CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 0e5e
authors Kociolek, A.
year 1986
title CAD in Polish Building
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 235-245
summary There is little CAAD in Polish architectural design offices, and only recently have practising architects discovered the computer. On the other hand, CAAD has been used for some time in research and development based at universities or in large design organizations. This chapter gives a broad picture of the computerization of building design in Poland, a complex process which concerns planning and financing, hardware, software, CAD practice, standardization, training, education, etc. Here architectural applications are treated on an equal basis, together with other applications representing design disciplines involved in design, such as structural and mechanical engineering. The underlying philosophy of this chapter is a belief that proper and well-balanced computerization of design in building which leaves creative work to human beings should result in better design and eventually in improvements in the built environment. Therefore integration of the design process in building seems more important for design practice than attempts to replace an architect by a computer, although the intellectual attraction of this problem is recognized.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 5509
authors Koutamanis, Alexandros
year 1990
title Development of a computerized handbook of architectural plans
source Delft University of Technology
summary The dissertation investigates an approach to the development of visual / spatial computer representations for architectural purposes through the development of the computerized handbook of architectural plans (chap), a knowledge-based computer system capable of recognizing the metric properties of architectural plans. This investigation can be summarized as an introduction of computer vision to the computerization of architectural representations: chap represents an attempt to automate recognition of the most essential among conventional architectural drawings, floor plans. The system accepts as input digitized images of architectural plans and recognizes their spatial primitives (locations) and their spatial articulation on a variety of abstraction levels. The final output of chap is a description of the plan in terms of the grouping formations detected in its spatial articulation. The overall structure of the description is based on an analysis of its conformity to the formal rules of its “stylistic” context (which in the initial version of chap is classical architecture). Chapter 1 suggests that the poor performance of computerized architectural drawing and design systems is among others evidence of the necessity to computerize visual / spatial architectural representations. A recognition system such as chap offers comprehensive means for the investigation of a methodology for the development and use of such representations. Chapter 2 describes a fundamental task of chap: recognition of the position and shape of locations, the atomic parts of the description of an architectural plan in chap. This operation represents the final and most significant part of the first stage in processing an image input in machine environment. Chapter 3 moves to the next significant problem, recognition of the spatial arrangement of locations in an architectural plan, that is, recognition of grouping relationships that determine the subdivision of a plan into parts. In the absence of systematic and exhaustive typologic studies of classical architecture that would allow us to define a repertory of the location group types possible in classical architectural plans, Chapter 3 follows a bottom-up approach based on grouping relationships derived from elementary architectural knowledge and formalized with assistance from Gestalt theory and its antecedents. The grouping process described in Chapter 3 corresponds both in purpose and in structure to the derivation of a description of an image in computer vision [Marr 1982]. Chapter 4 investigates the well-formedness of the description of a classical architectural plan in an analytical manner: each relevant level (or sublevel) of the classical canon according to Tzonis & Lefaivre [1986] is transformed into a single group of criteria of well-formedness which is investigated independently. The hierarchical structure of the classical canon determines the coordination of these criteria into a sequence of cognitive filters which progressively analyses the correspondence of the descriptions derived as in Chapter 3 to the constraints of the canon. The methodology and techniques presented in the dissertation are primarily considered with respect to chap, a specific recognition system. The resulting specification of chap gives a measure of the use of such a system within the context of a computerized collection of architectural precedents and also presents several extensions to other areas of architecture. Although these extensions are not considered as verifiable claims, Chapter 5 describes some of their implications, including on the role of architectural drawing in computerized design systems, on architectural typologies, and on the nature and structure of generative systems in architecture.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id a920
authors Kulcke, Richard
year 1989
title CAAD in the Architectural Education of the Fachhochschulen in the Federal Republic of Germany
source CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4] Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989, pp. 4.3.1
summary For over 10 years the author has been a teacher in the field of "computer application in architecture" at the Fachhochschule. Since 1985 he regularly has been taking part in the conferences of A.I.I.D.A. (Arbeitskreis INFORMATIK IN DER ARCHlTEKTENAUSBILDUNG). All the faculties of architecture at the Fachhochschulen (about 10) can send their representatives of CAAD to the conferences. A.I.I.D.A. has been having 2 conferences a year since 1985. At the last conference in Wiesbaden a paper with statements of A.I.I.D.A. for the further education in CAAD was finished. The author presents and explains this paper. On the other hand he shows the actual education program of CAAD of his faculty. The education in CAAD started in 1972 with basic information without practical elements. Now the practical work with the workstation is talking most of the time . The computer application is available for subjects like Building Economics, Building and Structure Design and others. With his assistant the author developed programs of the field of Building Economics. In 1986 he started introduce CAD with AutoCAD in the education program. Now also other colleagues start to integrate CAAD into their subjects.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/24 09:44

