CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 6075
authors Paasi, Jyrki
year 1986
title The space synthesizer of Helsinki University of Technology
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 253-257
summary Computer technology and CAD are about to change radically the thousands of years of tradition of the architect's work. We are leaving behind the old method of drawing by hand, replacing the pencil with a stylus for pointing elements of mathematical models of projects. We are changing over from two dimensional to three dimensional design. Decisive for the architect to achieve a successful outcome has always been and will always be the visualisation of the project right from its early stages. There is a trend in our time and a risk in the new technology of fragmenting our work and making it more abstract. The new technology is based on the old one and in the beginning its user still has the habits of the old. Therefore the visualisation in present CAD systems and three dimensional design is based on the old plan projections; axonometrics and perspectives. However, there is an essentially better way which happens also to be natural to the new technology and simple to realize using it. This is the spherical projection.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:18

_id 4f56
authors Paasi, Jyrki
year 1986
title Architectural Space Synthesizer - The last link of a CAAD system
source ACADIA Workshop ‘86 Proceedings - Houston (Texas - USA) 24-26 October 1986, pp. 217-223
summary Computer technology and CAD are about to change radically the thousands of years of tradition of the architect's work. We are leaving behind the old method of drawing by hand, replacing the pencil with a stylus for pointing elements of mathematical models of projects. We are changing over from two dimensional to three dimensional design. Decisive for the architect to achieve a successful outcome has always been and will always be the visualisation of the project right from its early stages. There is a trend -in our time and a risk in the. new technology of fragmenting our work and making it more abstract. The new technology is based on the old one and in the beginning its user still has the habits of the old. Therefore the visualisation in present CAD systems and three dimensional design is based on the old plane projections; axonometrics and perspectives. However, there is an essentially better way which happens also to be natural to the new technology and simple to realize using it. This is the spherical projection.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/10/10 12:26

_id ac2c
authors Panunzi, Stefano and Sansoni, Claudio
year 1986
title Transformations of the Shanberg House - Analysis of a Plan and Planning Experimentations, Using the Instruments of Multicriterial Analysis as Means of Research.
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 97-110
summary During the last years some research programs have been developed aiming to analyse a particular architectonic language, using mathematical and informatic instruments. Some of these research programs have as second aim the making of a method for creating a geometrical planning-language: most of these studies are dedicated to the research into the laws which rule the personal style used by an author in certain works. Instead, this research program aims to analyse the planning process, not from the point of view of those who want to reconstruct the laws which describe the stile of a particular author but, by trying to understand the “compositive” process, analysing it by reconstructing the project itself, through a dynamic aggregative process of subsequent parts.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id eb42
authors Papadimitriou, Christos
year 1986
title The Theory of Database Concurrency Control
source xi, 239 p. : ill. Rockville, Maryland: Computer Science Press Inc., 1986. includes bibliography: p. 230-234 and index. -- (Principles of Computer Science series)
summary Comparison, analysis and explanation of the known techniques for concurrency control. It examines in detail various aspects of correctness for concurrent executions, including serializability, deadlocks and reliability
keywords theory, database, management, concurrency
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id 45e3
authors Piegl, L.
year 1986
title A Geometric Investigation of the Rational Bezier Scheme of Computer Aided Design
source Computers in Industry
summary Elsevier Science Publishers B. V. (North Holland), 1986. vol. 7: includes a short bibliography. The rational Bezier curve and surface scheme of computer aided design is investigated from a geometric point of view. The investigation provides an insight into the inherent properties of the scheme making the use of rational functions for curve/surface representation and design easier
keywords Bezier, CAD, curves, curved surfaces, geometric modeling
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id e115
authors Pipes, Alan (Ed.)
year 1986
title Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [Conference Proceedings]
source International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, 245 p.
