CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 61 to 80 of 206

_id c8a8
authors Cajati, Claudio
year 1986
title A Fully Integrated Use of Available Media and of Computer Technology for Up-to-date Educational Tools in Architecture
source ACADIA Workshop ‘86 Proceedings - Houston (Texas - USA) 24-26 October 1986, pp. 129-147
summary In this paper no general or specific forecast is- made about what is going to happen in the next decade in architectural education. No extrapolation and projection in the future, through more or 1e33 sophisticated technique3, of plausible trends is attempted. Such an effort goes beyond the competence and inteffectual force of the author.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/15 19:17

_id 4431
authors Calderaro, V. and Platone, C.
year 1986
title Information systems and internvention technologies programmed to aid the energy saving within the limits of the existing building property rescue
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 192-201
summary In our national territory the rescue of the existing building property is a very important problem. For that reason, starting front the presupposition that the existing buildings, restoration finds its real achievement by means of technological and installing interventions strictly connected with the energy costs and consumptions, this study sets as a planning method on various degrees to analyze, single out and propose the possible solutions based on qualitative and quantitative researches into the thermo-physical behaviour of the above-mentioned buildings. From a research done into the principal building properties related with the different national areas we can single out significant morphological samples and typical technological structures. This first analytical study allows the singling out of significant building models on which it's possible to value the thermal behaviour and possible subsequent restoring interventions by applying computerized mathematical models or by operating diagrams deduced from them. First of all, these mathematical models for simulation allow a valuation of the main thermal parameters (dispersion both in absolute value and in volumetric factor, medium thermal transmittance (U value) of geometrical models deduced from the typical above - mentioned cases.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/04/01 18:58

_id 45ac
authors Capitanio, L., Nasoni, M., Piroddi, E., Scandurra, E. and Schiavoni, U.
year 1986
title Programs for the Representation of the Territorial DataPrograms for the Representation of the Territorial DataPrograms for the Representation of the Territorial Data
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 39-44
summary The programs afterwards briefly described, were used during the courses of Urban Planning of the Department of Building Techniques and Environment Control of Engineering Faculty of Rome. Those programs are chiefly directed to didactic use and to optimization of the graphic representation of regional and urban phenomena. Both those programs make use of censual data from ISTAT stored, by Urban Planning courses teachers, on Univac/ 1100 computer in Interdepartmental Center for Scientific Calculus of Rome First University.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 07:59

_id 6f29
authors Cardozo, E. and Talukdar, Sarosh N.
year 1986
title A Distributed Control Strategy for Energy Management Centers
source [4] p. : ill Pittsburgh: Engineering Design Research Center, CMU, September, 1986. EDRC-05-07-86. includes bibliography.
summary Intelligent, computer-based assistants can serve as statisticians, historians, diagnosticians, watchdogs, consultants, tutors and planners. They could be of great help to power system operators. This paper briefly describes a typical intelligent assistant, and discusses the difficulties with integrating it into a traditional energy management system
keywords energy, analysis, intelligence, systems, applications
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 2b3c
authors Carrara, G. and Novembri, G.
year 1986
title KAAD - Knowledge-based Assistance for Architectural Design
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 202-212
summary The research being conducted at the CABD LAB at the Department of Building and Environmental Control Technologies is geared to the production of an Expert System for architectural design, which is able to perform interactive design tasks and help to provide accurate and complete description of the buildings in question. The Expert System will control the design process, continually ensuring consistency between the definitions of the designer and a given set of constraints. Accordingly, the System will be able to determine the effects of of definition, performing the choices taken at different stages necessary calculations and checks. The System is based on a general representation of the building objects, from individual components to the whole building defined in terms of a number of hierarchical, topological and functional relational structures resulting from earlier research conducted into the automatic management of architectural design since 1975.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:14

