CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 41 to 60 of 206

_id 4d8b
authors Wright, Paul K.
year 1986
title A Manufacturing Hand
source pp. 13- 23 : ill Pittsburgh, PA: Engineering Design Research Center, CMU, September, 1986. includes bibliography.
summary In unmanned Flexible Manufacturing Cells, robots can be used for loading machines, inspection activities, and assembly operations. What kind of robotic end-effector should be built for such tasks? The human hand has evolved to be a general purpose manipulator that adapts to the richness of our daily lives but, in doing so, it is not particularly suited to manufacturing operations. Here, special tools, fixtures, and protective layers are heavily relied on. This paper describes the initial development of a hand specifically for manufacturing work. This has involved the manufacture of an instrumented wrist with an adjustable remote center of compliance, and the design of fingers for gripping. Object shapes have also been analyzed in order to provide for a stable static grip. Importantly, these studies of the physical aspects of prehension have been matched to tasks. The research has considered a range of industrial operations and specified the level of end-effector control needed. This work is leading to some design guides for robotic end-effectors which, it is hoped, will be of use to industrial designers
keywords robotics, CAD, CAM, CAE, automation, manufacturing
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8816
authors Penn, Michael A. and Patterson, Richard R.
year 1986
title Projective Geometry and its Application to Computer Graphics
source xi, 403 p. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1986. includes bibliography: p. 394-395
summary The goal of the book is to support the design of solutions to computer graphic problems through an understanding of the underlying elements of projective geometry. Some of the topics discussed are: How to view the structure of two and three dimensional graphic libraries, how to create two dimensional perspective and parallel images of a three dimensional object, how to draw the graph of a function of two real variables, and more
keywords computer graphics, projective geometry
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 4c79
authors Aguilar, Lorenzo
year 1986
title A Format for a Graphical Communications Protocol
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications vol. 6.no. 3 (March, 1986): pp. 52-62
summary This article describes the requirements for a graphical format on which a graphical on-line communications protocol can be based. It is argued that on-line graphical communications is similar to graphical session capture, and thus the author proposes an interactive graphical communications format using the GKSM session metafile. The discussion includes items that complement the GKSM metafile such as a format for on-line interactive exchange. One key application area of such a format is multimedia on-line conferencing. Therefore, a conferencing software architecture for processing the proposed format is presented. This format specification is made available to those planning multimedia conferencing systems
keywords user interface, communication, computer graphics, multimedia, standards
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 2ec8
authors Arditi, Aries and Gillman, Arthur E.
year 1986
title Computing for the Blind User
source BYTE Publication Inc. March, 1986. pp. 199-208. includes some reference notes
summary In this article the authors present some of the human-factors issues specific to non visual personal computing. The authors' concern is with the accuracy, speed, and generality of the blind-user interface, to make computers more accessible and efficient for blind and visually impaired persons
keywords user interface, disabilities
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 0f76
authors Balachandran, M. B. and Gero, John S.
year 1986
title Knowledge-based Design Optimization
source IAAI'86 Conference. 1986. pp. i:4:1-14
summary CADLINE has abstract only. Optimization is a well understood process in design domains. A designer formulates the design problem as a single criterion or multicriteria optimization problem and then selects an appropriate optimization algorithm to search for the optimal values for the design variables. The formulation and algorithm selection procedures have been considered to be activities which relied on substantive human knowledge. This paper describes a computer system, OPTIMA, which formulates design optimization problems from a pseudo-English description into canonical algebraic expressions. It then recognizes the formulation and selects appropriate algorithm(s) for their solutions. Finally, it runs the selected algorithm(s) and sends the results to the original descriptions. Areas of expert knowledge involved in carrying out the above tasks are identified. Such knowledge is explicitly encoded in the systems. The basic philosophy and key features of the system are described and are illustrated by examples
keywords algorithms, expert systems, knowledge base, design, optimization, structures, engineering
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 6002
authors Barduzzi, Ondina and Pascolo, Carlo
year 1986
title CAD System (Computer Aided Design) for the Planning of the Territory, with Reference to the Automatical Estimate of Works of Urbanization
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 167-179
summary Any applied research, no matter what discipline is concerned, needs affined and suitable tools; as regards the studies in the field of architecture and planning, the use of automatic systems of analysis, data ordering and comparison is of particular interest. The quickness of operations by means of computers and the corresponding graphical representation gives new possibilities for scientific work, once impossible, not certainly because of conceptual limits, but practically, for the limits of available tools. It is the wideness of applications of computers to be pointed out, for although studied for scientific reasons, their practical usefulness is often enormous. This has been generally verified. It guilts in particular for the CAD System, proposed and explained in this paper. The practical utility this and other systems from the same field have for the public administration, contractors and consultants is well known and therefore not necessary to be described further. The use of such systems is particularly convenient in those sectors where the graphical representation is the basic part of the production process.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id aec8
authors Bellinghall, Leigh
year 1986
title The MicroCad Explosion : An Eye to Applications Clarifies Choices
source computer Graphics World March, 1986. vol. 9: pp. 23-28 : col. ill.
summary Two strong trends affirm increasing market interest in micro systems. While early programs were developed for personal computers, turnkey system houses are now stretching heavy-duty mini and mainframe-hosted programs down to micros. This article gives a selective survey of popular micro-CAD software, looks at packages in both development areas
keywords drafting, systems, CAD, software, applications
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 8060
authors Bentley, Jon L. and Kernighan, Brian W.
year 1986
title GRAP - a Language for Typesetting Graphs
source communications of the ACM. August, 1986. vol. 29: pp. 782-792 : charts. includes bibliography
summary The authors describe a system that makes it easy and convenient to describe graphs and to include them as an integral part of the document formatting process
keywords programming, computer graphics, algorithms, business
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id ed51
authors Bergeron, Philippe
year 1986
title A General Version of Crow's Shadow Volumes
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications September, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 17-28 : col. ill. includes bibliography.
summary In 1977 Frank Crow introduced a new class of algorithms for the generation of shadows. His technique, based on the concept of shadow volumes, assumes a polygonal database and a constrained environment. For example, polyhedrons must be closed, and polygons must be planar. This article presents a new version of Crow's algorithm, developed at the Universite de Montreal, which attempts a less constrained environment. The method has allowed the handling of both open and closed models and nonplanar polygons with the viewpoint anywhere, including any shadow volume. It does not, however, sacrifice the essential features of Crow's original version: penetration between polygons is allowed, and any number of light sources can be defined anywhere in 3D space, including the view volume and any shadow volume. The method has been used successfully in the film Tony de Peltrie and is easily incorporated into an existing scan-line, hidden-surface algorithm
keywords algorithms, shadowing, polygons, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id b25c
authors Bergeson, Donald E. and Cetin, Randal F.
year 1986
title ADAM - Architectural Design Applications Model
source ACADIA Workshop 86 Proceedings - Houston (Texas - USA) 24-26 October 1986, pp. 37-54
summary This paper will describe ADAM, a project to explore the potential for interfacing independent graphics software for the purpose of developing a microcomputer based design system. This system will be implemented in three undergraduate design studios at the University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign) School of Architecture. The three design studios are part of an experimental project to determine the usefulness of computers in the architectural design curriculum. The concept used throughout the design of this system is: "make use of what already exists, but use it smoothly together in such a way that the management system is totally invisible to the user." Many low- end quality graphics software packages are commercially available. Each has the capacity to address some aspect of the architectural design process, none will do it all . The problem is a lack of compatibility between software. ADAM is a management system designed to invisibly control and interface the use of an assembly of graphics programs and data base management systems to achieve compatibility. Because of these compatible interfaces, new and varied design tools can be created from existing software..
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/10/10 12:26

