CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 161 to 180 of 206

_id a70f
authors Yessios, Chris
year 1986
title What has yet to be CAD
source ACADIA Workshop ‘86 Proceedings - Houston (Texas - USA) 24-26 October 1986, pp. 29-36
summary The theme of this Acadia Conference was to a large extent addressed by Mitchell in his article "'What was Computer-aided design?"', published about two years ago. While one has to agree with most of his points, I find his predictions gloomy enough to wish I could disagree. Luckily, Mitchell has chosen to address what the majority of the profession (and many architectural schools) currently consider to be CAD. It turns out that this CAD is not what CAD is supposed to be. I have, therefore, purposely chosen a title which appears to echo an opposite view. My intention is not to express disagreement but rather to project the other face of CAD, in my own mind, the only CAD which deserves the name. Whether the current CAD should or will be called CAD in the future is of non-essential significance. As teachers of architectural design we need to be concerned that architectural CAD remains, to date, a very immature field. It is CAD only by name, since a true CAD system has yet to be 'discovered". This presentation consists of three major sections. The first reviews why the currently available CAD systems do not have the ingredients which may justify them as design oriented machines. This discussion leads to the identification of architectural modeling and knowledge systems as the two main areas which need to be researched so that they may offer the basis for the development of truly design oriented machines. Each is discussed under a separate section, but the point is also made that the two should work hand-in-hand and should be integrated into a completely unified system.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id avocaad_2001_09
id avocaad_2001_09
authors Yu-Tung Liu, Yung-Ching Yeh, Sheng-Cheng Shih
year 2001
title Digital Architecture in CAD studio and Internet-based competition
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary Architectural design has been changing because of the vast and creative use of computer in different ways. From the viewpoint of designing itself, computer has been used as drawing tools in the latter phase of design (Mitchell 1977; Coyne et al. 1990), presentation and simulation tools in the middle phase (Liu and Bai 2000), and even critical media which triggers creative thinking in the very early phase (Maher et al. 2000; Liu 1999; Won 1999). All the various roles that computer can play have been adopted in a number of professional design corporations and so-called computer-aided design (CAD) studio in schools worldwide (Kvan 1997, 2000; Cheng 1998). The processes and outcomes of design have been continuously developing to capture the movement of the computer age. However, from the viewpoint of social-cultural theories of architecture, the evolvement of design cannot be achieved solely by designers or design processes. Any new idea of design can be accepted socially, culturally and historically only under one condition: The design outcomes could be reviewed and appreciated by critics in the field at the time of its production (Csikszentmihalyi 1986, 1988; Schon and Wiggins 1992; Liu 2000). In other words, aspects of design production (by designers in different design processes) are as critical as those of design appreciation (by critics in different review processes) in the observation of the future trends of architecture.Nevertheless, in the field of architectural design with computer and Internet, that is, so-called computer-aided design computer-mediated design, or internet-based design, most existing studies pay more attentions to producing design in design processes as mentioned above. Relatively few studies focus on how critics act and how they interact with designers in the review processes. Therefore, this study intends to investigate some evolving phenomena of the interaction between design production and appreciation in the environment of computer and Internet.This paper takes a CAD studio and an Internet-based competition as examples. The CAD studio includes 7 master's students and 2 critics, all from the same countries. The Internet-based competition, held in year 2000, includes 206 designers from 43 counties and 26 critics from 11 countries. 3 students and the 2 critics in the CAD studio are the competition participating designers and critics respectively. The methodological steps are as follows: 1. A qualitative analysis: observation and interview of the 3 participants and 2 reviewers who join both the CAD studio and the competition. The 4 analytical criteria are the kinds of presenting media, the kinds of supportive media (such as verbal and gesture/facial data), stages of the review processes, and interaction between the designer and critics. The behavioral data are acquired by recording the design presentation and dialogue within 3 months. 2. A quantitative analysis: statistical analysis of the detailed reviewing data in the CAD studio and the competition. The four 4 analytical factors are the reviewing time, the number of reviewing of the same project, the comparison between different projects, and grades/comments. 3. Both the qualitative and quantitative data are cross analyzed and discussed, based on the theories of design thinking, design production/appreciation, and the appreciative system (Goodman 1978, 1984).The result of this study indicates that the interaction between design production and appreciation during the review processes could differ significantly. The review processes could be either linear or cyclic due to the influences from the kinds of media, the environmental discrepancies between studio and Internet, as well as cognitive thinking/memory capacity. The design production and appreciation seem to be more linear in CAD studio whereas more cyclic in the Internet environment. This distinction coincides with the complementary observations of designing as a linear process (Jones 1970; Simon 1981) or a cyclic movement (Schon and Wiggins 1992). Some phenomena during the two processes are also illustrated in detail in this paper.This study is merely a starting point of the research in design production and appreciation in the computer and network age. The future direction of investigation is to establish a theoretical model for the interaction between design production and appreciation based on current findings. The model is expected to conduct using revised protocol analysis and interviews. The other future research is to explore how design computing creativity emerge from the process of producing and appreciating.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 04dd
authors Zozaya-Gorostiza and Hendrickson, Carlos and Chris
year 1986
title A Network Representation and Algorithm for Task Planning
source 23 p. : ill Pittsburgh, PA: Engineering Design Research Center CMU, December, 1986. EDRC-12-08-87. includes bibliography.