_id 6643
authors Carrara, Gianfranco and Novembri, Gabriele
year 1986
title Expert System for Building Design
source Congress of the International Council for Building Research, Studies and Documentation (10th : 1986 : Washington). vol. 2: pp. 651-658. includes bibliography. -- abstract also in French
summary At the CABD LAB at the University of Rome, an interactive expert system for architecture is being implemented to supervise building design at every stage of development. The system operates by checking the consistency of design choices against given sets of constraints, and by automatically checking the design process. It is therefore an innovation with respect to current architectural software developed as specific design aids. The system is based on a general representation of building objects (from components to the whole building) by means of semantic nets and a set of inferential procedures. The general representation is developed by making explicit the relational structures according to which architects organize their knowledge about building objects. To do this, the `Frame' formalism is used: this is a knowledge representation technique used in the field of artificial intelligence. It is then shown that such an expert CAAD system is a general purpose tool for architectural design, enabling architects to assess any constraint and/or building attribute by means of a declarative method, which in no way affects their own specific design methodologies
keywords semantic networks, representation, constraints, expert systems, CAD, building, design process, knowledge, frames
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 2e43
authors Cipriani, Roberto and Decri, Anna
year 1986
title Approaching CAAD at Facolta' Di Architettura, Genova
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 213-222
summary This paper describes a few aspects of the current research and teachings in the field of CAAD in the School of Architecture at the University of Genoa. In particular it analyses the capacity of a small system, which a single professional can afford and which provides a simple approach for the teaching of automatic drawing. This analysis has not yet been completed because it is a part of a thesis which is currently being written.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:14

_id a9b1
authors Cohen, M.F., Greenberg, D.P. and Immel, D.S. (et al)
year 1986
title An Efficient Radiosity Approach for Realistic Image Synthesis
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications March, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 26-35 : col. ill. includes bibliography.
summary The radiosity method models the interaction of light between diffusely reflecting surfaces and accurately predicts the global illumination effects. Procedures are now available to simulate complex environments including occluded and textured surfaces. For accurate rendering, the environment must be discretized into a fine mesh, particularly in areas of high intensity gradients. The interdependence between surfaces implies solution techniques which are computationally intractable. This article describes new procedures to predict the global illumination function without excessive computational expense. Statistics indicate the enormous potential of this approach for realistic image synthesis, particularly for dynamic images of static environments
keywords computer graphics, radiosity, rendering, algorithms
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:42

_id 4bb1
authors De Bono, Edward
year 1986
title De Bono's Thinking Course
source v, 192 p. New York: Facts on File Publications, 1986. includes bibliography p. 169
summary Thinking can be developed with proper training and coaching. This course tries to cover every important aspect of thinking: perception, pattern-forming, analysis, creativity and decision making. It outlines simple, effective tools and techniques for improving one's thinking
keywords problem solving, perception, creativity, psychology, decision making,techniques
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id 295a
authors De Grassi, Mario
year 1986
title Rational Data Model: An Approach for Building Design and Planning
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 231-242
summary A model of the building object utilizing the typical formal structures of the relational data model is presented, which allows interactive design procedures to be foreseen and at the same time the use of the model for a data base containing information on building objects, to be used for normative planning and for building design.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:15