_id a7de
authors Bic, Lubomir and Jonathan P. Gilbert
year 1986
title Learning from AI : New Trends in Database Technology
source IEEE Computer. March, 1986. vol. 19: pp. 44-54. includes bibliography
summary With the steadily increasing demand for user-oriented systems, new trends in database technology have evolved outside of the scope of the traditional data models. The authors are concentrated in this article on two closely related efforts: The incorporation of more semantic modeling capabilities into database models, and the development of better user environment, which include user friendly interfaces and support different user views of the content and organization of the data
keywords AI, user interface, database, relational database
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id caadria2006_601
id caadria2006_601
authors BINSU CHIANG, MAO-LIN CHIU
year 2006
title PRIVATE/UN-PRIVATE SPACE: Scenario-based Digital Design for Enhancing User Awareness
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 601-603
summary Context awareness is important for human senses of places as well as human computer interaction. The aim of this research paper is focusing on controlling the user's privacy in a smart space which is adaptive to different users for enhancing the user's awareness in his diary life. In Environmental Psychology, the definition of privacy is that an individual has the control of deciding what information of himself is released to others, and under how he interact with others. (Westin 1970) And privacy is categorized as the linguistic privacy and visual privacy. (Sundstorm 1986). Solutions for privacy control: Plan Layout, Vision Boundary, Access Control and Architecture Metaphor - the transmission of information is not ascertainable for every single user. Although information are shown in public, but information is implied by cues and symbols. Only a certain user or a group of users have access to the full context of information. The methodology is to form an analytic framework to study the relationship between information, user and activities by using the computational supports derived from KitchenSense, ConceptNet, Python, 3d Studio Max and Flash; and to record patterns built up by users' behaviour and actions. Furthermore, the scenario-based simulation can envision the real world conditions by adding interfaces for enhancing user awareness.
series CAADRIA
email n7693103@mail.ncku.edu.twmc2p@mail.ncku.edu.tw
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