summary Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures was conceived late one evening in the bar of the Metropole Hotel in Brighton, UK. Those present - veterans of a hundred and one CAD conferences - were bemoaning the degree to which big business was taking over the conference scene: exhibiting was replacing conferring, selling was replacing thinking, products were replacing ideas. Wouldn't it be nice, we agreed, to get back to an 'academic' conference which would take stock of current developments in CAAD and attempt to anticipate the direction of future developments and their impact on architectural practice, on the building industry and on the quality of the built environment? Four major themes are explored in CAAD Futures: (1) Systematic design; (2) Drawing and visualization; (3) Artificial intelligence and knowledge engineering; (4) Implications for practice. // Stimulus papers on these four themes were circulated prior to the Conference, and the conference papers themselves elaborated the issues raised in the stimulus papers in such a way as to encourage discussion. The resulting book, we believe, will be a major reference text for students, researchers and practitioners.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 0151
authors Praderio, Giorgio
year 1986
title CAAD and Didactic in Bologna
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 111-120
summary Among the didactic directions of professional training, which Architecture and Urban Science Institute includes, CAAD is set in the courses of Drawing 2 (2nd year of degree course) and Architectural Design 2 (5th year): both ones belong to the didactic turn "compositivo"(drafting + design + project). In the course of Drawing 2, CAAD is presented in a simple, first step way: the most emphasized aspects are technology and description (especially graphic, in 2D, 2.5D, 3D) of objects and places. In the course of Architectural Design 2, CAD experience becomes project appliance and therefore simulation and modelling. The didactic direction, which appears from that, suggests then to consider Drawing as description of objects (in the steps of project process) explored as knowledge, generation,valuation and decision.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:06

_id e72a
authors Putnam, L.K. and Subrahmanyam, P.A.
year 1986
title Boolean Operations on n- Dimensional Objects
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. June, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 43-51 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Computation of the union, intersection, and difference of n- dimensional objects plays a central role in several computer- aided geometric design problems. An algorithm for computing these operations that uses a boundary classification technique is presented here. The algorithm is recursive in structure, with the recursion being on the dimensions of objects dealt with at each stage. The representation treats all entities as objects, making no distinction between faces, edges or vertices. The objects produced are 'regularized,' that is, there are no degenerate boundaries such as dangling edges. The sample application given involved hidden-surface removal
keywords algorithms, recursion, hidden surfaces, boolean operations, B-rep,geometric modeling
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 012b
authors Radford, Antony D. and Mitchell, J.R.
year 1986
title Automated Architectural Detailing: a Knowledge Based Approach,
source 1986. vol. 2: pp. 737-745
summary The working detail in architecture is the means by which an architect describes to a builder how parts of a building are to be fashioned and assembled. The approach to automated architectural detailing described is based on the encoding of the appropriate knowledge in production rules in generative expert systems. An example of such a system for the automation of eaves detailing is presented. The system is written in Prolog with the graphics in Fortran
keywords expert systems, knowledge base, architecture, detailing, automation, design, synthesis, applications
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 2071
authors Radford, Antony D.
year 1986
title Style in Knowledge-based Systems for Architecture
source 1986. pp.i:3:1-9
summary The role of style in mapping between design intentions and design forms in knowledge-based. A particular generative expert system in architecture is discussed with some examples
keywords synthesis, style, architecture, knowledge base, expert systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 6105
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Fenves, Stephen J.
year 1986
title Constraint Enforcement in a Structural Design Database
source Journal of the Structural Division. American Society of Civil Engineers, December, 1986. vol. 112: pp. 2565-2577
summary During the design of a commercial structure, large amounts of information pertaining to all aspects of the design must be stored, accessed, and operated upon. A database management system (DBMS), composed of a central repository of data and the associated software for controlling accesses to it, provides one way to generate, represent, manage, and use this information. However, DBMSs are not presently structured in such a way that they can flexibly represent complex engineering constraint relationships, including those defined by codes, standards, and specifications. This paper examines structural design constraints and addresses the question of how they can be incorporated into DBMSs. It presents four representations of engineering constraints: the text of a design specification, the equations extracted from the specification, the dependency network among the constrained data items, and a relational DBMS model. The database model was implemented using a commercially available DBMS and the limitations of the implementation are explored. What is new in this DBMS model is that a constraint dependency subnetwork is associated directly with the stored data that it constrains. The implemented result is a new abstraction, consisting of a relation and a set of computations and checks, that enforces the relationships embodied in the dependency network. The database user need only initially define a set of rules and computed attributes. These are then used by the DBMS to automatically perform the appropriate checks and assignments. The database user is, to a significant degree, free of constraint checking concerns because the system itself knows what to do
keywords constraints management, civil engineering, database, DBMS
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8312
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Wang, TsoJen E.
