CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 141 to 160 of 206

_id 2b17
authors Salesin, David and Barzel, Ronen
year 1986
title Two-Bit Graphics
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. June, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 36-42 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Ordinary bitmaps allow pixels to be black or white. The authors introduce a second bitmap, the 'alpha' bitmap, which allows pixels to be transparent as well. The alpha bitmap makes it possible to have black-and-white images that are nonrectangular or that have holes in them. It also provides a richer set of operations for working with bitmaps. The article presents the mathematics for a two-bit compositing algebra, and suggest extensions for two-bit compositing, painting, and region filling. Each of these operations can be implemented with ordinary bitbits and presented on ordinary bitmap displays. The authors analyze the cost of each two-bit operation in terms of the number of bitbits it requires
keywords computer graphics, algorithms, display
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id a6cd
authors Salvemini, Mauro
year 1986
title Automatic Methods of Data Presentation for Planning Analysis and Urbanistic Applications
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 275-284
summary Urbanistics and land analysis on different scales both have a basic need: processing an ever increasing amount of data and numerical information. This might seem extremely easy to handle especially where we have computer at our disposal, but unfortunately that is not true. The great wealth of data and information now available means that on one hand an unarrestable process is set in motion whereby more and more data are required but the analysis and consultation of this data becomes longer, more complex and laborious as the amount of data increases. There is also the danger that data produces more data and gives way to a process which can be endless. The planner must also make quick decisions on what is happening and use several target analyses based on a vast quantity of data which he must process with the automatic system available. There must always be strict compatibility between the available data processing system and the quantity of data. The representation of data in image form is an important aid in carrying out correct analyses as well as in decision making .Basically it is a question of making synthetic, decisional use of information contained in raw data. Systems which can process data visually are practically indispensable in urbanistics.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:19

_id 80a1
authors Sasada, Tsuyoshi Tee
year 1986
title Computer-Generated Animation for Architecture and Urban Design
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 285-294
summary Computer-generated animations are going to be a powerful design medium. During the last two years, we have created more than 10 animated films by using the computer. The purpose of animation varies as the case, however it is always related to the architecture and urban design. Using these computer-generated animation films, we edited a video tape of 54 minutes. Along with the video tape, this report shows our works in four parts with pictures taken from the films.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:20

_id 44e3
authors Schiavoni, Ugo
year 1986
title An Areal Data Management Package
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 295-304
summary The Areal Data Management Package was created to fulfill the need for a data manipulation system on the basis of a grid cell data structure. The package was originally developed for use by research operators in land planning and natural resources. Over the past three years the package has been used extensively by various users, including students under and postgraduates. The ADM has been designed for users having no experience with computers, but it does assume understanding of resources and land planning information. The specific manipulative capabilities of ADM Package are designed to help land use planners analyze the natural and man-made characteristics of an area. The ADM is intended as a tool to manage spatially disposed thematic and categorical information, in many cases supplementing or analysis.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:21

_id 46b0
authors Schijf, Rik
year 1986
title CAD in the Netherlands: Integrated CAD
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 176-184
summary One of the things in which a small country can excel is its number of architects' offices per inhabitant. In the Netherlands this is approximately one in 6500, or twice the UK density (CBS, 1984; CICA, 1982). Of the 2150 Dutch offices, 88 per cent employ less than 10 people, which compares rather well with the British Situation. For the Netherlands it is interesting that its boom in CAD, on average an annual doubling or tripling for the next few years, is likely to coincide with a revolution in CAD itself. There is no doubt that very soon the personal and larger CAD systems will clash at supermicro-level.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id e981
authors Scott, David S. and Iyengar, S. Sitharama
year 1986
title TID - A Translation Invariant Data Structure for Storing Images
source Communications of the ACM. May, 1986. vol. 29: pp. 418-429 : some ill. includes bibliography