summary An activity planning algorithm based on a network representations of conditions and actions is presented. The algorithm performs backward expansions on each desired condition in order to express them as a combination of initial conditions and actions. A global problem network of actions and conditions is used to represent the history of successful conditions expansions. This representation maintains consistency and improves the efficiency of search procedure. Interpretation of this problem network leads to an actions network from which feasible plans are directly obtained. The network algorithm was implemented in LISP and is applied here to solve blockworld problems similar to those found in the artificial intelligence planning literature. However, the algorithm and the network representation are general and intended to be used as an analytical tool in planning systems that formulate sequences of multiple actions
keywords algorithms, planning, networks, representation, AI
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id e220
authors Balachandran, M.B. and Gero, John S.
year 1986
title Formulating and Recognizing Engineering Optimization Problems
source Aus. Conf Mechs. Struct. and Mats (10th : 1986 : Adelaide) edited by G. Sved. pp. 223-228. CADLINE has abstract only.
summary In applying optimization methodology to engineering design, a considerable amount of knowledge is utilized to construct and solve mathematical design models. However, computer based systems to assist this process have concentrated mainly on the numeric computational aspects of the process. This paper outlines a computer system which uses a knowledge-based systems approach to formulate and recognize design optimization problems. Areas of expert knowledge involved in mathematical design modeling and optimization are identified. Such knowledge is encoded explicitly in the system. An example is presented
keywords knowledge base, systems, engineering, design, mathematics, modeling, structures
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 6c8e
authors Barbera, Salvatore and Correnti, Gabriele
year 1986
title Reticular and Linear Planning of Erecting Yards Aided by Personal Computer
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 157-166
summary This study has been carried out during the Course of Ergotecnica Edile hold at the Instituto Dipartimentale di Architettura e Urbanistica of Catania University, and it has been addressed to the students of the Faculty of Civil Engineering (manufacturing and direction of civil works). The present study aims at instructing the students as refers to planning, through computers, erecting yards. Work-planning is specifically important with reference both to the starting program and to the carrying on of the work. Within this context, workplanning is useful as regard the control and contingent correction of the work. In the latter case, divergencies between work-evolution and forecast are of primary value.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id a3bd
authors Beretta Covacivich, N., loannilli, M., Lazzari, M., Scandurra E. and Schiavoni U.
year 1986
title Urban Planning Computer Aided Methods
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 180-185
summary In the practice of urban centers analysis and of urban planning projects, a noticeable aspect is the absence of some essential information required in the planning process due to the natural difficulty to manage the numerous data to process.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 0335
authors Berzins, Valdis, Gray, Michael and Naumann, David
year 1986
title Abstraction-Based Software Development
source communications of the ACM. May, 1986. vol. 29: pp. 402-415. includes bibliography
summary At the university of Minnesota an interdisciplinary team has been developing and running an ongoing course sequence in software engineering. The project served the dual purpose of giving the students some experience in applying the theory of software engineering to problems large enough to require a group effort, and at the same time enabling the development team to evaluate the effectiveness of the concepts and tools used. In this article the authors report on their experience with these concepts and tools, concentrating on the software- engineering rather than training and technology transfer aspects of the process
keywords software, engineering, abstraction, programming
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 6733
authors Bettels, Juergen and Myers, David R.