_id aba3
authors Laing, Lamond
year 1986
title Computers in Architectural Education
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 71-77
summary Throughout Europe there is a rapidly growing volume of initiatives towards integrating computer aids within all aspects of education. In architectural education, the support offered by these initiatives presents a double-edged sword. On the one hand it is gratifying to see the work of almost two decades of CAAD research bearing fruit and the concepts gaining recognition by the profession. On the other hand the resulting pressures on the few individuals with the necessary knowledge to implement the teaching will stretch many to breaking point. Where resources are so limited it is crucial to clarify the needs and objectives and, thereby, more effectively direct resources. These needs will change over time and, in the world of computers, the means are also changing rapidly as hardware and software improves. This paper therefore outlines a scenario which I believe is relevant at this point in time but the background is constantly changing and I offer no apologies for any shift in emphasis since my last presentation of this topic in 1983.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:02

_id 6960
authors Langendorf, Richard
year 1986
title Alternative Models of Architectural Practice: The Impact of Computers -- 1990 and 2000
source ACADIA Workshop ‘86 Proceedings - Houston (Texas - USA) 24-26 October 1986, pp. 7-27
summary Though many architectural firms have only recently begun to use computers, and most firms still do not use computers for design, it is likely that by the turn of the century computers will have transformed architectural practice. First this paper assesses the likelihood of change by examining the potential use of computers in architectural practice, summarizing technology forecasts for computer hardware, software, and standards. -However, because there is an opportunity, architectural firms will not necessarily computerize. Next is a brief review of impediments to change and the process of organizational adaptation of new technology. Finally, the paper concludes with a number of forecasts in architectural practice in 1990 and 2000. A variety of professional practice options are defined, with the suggestion that there will be increasing experimentation and diversity within the profession. Finally, the implications of these changes are explored for architectural education.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/10/10 12:26

_id 687b
authors Lansdown, John
year 1986
title Requirements for Knowledge-based Systems in Design
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 120-127
summary Even from the comparatively small amount of work that has been done in this area it is already clear that expert systems can be of value in many architectural applications. This is particularly so in those applications involving what broadly can be called, 'classification' (such as fault diagnosis, testing for conformity with regulations and so on). What we want to look at in this chapter are some of the developments in knowledge-based systems (KBS) which will be needed in order to make them more useful in a broader application area and, especially, in creative design. At the heart of these developments will be two things: (1), more appropriate methods of representing knowledge which are as accessible to humans as they are to computers; and (2), better ways of ensuring that this knowledge can be brought to bear exactly where and when it is needed. Knowledge engineers usually call these elements, respectively, 'knowledge representation' and 'control'.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id ad42
authors Lasser, Dieter
year 1986
title Intersection of parametric Surfaces in the Bernstein-Bexier Representation
source Computer Aided Design May, 1986. vol. 18: pp. 188-192 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary A user-friendly 'divide-and-conquer' algorithm, which finishes quickly, is presented for finding all the intersection curves between two parametric surfaces in the Bernstein-Bezier representation. The underlying idea of the algorithm is to deal with the Bezier net instead of the surface description itself. By alternately subdividing the Bezier nets, and estimating the intersection area, a finite element mesh is created in the intersection region of the surfaces. The intersection is approximated by polygons computed by plane-plane-intersections using planes defined by Bezier points of the refined Bezier nets. Contour lines can also be produced by the algorithm
keywords divide-and-conquer, CAD, algorithms, parametrization, curved surfaces, Bezier, curves, intersection
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id 2611
authors Lenart, Mihaly
year 1986
title Construction problems as Tiling Puzzles
source 1986? [21] p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary The design of building construction parts often means design synthesis: complex parts will be generated gradually by smaller subparts or elements. Since construction parts are three dimensional geometrical objects and many of them are built from mutually connected elements, one can find analogies between building puzzles and construction design. Tiling puzzles are a special kind of building puzzles whose elements pave the plane or space or a certain part of these. This paper is concerned with the connection between tiling problems and the design of construction parts of prefabricated building systems. Most of these problems are of combinatorial nature; many of them can be tackled only by computers
keywords tiling, design, methods, building, synthesis, construction, combinatorics, search
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id cc1a
authors Lien, Kristian, Go Suzuki and Westerberg, Arthur W.