summary There are a number of techniques for representing pictorial information, among them are borders, arrays, and skeletons. Quadtrees are often used to store black and white picture information. A variety of techniques have been suggested for improving quadtrees, including linear quadtrees, QMAT's (quadtree medial axis transform), forests of quadtrees, etc. The major purpose of these improvements is to reduce the storage required without greatly increasing the processing costs. All of these methods suffer from the fact that the structure of the underlying quadtree can be very sensitive to the placement of the origin. This paper discusses a translation invariant data structure (which is named TID) for storing and processing images based on the medial axis transform of the image that consists of all the maximal black squares contained in the image. Also discussed is the performance of TID with other existing structures such as QMATs, forests of quadtrees, and normalized quadtrees. Some discussion on the union and intersection of images using TID is included
keywords data structures, representation, image processing, quadtree
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8267
authors Shapiro, Ehud
year 1986
title Concurrent Prolog : A Progress Report
source IEEE Computer. August, 1986. vol. 19: pp.44-58. includes bibliography
summary Concurrent Prolog is a logic programming language designed for concurrent programming and parallel execution. A process- oriented language, it embodies dataflow synchronization and guarded-command indeterminacy as its basic control mechanisms. This article outlines the basic concepts and definition of the language, and surveys the major programming techniques that emerged out of three years of its use. The history of the language development, implementation, and applications are reviewed
keywords PROLOG, programming, AI, languages, concurrency, control, techniques
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id 020d
authors Shaviv, Edna
year 1986
title Layout Design Problems: Systematic Approaches
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 28-52
summary The complexity of the layout design problems known as the 'spatial allocation problems' gave rise to several approaches, which can be generally classified into two main streams. The first attempts to use the computer to generate solutions of the building layout, while in the second, computers are used only to evaluate manually generated solutions. In both classes the generation or evaluation of the layout are performed systematically. Computer algorithms for 'spatial allocation problems' first appeared more than twenty-five years ago (Koopmans, 1957). From 1957 to 1970 over thirty different programs were developed for generating the floor plan layout automatically, as is summarized in CAP-Computer Architecture Program, Vol. 2 (Stewart et al., 1970). It seems that any architect who entered the area of CAAD felt that it was his responsibility to find a solution to this prime architectural problem. Most of the programs were developed for batch processing, and were run on a mainframe without any sophisticated input/output devices. It is interesting to mention that, because of the lack of these sophisticated input/output devices, early researchers used the approach of automatic generation of optimal or quasioptimal layout solution under given constraints. Gradually, we find a recession and slowdown in the development of computer programs for generation of layout solutions. With the improvement of interactive input/output devices and user interfaces, the inclination today is to develop integrated systems in which the architectural solution is obtained manually by the architect and is introduced to the computer for the appraisal of the designer's layout solution (Maver, 1977). The manmachine integrative systems could work well, but it seems that in most of the integrated systems today, and in the commercial ones in particular, there is no route to any appraisal technique of the layout problem. Without any evaluation techniques in commercial integrated systems it seems that the geometrical database exists Just to create working drawings and sometimes also perspectives.
series CAAD Futures
email arredna@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id a230
authors Stazi, A., Munafo, P. and Giampieri, O.
year 1986
title Proceedings Relative to a Quick Determination of Thermal Performances of Passive Solar Systems
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 305-322
summary In the following report it's reported on a research still going on, which aims at establishing easy to use computing methods to allow to quickly compute the thermal loads at first stage of approximation and the performances of the most significant solar systems, which can be applied private. The research is developing through three steps. In the first step the research team recognised the most and housings occurring in residence building. In the second step, also with regard to the outcomes of the theoretical reference model has been loads and the performances of the passive solar systems have been computed for, when varying a few parameters regarding building typology, alignment of the body of the building, flats layout, walls shape, and so on. In the third step the interval range, where the model can fit into, and the correcting coefficients are set through theoretical and experimental tests.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:23

_id 6686
authors Straub, K.