_id 31d5
authors Delisle, N. and Schwartz, M.
year 1986
title Neptune: A Hypertext System for CAD Applications
source Proceedings ofACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data, (Washington D.C., May 28-30 1986) pp. 132-143
summary Even though many of the essential notions of hypertext were first contained in the description of a "memex," written by Vannevar Bush in 1945, there are today only a few scattered implementatlons of hypertext, let alone any serious use of it in a CAD environment. In what follows, we describe what hypertext is all about We describe a prototype hypertext system, named Neptune, that we have built.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 079f
authors Dickson, Gary W., DeSanctis, Gerardine and McBride, D. J.
year 1986
title Understanding the Effectiveness of Computer Graphics for Decision Support : A Cumulative Experimental Approach
source Communications of the ACM. January, 1986. vol. 29: pp. 40-47. includes bibliography
summary A total of 840 junior and senior-level undergraduate business students participated in three experiments that compared computer-generated graphical forms of data presentation to traditional tabular reports. The first experiment compared tables and bar charts for their effects on readability, interpretation accuracy, and decision making. No differences in interpretation accuracy or decision quality were observed for the two groups, although tabular reports were rated as 'easier to read and understand' than graphical reports. The second experiment compared line plots to tables for their effects on interpretation accuracy and decision quality. Subjects with graphical reports outperformed those with tables. There were no meaningful differences in interpretation accuracy across treatment groups. The third experiment compared graphical and tabular reports for their ability to convey a 'message' to the reader. Only in situations in which a vast amount of information was presented and relatively simple impressions were to be made, did subjects given graphs outperform those using tables. This program of cumulative experiments indicates that generalized claims of superiority of graphic presentation are unsupported, at least for decision-related activities. In fact, the experiments suggest that the effectiveness of the data display format is largely a function of the characteristics of the task at hand, and that impressions gleaned from 'one shot' studies of the effectiveness of the use of graphs may be nothing more than situationally dependent artifacts
keywords business, computer graphics, presentation, decision making, visualization
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c967
authors Fantacone, Enrico
year 1994
title Exporting CAD Teaching into Developing Countries
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, p. 222
summary In 1986 the Faculty of Architecture was established in Maputo. It is financed by the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and managed by a Scientific Council of the Faculty of Architecture of "Università La Sapienza" of Rome. The need to create human technical resources beeing able to work profesionally as soon as they finish their studies, made the teaching basis for lab exercises and design. The new architects (the first six students graduated in 1991), need to design and make very important decisions without any control by more experienced local technical institutions. The creation of a CAAD laboratory, and the teaching of information technologies and metodologies in architectural designing aimes to achieve a double goal: (-) to make the new architects able to manage on their own, because of the lack of qualified human resources, large quantity of data, and difficult design problems; (-) to make University, the most important scientific center in the country, an information exchange center between developped countries, and Moçambique.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 08:12

_id 578f
id 578f
authors Flemming, Ulrich and Schmitt, Gerhard
year 1986
title The Computer in the Design Studio. Ideas and Exercises that Go Beyond Automated Drafting
source ACADIA Workshop ‘86 Proceedings - Houston (Texas - USA) 24-26 October 1986, pp. 55-78
summary The present use of computers in the design studio focusses on automating routine tasks and on increasing drawing productivity. We assume that the impact of computers in design can be more profound and present a series of exercises for two contrasting design studios that build on our teaching and computing experience. 'Me first studio uses the computer as a design evaluation tool. The second studio demonstrates the use of computers for simple design generation tasks. In both cases, a very general and important educational objective is pursued, and computers become an integral part of the exercise.
series ACADIA
last changed 2004/03/18 08:51

_id 4512
authors Flemming, Ulrich
year 1986
title On the Representation and Generation of Loosely-Packed Arrangements of Rectangles
source 33 p. : ill Pittsburgh: Engineering Design Research Center, CMU, September, 1986. includes bibliography.
summary Several computer programs that enumerate rectangular dissections as solutions to certain layout problems have established a distinct paradigm for dealing with the crucial theoretical issues involved. The present paper suggests an extension of the paradigm to include `loosely-packed arrangements of rectangles,' which are of wider applicability in an architectural context. The paper introduces orthogonal structures to represent these arrangements and establishes the conditions of well-formedness for these structures. It presents a grammar to enumerate orthogonal structures and suggests that best use is made of the grammar if it is incorporated into a generative expert system, able to serve as a vehicle to discover, encode and utilize a broad range of constraints and criteria in the generation of layout alternatives
keywords expert systems, architecture, space allocation, floor plans, rectangles, shape grammars, layout
series CADline
last changed 2003/02/26 16:24

_id 2d41
authors Flemming, Ulrich
year 1986
title The Role of Shape Grammars in the Analysis and Creation of Designs
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1986. pp. 213-244 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The paper gives an informal introduction to the shape grammar formalism. It presents results form a case study in which this formalism was applied to a realistic problem in order to convey the flavor of work with such grammars, to demonstrate its advantages and to show that our familiarity with this formalism has now progressed to a level were issues of architectural substance can be addressed. The paper concludes with the outline of a simple way to implement shape grammars by computer: it does not resolve the theoretical problems that exist for such implementations, but makes non-trivial applications like the case study possible
keywords shape grammars, design, architecture
series CADline
last changed 2003/02/26 16:24