year 1986
title The Role of Expert Systems Technology In Design
source [2] 49 p. : diagrams Engineering Design Research Center, CMU, September, 1986 EDRC-06-13-86. includes bibliography.
summary Using a scenario format, this paper first reviews the nature of chemical process design, showing that designers quickly make major decisions with minimal information and constantly revise their strategy to solve a problem. To automate this activity on a computer will require models of the process being created at several levels of abstraction as well as models that capture the beliefs of the modeler about the abilities of himself, others and the aids available and models of strategies for complex problem solving. The second section of the paper extensively reviews current expert system concepts, illustrating each of them with design examples. It is argued that expert systems are knowledge based. The authors describe many of the control strategies used in today's systems, and also consider different problem representations - rules, logic and frames - and indicate when each might be preferred. The last section presents the authors views on what will be involved in creating a future expert system for design
keywords engineering, abstraction, expert systems, CAD, design process, representation, knowledge base, frames, control
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id c361
authors Logan, Brian S.
year 1986
title Representing the Structure of Design Problems
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 158-170
summary In recent years several experimental CAD systems have emerged which, focus specifically on the structure of design problems rather than on solution generation or appraisal (Sussman and Steele, 1980; McCallum, 1982). However, the development of these systems has been hampered by the lack of an adequate theoretical basis. There is little or no argument as to what the statements comprising these models actually mean, or on the types of operations that should be provided. This chapter describes an attempt to develop a semantically adequate basis for a model of the structure of design problems and presents a representation of this model in formal logic.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id aad7
authors Mackenzie, C.A. and Gero, John S.
year 1986
title Learning in the Domain of Decisions and Performances
source IAAI'86 Conference. 1986. pp. i:1:1-9. CADLINE has abstract only
summary Many domains present themselves as mappings between two classes of spaces: decision spaces and performance spaces. All design domains can be represented in this manner where the designer takes decisions which manifest themselves as performances in the designed artifact. Learning in these domains can take account of the structural characteristics of the spaces and of the mappings. This paper describes a system, PARE, which learns in the domain of decisions and performances by making use of the characteristics of a particular structuring concept known as 'Pareto optimality.' Much is known about the concept and its features which are used as hypotheses. If the hypotheses succeed then learning takes place by specializing the hypotheses' characteristics. Characterizations of Pareto optimality are described and the feature extraction process shown. The feature extraction process utilizes fuzzy pattern matching. An example of the system, written in ConSUN workstations, is presented from the domain of fenestration design
keywords performance, learning, design process, optimization, analysis, applications, theory, systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c7e9
authors Maver, T.W.