year 1986
title Problems in CAD Practice
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 232-234
summary CAD's greatest promise is as a creative, interactive tool, and planning and construction will be more complex as the need to expand information grows. Our tools not only shape our products, they shape our lives. Technology can influence everyday life and also affect the structure of our society. Architecture is an information-intensive profession, and throughout the world information-intensive activities are being changed by technology. The use of computer-aided information processing in planning and construction brings about a period of dramatic change, and the dimensions of technological change will be breathtaking. In the years to come, CAD will be an expanding field in the architectural office, but how long will it be before architecture is routinely produced on a CAD system? There appear to be three issues: (1) cost; (2) time; (3) quality.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 6444
authors Toriya, H., Saton, T. and Ueda, K. (et al)
year 1986
title UNDO and REDO Operations for Solid Modeling
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. April, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 35-42 : ill. some col. includes bibliography
summary This article describes a method of representing a solid design process using a tree structure. This representation supports UNDO and REDO operations for regenerating any solid in a pervious stage of the design. The implementation of invertible set operations is also given in detail
keywords solid modeling, representation
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:42

_id f3aa
authors Tyler, Sherman William
year 1986
title SAUCI. Self-Adaptive User Computer Interfaces
source Carnegie Mellon University,Pittsburgh
summary Different approaches to the design of the human-computer interface have been taken in the past. These can be organized into four broad categories: tack-on; intuitive/empirical; formal; and conversational. There are several important interface design criteria that have never been adequately attained in any of these approaches. One is modularity, that is, maintaining a clear separation between the interface and its target system. A second criterion is self-adaptation, or the ability of the interface to modify its own behavior to suit a given individual user. Two further criteria relate to the interface's potential to guide users in performing typical high-level tasks on the target system and to provide intelligent advice on the use of that system. This research was focused on developing an integrated technique for achieving these four design criteria. To that end, an abstract architecture called SAUCI, or the Self-Adaptive User-Computer Interface, was proposed, embodying a knowledge-based, object-oriented approach to interface design. The foundation of this approach rests upon information encoded within sets of objects. This information includes separate knowledge bases describing the individual users, the commands of the target system, and the high-level tasks appropriate for that system. The behavior of the interface is controlled by various methods which call upon the knowledge bases in a rule-governed manner to decide what interface features should be present at each phase of the user's dialogue with the target system. To test the feasibility of the proposed architecture, a working interface was implemented on a Xerox 1108 computer in the LOOPS language, with a UNIX operating system running on a separate minicomputer as the target system. An empirical evaluation of this prototype revealed clear advantages over the standard interface. Closer examination pointed to each of the factors of modularity, task guidance, and user-tailored assistance as playing a significant role in these effects. A discussion of additional applications of this architecture and of areas for future development is offered as further evidence of the value of this approach as a general framework for human-computer interface design.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 6cfe
authors Wagter, H.
year 1986
title A New Generation Needs New Tools (A Proposal for a Joint Effort)
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 323-327
summary After an introduction describing the present situation on computer- programs used in learning environments, some remarks are made on what future programs should look like. Although the design and the building process are both extremely complex, a proposal is made to carry out a project in a joint effort among ECAADE members to achieve a new generation of learning tools. These tools should also be of good service in a consulting environment.
series eCAADe
email Harry.Wagter@brighthouse.nl
last changed 2003/05/16 19:36

_id 095b
authors Wagter, Harry
year 1986
title Stimulating Creativity by Using Computers
source ACADIA Workshop 86 Proceedings - Houston (Texas - USA) 24-26 October 1986, pp. 149-155
summary Discussions that cope with the relation between computers and creativity often turn out to be very sensitive. It seems that this aspect of computer technology makes people feel uneasy. This can easily be understood. Many examples can be found were interesting jobs with social contacts for workers changed into dull and monotone ones. This counts specially for administrative oriented organisations, but also in more technical based organisations we can see variations to this theme. Nevertheless many advantages can be mentioned for the organisation itself, and of course for the customer himself, who is being served more accurate, faster and with a higher degree of service. The discussion on creative aspects mainly takes place in the technical oriented professions. Architects among them seem to be strongly represented. Specially in relation to CAD-techniques being obstructed in one's creative possibilities is very often mentioned as an argument for not adopting the new techniques.
series ACADIA
email Harry.Wagter@brighthouse.nl
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 0a6e
authors Walters, Roger
year 1986
title CAAD: Shorter-term Gains; Longerterm Costs?