year 1986
title The PIONS Graphics System
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. July, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 30-38 : col. ill. includes a short bibliography
summary During 1979, CERN began to evaluate how interactive computer graphics displays could aid the analysis of high-energy physics experiments at the new Super Proton Synchrotron collider. This work led to PIONS, a 3D graphics system, which features the ability to store and view hierarchical graphics structures in a directed-acyclic-graph database. It is possible to change the attributes of these structures by making selections on nongraphical information also stored in the database. PIONS is implemented as an object-oriented message-passing system based on SmallTalk design principles. It supports multiple viewing transformations, logical input devices, and 2D and 3D primitives. The design allows full use to be made of display hardware that provides dynamic 3D picture transformation
keywords visualization, computer graphics, database, systems, modeling
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 2e5e
authors Brown, G.Z. and Novitski, Barbara-Jo
year 1986
title Nurturing Design Intuition in Energy Software
source ACADIA Workshop ‘86 Proceedings - Houston (Texas - USA) 24-26 October 1986, pp. 183-189
summary This paper discusses educational software under development at the University of Oregon which helps to alleviate the difficulties of integrating technical considerations in the creative architectural design process.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/15 19:17

_id cb04
authors Calderaro, V., Giangrande, A., Mirabelli, P. and Mortola, E.
year 1986
title Decision Support Systems (DSS) in Computer Aided Architectural Design (CAAD)
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 20-38
summary The paper describes a new procedure of design management and the results of its application to architectural design in an exercise developed in a didactic context. The procedure requires the participation of all “actors” (i.e. designers, experts, clients, users, etc.) involved in the design process and which contribute, directly or indirectly, to obtain the result. By generating and developing alternative design solutions, this procedure allows the exploration of a region of the performances space which is generally more vast than that explored by the traditional designer.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 07:58

_id 63d0
authors Carrara, Gianfranco and Novembri, Gabriele
year 1986
title Constraint-bounded design search
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 146-157
summary The design process requires continual checking of the consistency of design choices against given sets of goals that have been fulfilled. Such a check is generally performed by comparing abstract representations of design goals with these of the sought real building objects (RBO) resulting from complex intellectual activities closely related to the designer's culture and to the environment in which he operates. In this chapter we define a possible formalization of such representations concerning the goals and the RBO that are usually considered in the architectural design process by our culture in our environment. The representation of design goals is performed by expressing their objective aspects (requirements) and by defining their allowable values (performance specifications). The resulting system of requirements defines the set of allowable solutions and infers an abstract representation of the sought building objects (BO) that consists of the set of characteristics (attributes and relations) which are considered relevant to represent the particular kind of RBO with respect to the consistency check with design goals. The values related to such characteristics define the performances of the RBO while their set establishes its behaviour. Generally speaking, there is no single real object corresponding to an abstract representation but the whole class of the RBO that are equivalent with respect to the values assumed by the considered characteristics. The more we increase the number of these, as well as their specifications, the smaller the class becomes until it coincides with a single real object - given that the assessed specifications be fully consistent. On the other hand, the corresponding representation evolves to the total prefiguration of the RBO. It is not therefore possible to completely define a BO representation in advance since this is inferred by the considered goals and is itself a result of the design process. What can only be established in advance is that any set of characteristics assumed to represent any RBO consists of hierarchic, topological, geometrical and functional relations among the parts of the object at any level of aggregation (from components to space units, to building units, to the whole building) that we define representation structure (RS). Consequently the RS may be thought as the elementary structures that, by superposition and interaction, set up the abstract representation that best fit with design goals.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id caadria2007_659
id caadria2007_659
authors Chen, Zi-Ru
year 2007
title The Combination of Design Media and Design Creativity _ Conventional and Digital Media
source CAADRIA 2007 [Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Nanjing (China) 19-21 April 2007