year 2002
title Predicting the Past, Remembering the Future
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 2-3
summary Charlas Magistrales 2There never has been such an exciting moment in time in the extraordinary 30 year history of our subject area, as NOW,when the philosophical theoretical and practical issues of virtuality are taking centre stage.The PastThere have, of course, been other defining moments during these exciting 30 years:• the first algorithms for generating building layouts (circa 1965).• the first use of Computer graphics for building appraisal (circa 1966).• the first integrated package for building performance appraisal (circa 1972).• the first computer generated perspective drawings (circa 1973).• the first robust drafting systems (circa 1975).• the first dynamic energy models (circa 1982).• the first photorealistic colour imaging (circa 1986).• the first animations (circa 1988)• the first multimedia systems (circa 1995), and• the first convincing demonstrations of virtual reality (circa 1996).Whereas the CAAD community has been hugely inventive in the development of ICT applications to building design, it hasbeen woefully remiss in its attempts to evaluate the contribution of those developments to the quality of the built environmentor to the efficiency of the design process. In the absence of any real evidence, one can only conjecture regarding the realbenefits which fall, it is suggested, under the following headings:• Verisimilitude: The extraordinary quality of still and animated images of the formal qualities of the interiors and exteriorsof individual buildings and of whole neighborhoods must surely give great comfort to practitioners and their clients thatwhat is intended, formally, is what will be delivered, i.e. WYSIWYG - what you see is what you get.• Sustainability: The power of «first-principle» models of the dynamic energetic behaviour of buildings in response tochanging diurnal and seasonal conditions has the potential to save millions of dollars and dramatically to reduce thedamaging environmental pollution created by badly designed and managed buildings.• Productivity: CAD is now a multi-billion dollar business which offers design decision support systems which operate,effectively, across continents, time-zones, professions and companies.• Communication: Multi-media technology - cheap to deliver but high in value - is changing the way in which we canexplain and understand the past and, envisage and anticipate the future; virtual past and virtual future!MacromyopiaThe late John Lansdown offered the view, in his wonderfully prophetic way, that ...”the future will be just like the past, onlymore so...”So what can we expect the extraordinary trajectory of our subject area to be?To have any chance of being accurate we have to have an understanding of the phenomenon of macromyopia: thephenomenon exhibitted by society of greatly exaggerating the immediate short-term impact of new technologies (particularlythe information technologies) but, more importantly, seriously underestimating their sustained long-term impacts - socially,economically and intellectually . Examples of flawed predictions regarding the the future application of information technologiesinclude:• The British Government in 1880 declined to support the idea of a national telephonic system, backed by the argumentthat there were sufficient small boys in the countryside to run with messages.• Alexander Bell was modest enough to say that: «I am not boasting or exaggerating but I believe, one day, there will bea telephone in every American city».• Tom Watson, in 1943 said: «I think there is a world market for about 5 computers».• In 1977, Ken Olssop of Digital said: «There is no reason for any individuals to have a computer in their home».The FutureJust as the ascent of woman/man-kind can be attributed to her/his capacity to discover amplifiers of the modest humancapability, so we shall discover how best to exploit our most important amplifier - that of the intellect. The more we know themore we can figure; the more we can figure the more we understand; the more we understand the more we can appraise;the more we can appraise the more we can decide; the more we can decide the more we can act; the more we can act themore we can shape; and the more we can shape, the better the chance that we can leave for future generations a trulysustainable built environment which is fit-for-purpose, cost-beneficial, environmentally friendly and culturally significactCentral to this aspiration will be our understanding of the relationship between real and virtual worlds and how to moveeffortlessly between them. We need to be able to design, from within the virtual world, environments which may be real ormay remain virtual or, perhaps, be part real and part virtual.What is certain is that the next 30 years will be every bit as exciting and challenging as the first 30 years.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id a406
authors Maver, T.W.
year 1986
title Potential for Expert Systems in Architecture, Symposium of Expert Systems Working Group
source Science and Engineering Research Council, London
series other
last changed 2003/06/02 13:00

_id a91c
authors Meyer, G., Rushmeier, H., Cohen, M., Greenberg, D. and Torrace, K.
year 1986
title An Experimental Evaluation of Computer Graphics Imagery
source ACM Transactions on Graphics, 5, No. 1
summary Accurate simulation of light propagation within an environment and perceptually based imaging techniques are necessary for the creation of realistic images. A physical experiment that verifies the simulation of reflected light intensities for diffuse environments was conducted. Measurements of radiant energy flux densities are compared with predictions using the radiosity method for those physical environments. By using color science procedures the results of the light model simulation are then transformed to produce a color television image. The final image compares favorably with the original physical model. The experiment indicates that, when the physical model and the simulation were viewed through a view camera, subjects could not distinguish between them. The results and comparison of both test procedures are presented within this paper.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id a6f7
authors Mitchell, J.R. and Radford, Antony D.
year 1986
title Adding Knowledge to Computer-Aided Detailing
source 1986. pp. 31-35
summary A knowledge based approach to computer-aided detailing is described with an example of a generative system for the design of eaves details for domestic architecture. The program uses Prolog as a knowledge base with an integrated color raster graphics display facility
keywords knowledge base, systems, architecture, CAD, detailing
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 23f4
authors Morgan, Charles F.