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 185-196
summary Assessment of CAAD systems in use is complex: it needs careful qualifications and is often contradictory. It is suggested that little progress has been made in making sense of the impacts of computing on design and design organizations. Impacts are more diverse and complicated than has been assumed. Assessments tend to be either overtly optimistic or pessimistic, yet the need is to be realistic. Moreover, impacts have been the subject of speculation and marketing rather than systematic study. Carefully documented case studies of projects or longitudinal studies of organizational impacts remain the exception. This chapter draws upon recorded user experience reported elsewhere (Walters, 1983)' and presents an assessment of the performance in use of current production systems. It presents an end-user view and also identifies a number of outstanding design research topics It is suggested that different systems in different organizations in different settings will give rise to new impacts. A wide variety of outcomes is possible. It seems unlikely that any simple set of relationships can account for all the data that inquiry reveals. The task becomes one of identifying variables that lead to differential outcomes, as the same cause may lead to different effects (Attewell and Rule, 1984). This becomes a long-term task. Each optimistic impact may be countered by some other more pessimistic impact. Moreover, the changes brought about on design by computing are significant because both beneficial and non- beneficial impacts are present together. Impacts are held in a dynamic balance that is subject to constant evolution. This viewpoint accounts for otherwise conflicting conclusions. It is unlikely that the full range of impacts is yet known, and a wide range of impacts and outcomes already need to be taken into account. It seems that CAD alone cannot either guarantee improved design or that it inevitably leads to some diminished role for the designer. CAD can lead to either possible outcome, depending upon the particular combination of impacts present. Careful matching of systems to design organization and work environment is therefore needed. The design management role becomes crucial.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 47c5
authors Weiler, Kevin J.
year 1986
title Topological Structures for Geometric Modeling
source Computer and Systems Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
summary Geometric modeling technology for representing three-dimensional objects has progressed from early wireframe representations, through surface representations, to the most recent representation, solid modeling. Each of these forms has many possible representations. The boundary representation technique, where the surfaces, edges, and vertices of objects are represented explicitly, has found particularly wide application. Many of the more sophisticated versions of boundary representations explicitly store topological information about the positional relationships among surfaces, edges, and vertices. This thesis places emphasis on the use of topological information about the shape being modeled to provide a framework for geometric modeling boundary representations and their implementations, while placing little constraint on the actual geometric surface representations used. The major thrusts of the thesis fall into two areas of geometric modeling. First, a theoretical basis for two-manifold solid modeling boundary topology representation is developed. The minimum theoretical and minimum practical topological adjacency information required for the unambiguous topological representation of manifold solid objects is determined. This provides a basis for checking the correctness of existing and proposed representations. The correctness of the winged edge structure is also explored, and several new representations which have advantages over existing techniques are described and their sufficiency verified. Second, a non-two-manifold boundary geometric modeling topology representation is developed which allows the unified and simultaneous representation of wireframe, surface, and solid modeling forms, while featuring a representable range beyond what is achievable in any of the previous modeling forms. In addition to exterior surface features, interior features can be modeled, and non-manifold features can be represented directly. A new data structure, the Radial Edge structure, which provides access to all topological adjacencies in a non-manifold boundary representation, is described and its completeness is verified. A general set of non-manifold topology manipulation operators is also described which is independent of a specific data structure and is useful for insulating higher levels of geometric modeling functionality from the specifics and complexities of underlying data structures. The coordination of geometric and topological information in a geometric modeling system is also discussed.