year 1986
title CDIS: An Engineering Constraint Definition and Integrity Enforcement System for Relational Databases
source Computers in Engineering International Conference Proceedings. 1986. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, vol. 2: pp. 273-280. CADLINE has abstract only
summary Database management systems (DBMS) are an essential component of the computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) environment. A database management system provides a powerful functionality for the storage, management, and use of engineering data. It is lacking, however, in its ability to deal with engineering constraints. In the past, constraint checking was performed by application programs. More recently DBMS's have been incorporating into their structure specifications for enforcing a limited set of integrity constraints and the mechanisms for invoking them automatically. To ensure the correctness of engineering data, an effective constraint management capability must be incorporated into any proposed engineering DBMS. This paper demonstrates how this can be done, proposes a systematic way to classify constraints so that integrity can be maintained efficiently, and discusses a prototype called CDIS which implements the concepts. This paper uses the relational database model to represent both engineering data and engineering constraints. Data integrity is defined and its enforcement through the use of engineering constraints is described. Existing methods for handling constraints are discussed. A new model that enables the engineer to associate design constraints with a relational database is presented and an example is given that demonstrates the model. Extensions to a DBMS to implement the concepts presented are described. No currently available DBMS provides the much needed capabilities proposed here
keywords civil engineering, relational database, constraints management
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c3ca
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Watson, Bruce R.
year 1986
title ADI : An Adaptive Database Interface for Dynamic Databases
source ASME Symposium Proceedings on Knowledge based Expert Systems for Manufacturing. Anaheim, CA: American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Production Engineering Division, December, 1986. pp. 119-130. CADLINE has abstract only
summary The operation of a manufacturing organization often depends on its underlying design and manufacturing databases. In a manufacturing environment, many users, both individuals and application programs, must have access to one or more of the organization's databases to provide, use, or modify data, to control information flow, and to facilitate information management. Such databases routinely undergo dynamic changes in both their content and their structure. These changes commonly result from the design of new products, the introduction of new materials, and the introduction of new machines and processes on the shop floor. Such continuing changes must be reflected in the database schemas and subsequently require that application programs be updated and that online users be educated on a continuous basis. The problem addressed in this paper is that it is difficult for users and application programs to get the information that they need, when they need it, from the multiple heterogeneous database management system (DBMS) environments that have evolved in design and manufacturing organizations. The solution proposed here is to build a general, extendable interface between database users and the many sources of data available to them. This in itself is not a new suggestion; a number of researchers have addressed portions of this problem. In general, the interfaces that they have developed to date are best suited to environments where the structure of the database is static and does not change over time. One of the things that this paper proposes that is different from existing work is an interface which handles the dynamic restructuring nature of manufacturing databases, enabling a user to obtain the most accurate and up to date information as the structure and content of the underlying databases change. Another unique aspect of the DBMS interface proposed herein is that the interface attempts to capture the knowledge that an experienced human user incorporates in his search for data in a database, i.e., it seeks to identify and use the generic knowledge needed to operate a DBMS. This knowledge is used by the interface to enable both the online users and the application programs to request data without knowing the data's location or precisely how to ask for it. Further, the interface makes use of mechanisms that allow the user to request data without knowing the exact identity of the required entities that are stored in the database
keywords engineering, database, manufacturing, user interface
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id ddss9846
id ddss9846
authors Rigatti, Decio
year 1998
title Rubem Berta Housing Estate: Order and Structure, Designand Use
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary The main goal of this paper is to investigate, through some space configurational based tools, a quite common phenomenon found in many different locations in Brazil, concerning the process of urban changes individually introduced by dwellers of public housing estates. A significant number of housing estates, particularly those designed according to rationalist concepts, seem to be unable to support space related social requirements and are then widely transformed when compared to the original layouts. Beyond the quantitative features, the morphological changes that take place in those housing estates mean a fundamental new approach to understand how completely new urban structures can arisefrom the space produced by a comprehensive urban design, took as a starting point for the transformations made by the dwellers of those settlements. As a case study is analysed the Rubem Berta Housing Estate which was built in Porto Alegre/RS, Brazil, for 20,000 people in the late 70’s. Since the begining of its occupation in 1986 and the invasion that took place in 1987, the urban transformations there have never stopped. It’s possible to realize that the dwellers individually use some constant physical rules to define the new settlement which are very similar within the estate itself and, at the same time, very similar to those found in other transformed housing estates of this sort. The physical rules introduced change the features of the entire settlement in two different levels: a) locally, through the transformations introduced in order to solve individual needs; b) globally, the local rules of physical transformations produce a new overall structure for the whole urban complex. The knowledge of this process makes it possible to bring to the surface of architectural theory some generic configurational codes that can be used as a tool for designing public housing estates in Brazil.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id cf75
authors Robertson, Philip K. and O'Callaghan, John F.