year 1986
title Conceptual Design on a Microcomputer
source ACADIA Workshop ‘86 Proceedings - Houston (Texas - USA) 24-26 October 1986, pp. 89-102
summary As most computer users in the profession of Architecture recognize, computer usage in the profession, while increasingly widespread, is limited in scope. Architects may use the computer for word processing, estimating, office management and drawing production, but for the work most central to their profession, building design, the computer Is used very little. While computer software and hardware vendors try to maintain the utility of their wares in this area, their misunderstanding of the differences among engineering, CAD/CAM, and Architecture shows in the inappropriateness of most systems for conceptual architectural design. While some software and systems address basic architectural design, most are incapable of the transition to design development, with its need for more symbolic information.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/10/10 12:26

_id ba6b
authors Neuckermans, Herman
year 1986
title The Intelligent Pencil: A framework for CAAD in Education
source ACADIA Workshop ‘86 Proceedings - Houston (Texas - USA) 24-26 October 1986, pp. 113-128
summary Computer Aided Architectural Design in Education (CAADE) can only be meaningful if it brings meaningful answers to meaningful questions about architecture and architectural education. In the discourse about CAAD and CAADE these questions are completely absent; this can be concluded from: (1.) an absolute lack of architectural-theoretical and historical reflection, without which no architecture can exist; (2.) a frequent confusion between designing and drawing : the latter being a non neutral tool for the former; (3.) the absence of a clear understanding of the way in which architecture comes about: what are the concepts and entities an architect is working with and how does he manipulate them? (4.) no clear insights about the way architectural "design by hand" should be taught and a fortiori about the way a computer could help.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 0207
authors Nielson, Gregory M.
year 1986
title Rectangular V-Splines
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. February, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 35-40 : ill. some col. includes bibliography
summary This article describes and presents examples of some techniques for the representation and interactive design of surfaces based on a parametric surface representation that uses v-spline curves. These v-spline curves, similar in mathematical structure to B-splines, were developed as a more computationally efficient alternative to splines in tension. Although splines in tension can be modified to allow tension to be applied at each control point, the procedure is computationally expensive. The v-spline curve, however, uses more computationally tractable piecewise cubic curves segments, resulting in curves that are just as smoothly joined as those of a standard cubic spine. After presenting a review of v-splines and some new properties, this article extends their application to a rectangular grid of control points. Three techniques and some application examples are presented
keywords parametrization, curved surfaces, representation, curves, B-splines
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 6d7a
authors Oksala, T.
year 1986
title About the Mathematics of Knowledge-Based Design
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 244-252
summary The aim of this paper is to enlighten the role of mathematics in architectural planning with the view of CAD-teaching. First attention is focussed on the general development in planning methodology and technology. Planning mathematics provides for the basic tools to support mastering this development. Finally the common possibilities of exact methods and CAD-technology are characterized.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:17

_id 0565
authors Oxman, Robert and Oxman, Rivka
year 1990
title The Computability of Architectural Knowledge
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 171-185
summary In an important contribution to the theoretical foundation of design computing, Mitchell noted "an increasingly urgent need to establish a demonstrably sound, comprehensive, rigorously formalized theoretical foundation upon which to base practical software development efforts" (Mitchell, 1986). In this paper we propose such a theoretical framework. A basic assumption of this work is that the advancement of design computing is dependent upon the emergence of a rigorous formulation of knowledge in design. We present a model of knowledge in architectural design which suggests a promising conceptual basis for dealing with knowledge in computer-aided design systems. We require models which can represent the formal knowledge and manipulative operations of the designer in all of their complexity-that is formal models rather than just geometric models. Shape Grammars (Stiny,1980) represent an example of such models, and constitute a relatively high level of design knowledge as compared to, for example, use of symmetry operations to generate simple formal configurations. Building upon an understanding of the classes of design knowledge as the conceptual basis for formal modeling systems may contribute a new realization of the potential of the medium for design. This will require a comprehensive approach to the definition of architectural and design knowledge. We consider here the implications of a well-defined body of architectural and design knowledge for design education and the potential mutual interaction-in a knowledge-rich environment-of design learning and CAAD learning. The computational factors connected with the representation of design knowledge and its integration in design systems are among the key problems of CAAD. Mitchell's model of knowledge in design incorporates formal knowledge in a comprehensive, multi-level, hierarchical structure in which types of knowledge are correlated with computational concepts. In the main focus of this paper we present a structured, multi-level model of design knowledge which we discuss with respect to current architectural theoretical considerations. Finally, we analyze the computational and educational relevance of such models.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

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