdivision, and algorithms for tracing the curves in a continuous fashion. Using a few iterations of the Newton-Raphson technique the curve points may be refined to any required precision. For each point on the curve the nonlinear equations are chosen by looking at the local topological nature of the curve so as to guarantee convergence of the Newton-Raphson technique in one or two iterations
keywords curved surfaces, parametrization, curves, intersection, relaxation, geometric modeling, computational geometry
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id 4577
authors Piegl, L.
year 1986
title Representation of Rational Bezier Curves and Surfaces by Recursive Algorithms
source Computer Aided Design Butterworth & Co. (publishers) Ltd., September, 1986. vol. 18: pp. 361-366 : ill.
summary includes a short bibliography. Recursive algorithms for the computation and subdivision of rational Bezier curves and surfaces are presented. The development uses the relationship between the R4 geometry and the rational scheme
keywords curves, curved surfaces, recursion, Bezier, representation
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 6728
authors Rossignac, Jaroslaw R. and Requicha, Aristides A. G.
year 1986
title Depth- Buffering Display Techniques for Constructive Solid Geometry
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. September, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 29-39 : ill. some col. includes bibliography
summary Solid modelers based on constructive solid geometry (CSG) typically generate shaded displays directly from CSG by using ray-casting techniques, which do not require information on the faces, edges, and vertices that bound a solid. This article describes an alternative - a simple new algorithm based on a depth-buffering or z-buffering approach. The z- buffer display algorithm operates directly on CSG, does not require explicit boundary data, and is easier to implement than ray casting. Ray-casting and z-buffering algorithms have comparable performances, but z-buffering is often faster for objects with complex surfaces, because it avoids expensive curve/surface intersection calculations. Because of their simplicity, depth-buffering algorithms for CSG are well- suited to hardware implementations, and may lead to machines simpler than those now being built for ray casting
keywords geometric modeling, CSG, display, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 28d8
authors Sarnak, Neil and Tarjan, Robert E.
year 1986
title Planar Point Location Using Persistent Search Trees
source Communications of the ACM July, 1986. vol. 29: pp. 669-679 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary A classical problem in computational geometry is the planar point location problem. This problem calls for preprocessing a polygonal subdivision of the plane defined by n line segments so that, given a sequence of points, the polygon containing each point can be determined quickly on-line. Several ways of solving this problem in O(log n) query time and O(n) space are known, but they are all rather complicated. The authors propose a simple O(log n) query-time, O(n) space solution, using persistent search trees. A persistent search tree differs from an ordinary search tree in that after an insertion or deletion, the old version of the tree can stillÔ h)0*0*0*°° ÔŒ be accessed. A persistent form of binary search tree that supports insertions and deletions in the present and queries in the past is developed. The time per query or update is O(log m), where m is the total number of updates, and the space needed is O(1) per update. The planar point location algorithm is an immediate application of this data structure. The structure also provides an alternative to Chazelle's 'hive graph' structure, which has a variety of applications in geometric retrieval
keywords search, data structures, algorithms, point inclusion, computational geometry
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c92d
authors Sederberg, Thomas W. and Goldman, Ronald N.
year 1986
title Algebraic Geometry for Computer-Aided Geometric Design
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. June, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 52-59
summary An object description associating a tolerance with each of its topological features (vertices, edges, and faces) is introduced. The use of tolerances leads to a definition of topological consistency that is readily applied to boundary representations. The implications of using tolerances to aid in making consistent topological determinations from imprecise geometric data are explored and applied to the calculations of a polyhedral solid modeler
keywords Algorithms; Curves; Computational Geometry; Mathematics; Education; Intersection
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 242d
authors Atkin, Brian L. and Gill, E. Moira
year 1986
title CAD and Management of Construction Projects
source Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Vol. 112, December, pp. 557-565
summary The increasing interest in computer-aided design (CAD) has prompted research that is aimed at identifying the opportunities for construction managers and building contractors. It has been found that the use of CAD systems in the U.K. is mainly confined to the production of detailed drawings. Indeed, most of the systems used are 2-D drafting tools and incapable of supporting the integration of even modest amounts of nongraphical (construction) data. On the other hand, many 3-D modeling systems have the potential to integrate construction data, although they appear to be almostignored. The use of 3-D modeling systems is considered to be the most suitable vehicle for successfully integrating these data. However, this is likely to necessitate the introduction of separate databases, preferably of the relational type. The use of 3-D modeling systems in assessing the construction implications of outline designs also presents interesting possibilities and is discussed.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 644f
authors Bijl, Aart
year 1986
title Designing with Words and Pictures in a Logic Modelling Environment
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 128-145
summary At EdCAAD we are interested in design as something people do. Designed artefacts, the products of designing, are interesting only in so far as they tell us something about design. An extreme expression of this position is to say that the world of design is the thoughts in the heads of designers, plus the skills of designers in externalizing their thoughts; design artifacts, once perceived and accepted in the worlds of other people, are no longer part of the world of design. We can describe design, briefly, as a process of synthesis. Design has to achieve a fusion between parts to create new parts, so that the products are recognized, as having a right and proper place in the world of people. Parts should be understood as referring to anything - physical objects, abstract ideas, aspirations. These parts occur in some design environment from which parts are extracted, designed upon and results replaced; in the example of buildings, the environment is people and results have to be judged by reference to that environment. It is characteristic of design that both the process and the product are not subject to explicit and complete criteria. This view of design differs sharply from the more orthodox understanding of scientific and technological endeavours which rely predominantly on a process of analysis. In the latter case, the approach is to decompose a problem into parts until individual parts are recognized as being amenable to known operations and results are reassembled into a solution. This process has a peripheral role in design when evaluating selected aspects of tentative design proposals, but the absence of well-defined and widely recognized criteria for design excludes it from the main stream of analytical developments.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

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