year 1986
title The Generation of Color Sequences for Univariate and Bivariate Mapping
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. February, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 24-32 : ill. some col. includes bibliography
summary Recent technological advances have made it feasible to produce full color statistical maps on computer-controlled display systems. This has caused an appraisal of the use of color to represent statistical variables, and the development of a theoretical structure for the choice of suitable univariate and bivariate map coloring schemes. Realization of such schemes in an intuitive and controlled way is important to the comprehension of statistical variables from maps. Therefore, a method of generating specific color sequences within the framework of a uniform color space, allowing for the intuitive specification of color sequences and for their realization on various display systems, is presented
keywords mapping, color, display
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 088e
authors Rosenman, M.A., Gero, J.S. and Oxman, Rivka E.
year 1986
title An Expert System For Design Codes and Design Rules
source Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1986. pp. 745-758
summary This paper demonstrates applicability of expert systems to design codes and design rules. Design codes and design rules contain knowledge based on experience of accepted practice. Design codes differ from design rules in that their knowledge is written down and available for perusal thus simplifying the knowledge acquisition process. However this knowledge is ill-structured and difficult to use for all but the experts. The paper demonstrates how the expert system shell BUILD may be used to construct expert systems for design codes and rules. Prototypical systems are shown for the Australian Model Uniform Building Code and for use in the preliminary design of kitchens. The examples show how the same knowledge may be used not only in an analysis mode but also in a design synthesis mode
keywords expert systems, design, codes, applications
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id 882b
authors Rosenman, M.A., Manago, C. and Gero, J.S.
year 1986
title A Model- based Expert System Shell
source 1986. pp. c:1:15
summary Rule-based expert systems, despite having demonstrated their usefulness in many circumstances, have been widely attacked for the shallowness of their knowledge. They have no knowledge about the knowledge which they possess and therefore can only be used in a very rigid manner. This paper shows that this meta-knowledge can be extracted from the rule base of an expert system and by producing a model of the artifact(s) described within, extend the functionality of the overall system. One of the benefits of this extended functionality is the ability of the model-based expert system to interface with external systems such as existing CAD systems. This paper describes the development of a general model-based expert system developed in the Department of Architectural Science, University of Sydney. The utility of the approach is shown in an example of the system interfacing with a commercially available CAD system. The CAD system is used to define the features of a building and a rule base dealing with some aspects of building regulations is applied to interpret the database produced by the CAD system
keywords expert systems, tools, CAD
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id a771
authors Roth, J., Hashimshony, R. and Ishai, E.
year 1986
title Using the Computer as a Teaching Aid for Architecture Students - Some Examples
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 127-135
summary The use of computers has become part of the regular curriculum in many schools of Architecture in the last few years. In addition to specific courses related to basic computer knowledge (e.g.: programming), the computer's main application is in the design studio for evaluating alternatives (e.g.: GOAL, GABLE), or as a drafting aid (e.g.: BIBLE AUTOCAD, ARC+). We believe that using the computer as a regular part of the teaching in all the courses is of great importance. In this paper we present three examples in which the computer was used as a teaching aid in courses not related to the design studio: "Morphology" and "Introduction to lnterior Design".

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:08

_id 20a8
authors Ruffle, Simon
year 1986
title How Can CAD Provide for the Changing Role of the Architect?
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 197-199
summary At the RIBA Conference of 1981 entitled 'New Opportunities', and more recently at the 1984 ACA Annual Conference on 'Architects in Competition' there has been talk of marketing, new areas of practice, recapturing areas of practice lost to other professions, more accountability to client and public 'the decline of the mystique of the professional'. It is these issues, rather than technical advances in software and hardware, that will be the prime movers in getting computers into widespread practice in the future. In this chapter we will examine how changing attitudes in the profession might affect three practical issues in computing with which the author has been preoccupied in the past year. We will conclude by considering how, in future, early design stage computing may need to be linked to architectural theory, and, as this is a conference where we are encouraged to be outspoken, we will raise the issue of a computer-based theory of architecture.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 6e61
authors Rychener, M.D., Farinacci, M.L. and Hulthage, I. (et al)
year 1986
title Integration Of Multiple Knowledge Sources in ALADIN, An Alloy Design System
source [3], 10 p. Pittsburgh, PA: Engineering Design Research Center, CMU, September, 1986. EDRC-05-04-86. includes bibliography
summary ALADIN is a knowledge-based system that aids metallurgists in the design of new aluminum alloys. Alloy design is characterized by creativity, intuition and conceptual reasoning. In this paper, the authors describe their approach to the challenges of applying artificial intelligence to this domain, including: how to focus the search, how to deal with subproblem interactions, how to integrate multiple, incomplete design models, and how to represent complex, metallurgical structure knowledge
keywords engineering, applications, design, methods, knowledge, representation
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

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