summary Creativity is always interested in many fields, in particular, creativity and design creativity have many interpretations (Boden, 1991; Gero and Maher, 1992, 1993; Kim, 1990; Sternberg, 1988; Weisberg, 1986). In early conceptual design process, designers used large number of sketches and drawings (Purcell and Gero, 1998). The sketch can inspire the designer to increase the creativity of the designer’s creations(Schenk, 1991; Goldschmidt, 1994; Suwa and Tversky, 1997). The freehand sketches by conventional media have been believed to play important roles in processes of the creative design thinking(Goldschmidt, 1991; Schon and Wiggins, 1992; Goel, 1995; Suwa et al., 2000; Verstijnen et al., 1998; Elsas van and Vergeest, 1998). Recently, there are many researches on inspiration of the design creativity by digital media(Liu, 2001; Sasada, 1999). The digital media have been used to apply the creative activities and that caused the occurrenssce of unexpected discovery in early design processes(Gero and Maher, 1993; Mitchell, 1993; Schmitt, 1994; Gero, 1996, 2000; Coyne and Subrahmanian, 1993; Boden, 1998; Huang, 2001; Chen, 2001; Manolya et al. 1998; Verstijinen et al., 1998; Lynn, 2001). In addition, there are many applications by combination of conventional and digital media in the sketches conceptual process. However, previous works only discussed that the individual media were related to the design creativity. The cognitive research about the application of conceptual sketches design by integrating both conventional and digital media simultaneously is absent.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2008/06/16 08:48

_id 014f
authors Christiansson, Per
year 1986
title Integrated Building CAD at the Lund Institute of Technology, Department of Structural Engineering
source 1986. 8 p. Includes Per Christiansson reports and publication list
summary A description of the department, equipment, research projects and education
keywords education, CAD, engineering, architecture
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id aa60
authors Christiansson, Per
year 1986
title Properties of Future Knowledge Based Systems : The Interactive Consultation System Example
source computer Aided Architectural Design - Developments in Education and Practice. 1986. 14 p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary An introduction to knowledge based systems is presented to point out possibilities and limitations of the new software and hardware technology now beginning to be available. A pilot study on the use of an expert system shell (the ES/P Advisor), is briefly discussed. A part of the Swedish concrete building code was implemented in the expert system shell to demonstrate the use of an interactive consultation system. Ideas on how compact video-discs can be used in this type of systems are also put forward
keywords knowledge base, systems, expert systems, CAD, media
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id e73e
authors Christiansson, Per
year 1990
title State of the Art of Computer Use in Practical Architectural Design in Sweden
source A/E/C Systems Japan. September, 1990. [4] p. English and Japanese
summary A status report on Computer Aided Design in Sweden, since 1986
keywords CAD, architecture, practice
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id c66c
authors Colajanni, B., Cottone, A. and Pellitteri, G.
year 1986
title Didactic experiences in CAAD
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 341-347
summary The question to pose is to know what is possible to do in conditions of scarcity of resources (as this is the endemic condition of many Institutes and Departments in the Italian Southern Universities) in order to obtain an effectual didactic approach to CAAD.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id 2a91
authors Cox, Brad J.
year 1986
title Object-Oriented Programming : An Evolutionary Approach
source 274 p. : ill Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., 1986. includes index
summary Object oriented programming departs from conventional programming by emphasizing the relationship between consumers and suppliers of codes rather then the relationship between a programmer and his code. The author describes the development of an object-oriented C language compiler, and how it can be put to work
keywords systems, languages, software, programming, OOPS
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8503
authors Coyne, Richard D. and Gero, John S.
year 1986
title Semantics and the Organisation of Knowledge in Design
source Design Computing. 1986. vol. 1: pp. 68-89 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The linguistic paradigm of design is considered. The idea of meta-languages is developed as a means of generating designs that are imbued with semantic content. The formulation of meta-languages therefore becomes a way of organizing knowledge about design. The usefulness of these ideas is demonstrated by means of programs developed in Prolog
keywords design, knowledge, semantics
series CADline
last changed 2003/05/17 08:17

_id c62d
authors Davis, Randall
year 1986
title Knowledge-Based Systems
source Science February, 1986. vol. 231: pp. 957-963 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary First developed two decades ago, knowledge-based systems have seen widespread application in recent years. While performance has been a strong focus of attention, building such systems has also expanded our conception of a computer program from a black box providing an answer to something capable of explaining its answers, acquiring new knowledge, and transferring knowledge to students. These abilities derive from distinguishing clearly what the program knows from how that knowledge will be used, making it possible to use the same knowledge in different ways
keywords AI, knowledge base, systems, theory
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id 4d30
authors De Cola, Bruno and De Cola, Sergio
year 1986
title Experience of Thematic Mapping Using Personal Computer
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 223-230
summary The work that is presented here is the result of research conducted within and by the "Observatory of territorial and planning transformation" group of the faculty of Architecture at the University of Reggio Calabria, which was formed as a consequence of a commission called Coordination of Territorial Planning (C.T.P) given to the Calabrian University by the Regional Government.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:15

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