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 02c6
authors Wheeler, B.J.Q
year 1986
title A Unified Model for Building
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 200-231
summary It is commonly recognized that the time-honoured procedure for preparing an architectural design for building on site is inefficient. Each member of a team of consultant professionals makes an independently documented contribution. For a typical project involving an architect and structural, electrical, mechanical and public services engineers there will be at least five separate sets of general- arrangement drawings, each forming a model of the building, primarily illustrating one discipline but often having to include elements of others in order to make the drawing readable. For example, an air-conditioning duct-work layout is more easily understood when superimposed on the room layout it serves which the engineer is not responsible for but has to understand. Both during their parallel evolution and later, when changes have to be made during the detailed design and production drawing stages, it is difficult and time consuming to keep all versions coordinated. Complete coordination is rarely achieved in time, and conflicts between one discipline and another have to be rectified when encountered on site with resulting contractual implications. Add the interior designer, the landscape architect and other specialized consultants at one end of the list and contractors' shop drawings relating to the work of all the consultants at the other, and the number of different versions of the same thing grows, escalating the concomitant task of coordination. The potential for disputes over what is the current status of the design is enormous, first, amongst the consultants and second, between the consultants and the contractor. When amendments are made by one party, delay and confusion tend to follow during the period it takes the other parties to update their versions to include them. The idea of solving this problem by using a common computer-based model which all members of the project team can directly contribute to is surely a universally assumed goal amongst all those involved in computer-aided building production. The architect produces a root drawing or model, the 'Architect's base plan', to which the other consultants have read-only access and on top of which they can add their own write-protected files. Every time they access the model to write in the outcome of their work on the project they see the current version of the 'Architect's base plan' and can thus respond immediately to recent changes and avoid wasting time on redundant work. The architect meanwhile adds uniquely architectural material in his own overlaid files and maintains the root model as everybody's work requires. The traditional working pattern is maintained while all the participants have the ability to see their colleagues, work but only make changes to those parts for which they are responsible.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 2df1
authors Woodbury, Robert F.
year 1986
title Strategies for Interactive Design Systems
source 20 p. : ill. Pittsburgh, PA: Engineering Design Research Center, September, 1986. EDRC-48-02-87.
summary An information processing model of human problem solving is used to develop strategies for the design of systems for the interactive generation of designs. Systems of this type are currently not strongly developed anywhere, nor does there exist in the literature a paradigm for their creation. Design is a task which requires different interactive support than that traditionally provided by CAD systems. In this paper, those differences are uncovered by comparison of two tasks: one, named Definition in this paper, which seems to be well supported by existing systems; and the other, the task of Design. Use of an information processing model of human problem solving shows that differences between the tasks can be found in every potentially variant portion of the model. The information processing model is again used as a framework to propose mechanisms to support design. These mechanisms act by changing the underlaying phenomena upon which the information processing model is built and thus effecting changes, either parametric or structural, in the model. The relative importance of the proposed mechanisms is discussed, leading to the conclusion that the interactive support of search is the most strategic direction for future research
keywords design process, problem solving, research, techniques, user interface, systems
series CADline
email rw@arch.adelaide.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 82ab
authors Wrona, Stefan K.
year 1986
title The Profits of CAAD Can Be Increased by an Integrated Participatory Design Approach
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 53-57
summary Computer-aided Architectural Design is understood in Poland as comprising all computer applications in an architectural design office. In Polish architectural practice (with a few exceptions) it is still under theoretical consideration and in an experimental phase. Therefore if we are talking about the future of CAAD in Poland we are thinking about a much more long-term future than for Western countries. However, if new economic and organizational changes initiated in Poland in the early 1980s continue, future problems and solutions in CAAD will, for us, become similar to those in Western countries.
series CAAD Futures
email wrona@arch.pw.edu.pl
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 4100
authors Yeh, Yun D. and Munakata, Toshinori
year 1986
title Dynamic Initial Allocation and Local Reallocation Procedure for Multiple Stacks
source Communications of the ACM. February, 1986. vol. 29: pp. 134-141 : graphs. includes bibliography
summary Two new procedures for manipulating multiple stacks which share sequential locations are discussed. The first is the dynamic initial allocation procedure in which each stack is allocated as its first element arrives rather than having every stack preallocated at the very beginning of the entire process. The second is the local relocation procedure, in this scheme, when a stack overflows, only its neighboring stacks, rather than the entire memory area, are reorganized provided that certain condition is satisfied. The results of simulation appear to suggest that these approaches improve the operational performance in many applications. With appropriate modifications these concepts may also be applied to any other type of multiple linear lists sharing sequential memory locations
keywords algorithms, data structures, programming, techniques
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

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