_id 6916
authors Gasparski, W.
year 1986
title Design Methodology: How I Understand and Develop it
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 16-27
summary The term 'methodology' is sometimes given two diametrically opposed meanings, well characterized by Mark Blaug in the preface of a very informative book devoted to the methodology of economics. This is also the case with the methodology of design. One can find studies in which 'the methodology of design' is simply a method or methods of design, given a fancy name to make it or them appear more scientific. Authors of such studies should not confuse their readers by taking methodological studies to mean technicalities of design or demanding that their interpretation and assessment of so-called 'practical applicability' should follow this criterion. The methodology of design - as we understand it has parallels in the methodology of Blaug's economics, the philosophy of practical science, the applied sciences or the sciences of artificial objects or artefacts. Understood this way, the methodology of design is neither the method of practising design nor an instruction for its use but a theoretical reflection - in the meaning given to methodology by the philosophy of science - of design. In this connection a study of the methodology of design should be provided with the subtitle, 'How researchers of practical sciences and designers understand the concept of changes'.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 8237
authors Gero, John S. and Coyne, Richard D.
year 1986
title Developments in Expert Systems for Design Synthesis
source New York: 1986. pp. 193-203
summary The applicability of expert systems to design synthesis is demonstrated. This is achieved by means of inference rules which can interpret design specifications in order to produce designs. This approach is applicable to certain classes of design problems which can be subdivided into independent subproblems. An expert system which contains knowledge about conflict resolution applicable to the more general class of design problem is demonstrated
keywords design, expert systems, synthesis
series CADline
last changed 2003/05/17 08:17

_id 40fe
authors Gero, John S., Oxman, Rivka E. and Manago, C.
year 1986
title Graphics and Expert Systems
source AUSGRAPH '86 Australian Conference on Computer Graphics (4th : 1986 : Sydney). pp. 25-29 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Expert systems are a novel software technology which aim to model the behavior and knowledge of human experts. This paper presents two modes of interaction between graphics and expert systems in the domain of computer-aided design. The first concerns the interaction between an expert system and commercial CAD systems. The second demonstrates how expert systems can control design oriented graphical representations. Examples from both modes are presented from systems developed at Sydney University
keywords computer graphics, expert systems, CAD, architecture
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id c898
authors Gero, John S.
year 1986
title An Overview of Knowledge Engineering and its Relevance to CAAD
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 107-119
summary Computer-aided architectural design (CAAD) has come to mean a number of often disparate activities. These can be placed into one of two categories: using the computer as a drafting and, to a lesser extent, modelling system; and using it as a design medium. The distinction between the two categories is often blurred. Using the computer as a drafting and modelling tool relies on computing notions concerned with representing objects and structures numerically and with ideas of computer programs as procedural algorithms. Similar notions underly the use of computers as a design medium. We shall return to these later. Clearly, all computer programs contain knowledge, whether methodological knowledge about processes or knowledge about structural relationships in models or databases. However, this knowledge is so intertwined with the procedural representation within the program that it can no longer be seen or found. Architecture is concerned with much more than numerical descriptions of buildings. It is concerned with concepts, ideas, judgement and experience. All these appear to be outside the realm of traditional computing. Yet architects discoursing use models of buildings largely unrelated to either numerical descriptions or procedural representations. They make use of knowledge - about objects, events and processes - and make nonprocedural (declarative) statements that can only be described symbolically. The limits of traditional computing are the limits of traditional computer-aided design systems, namely, that it is unable directly to represent and manipulate declarative, nonalgorithmic, knowledge or to perform symbolic reasoning. Developments in artificial intelligence have opened up ways of increasing the applicability of computers by acquiring and representing knowledge in computable forms. These approaches supplement rather than supplant existing uses of computers. They begin to allow the explicit representations of human knowledge. The remainder of this chapter provides a brief introduction to this field and describes, through applications, its relevance to computer- aided architectural design.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

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