_id 4361
authors Bishop, G. and Weimer, D.M.
year 1986
title Fast Phong Shading
source Computer Graphics (20) 4 pp. 103-106
summary Computer image generation systems often represent curved surfaces as a mesh of polygons that are shaded to restore a smooth appearance. Phong shading is a well known algorithm for producing a realistic shading but it has not been used by real-time systems because of the 3 additions, 1 division and 1 square root required per pixel for its evaluation. We describe a new formulation for Phong shading that reduces the amount of computation per pixel to only 2 additions for simple Lambertian reflection and 5 additions and 1 memory reference for Phong's complete reflection model. We also show how to extend our method to compute the specular component with the eye at a finite distance from the scene rather than at infinity as is usually assumed. The method can be implemented in hardware for real-time applications or in software to speed image generation for almost any system.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id e43b
authors Blasi, D. and Scudo, G.
year 1986
title Experience of Output Visualisation in Thermal Performance Analysis and Design.
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 186-191
summary GKS didactic application in output visualisation of thermal behaviour simulation in building analysis and design. Energy analysis is performed by BEETA (Built Environment Energy Test and Analysis) code. It is a numerical simulation code which allows to simulate the building multizone thermal behaviour with different passive devices (Direct Gain, Greenhouse, Solar Chimney, Trompe, Convective and Radiative Cooling etc.). The code is based on thermal network theory and methods; the set of thermal equation is normally solved every hour or less by the coefficient matrix inversion method. An interactive loop is provide for dealing with non- linear thermal conductance problems with continuous or step variation (i.e. air mixing through an opening between two spaces, Trompe wall convective loop, etc.) The code allows to take into account urban obstructions and shading devices.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id c5af
authors Bobrow, Daniel G. and Stefik, Mark J.
year 1986
title Perspective on Artificial Intelligence Programming
source Science. February, 1986. vol. 231: pp. 951-956
summary Programming systems for artificial intelligence application use specialized languages, environments, and knowledge-based tools to reduce the complexity of the programming task. Language style based on procedure, objects logic rules, and constraints reflect different models for organizing programs and facilitate program evaluation and understandability. To make programming easier, multiple styles can be integrated as sublanguages in programming environment. Programming environments provide tools that analyze programs and create informative displays of their structure. Programs can be modified by direct interaction with these displays. These tools and languages are helping computer scientists to regain a sense of control over systems that have become increasingly complex
keywords programming, AI
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 2eb1
authors Bridges, Alan H.
year 1986
title Alternative Approaches Towards the Teaching of Computer Aided Architectural Design
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 331-340
summary The problems of architectural education in general and CAD education in particular are discussed. The paper suggests that the computing requirements of architectural practice are different to those of architectural education and that much of the software used in schools of architecture is not used in an educationally structured way. A number of proposals for the educational use of computers are made, together with recommendations for a common computing environment.
series eCAADe
email a.h.bridges@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id f5db
authors Brooks, F.P.
year 1986
title Walkthrough - A Dynamic Graphics System for Simulating Virtual Buildings
source Proceedings 1986 Workshop on Interactive 3D Graphics. ACM: 9-22
summary As part of our graphics research into virtual worlds, we are building a tool for an architect and his client to use for rapid prototyping of buildings by visually "walking through" them in order to refine specifications. Our first prototype simulated the new UNC Computer Science building with some 8000 polygons. BSP-tree software on the Adage Ikonas gave a colored, shaded perspective view every 3-5 seconds while the user moved a cursor in real-time over floorplans shown on the Vector-General 3300. The current (third) version uses Pixel-Planes to generate 9 updates/second, view images shown 4' x 6' by projector. Active short- and long-term research questions include speed-up, stereo, a 6-DoF interface with eye-level defaults, and an interactive model-building, model-changing system.
series other
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id c211
authors Brown, A.G.P.
year 1986
title A Year's Experience with CATIA and CADAM
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 7-16
summary In June 1985 Liverpool University obtained the CAD packages CATIA and CADAM to run on its IBM 4341 mainframe. The following is a brief description of the investigations which have taken place in the first year of their implementation to gauge the usefulness of these packages, principalLy as CAAD teaching aids. Neither CATIA nor CADAM were initially developed as architectural design aids so a matter of initial concern was their appropriateness for teaching (and possibly research) in an architectural environment.
series eCAADe
email andygpb@liv.ac.uk
last changed 1998/08/18 07:56

_id 8764
authors Bruderlin, B.
year 1986
title Constructing Three Dimensional Geometric Objects Defined by Constraints
source Workshop on Interactive 3D Graphics A CM, I 11- 129
summary We developed a system for automatically building three-dimensional geometric objects that are defined by their topology and by geometric constraints. A solid modeller is used for sketching the object. The geometric constraints are first evaluated symbolically by an algorithm written in Prolog. The symbolic solution is then numerically evaluated by procedures linked to Prolog.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id a661
authors Cajati, Claudio and Calandro, Lucia
year 1986
title Architectural analysis of buildings in order to choice new functional destinations: an application of computer graphics for Faculty of Architecture's students
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 17-19
summary The research tries to give a little but meaningful answer to the specific context of the Faculty of Architecture of Naples. Such a context presents a delay of teachers and researchers, in their teaching and researching activity, in beginning the CAAD way. Often the delay is due to a wrong attitude: a too high or too low expectation towards the use of the computer. In such a situation, the chief target of the research is the student of architecture. It is possible and useful to address a clear message, by a simple educational material, just to the student of architecture; not necessarily by producing a software or modifying some existing one, but also applying a given available software to an important architectural question.
series eCAADe
email cajatic@libero.it
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

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