CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 81 to 100 of 115

_id 2b3a
authors Olsen, Dan R. Jr.
year 1986
title MIKE : The Menu Interaction Kontrol Environment
source ACM Transactions on Graphics. October, 1986. vol. 5: pp. 318-344 : ill. includes bibliography
summary User Interface Management System (UIMS) called MIKE that does not use the syntactic specifications found in most UIMSs is described. Instead, MIKE provides a default syntax that is automatically generated from the definition of the semantic commands that the interaction is to support. The default syntax is refined using an interface editor that allows modification of the representation of the interface. It is shown how active pictures can be created by adding action expressions to the viewports of MIKE's windowing system. The implications of MIKE's command based dialogue description are discussed in terms of extensible interfaces, device and dialogue-style independence, and system support functions
keywords design, user interface, management, systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 6075
authors Paasi, Jyrki
year 1986
title The space synthesizer of Helsinki University of Technology
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 253-257
summary Computer technology and CAD are about to change radically the thousands of years of tradition of the architect's work. We are leaving behind the old method of drawing by hand, replacing the pencil with a stylus for pointing elements of mathematical models of projects. We are changing over from two dimensional to three dimensional design. Decisive for the architect to achieve a successful outcome has always been and will always be the visualisation of the project right from its early stages. There is a trend in our time and a risk in the new technology of fragmenting our work and making it more abstract. The new technology is based on the old one and in the beginning its user still has the habits of the old. Therefore the visualisation in present CAD systems and three dimensional design is based on the old plan projections; axonometrics and perspectives. However, there is an essentially better way which happens also to be natural to the new technology and simple to realize using it. This is the spherical projection.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:18

_id 4f56
authors Paasi, Jyrki
year 1986
title Architectural Space Synthesizer - The last link of a CAAD system
source ACADIA Workshop ‘86 Proceedings - Houston (Texas - USA) 24-26 October 1986, pp. 217-223
summary Computer technology and CAD are about to change radically the thousands of years of tradition of the architect's work. We are leaving behind the old method of drawing by hand, replacing the pencil with a stylus for pointing elements of mathematical models of projects. We are changing over from two dimensional to three dimensional design. Decisive for the architect to achieve a successful outcome has always been and will always be the visualisation of the project right from its early stages. There is a trend -in our time and a risk in the. new technology of fragmenting our work and making it more abstract. The new technology is based on the old one and in the beginning its user still has the habits of the old. Therefore the visualisation in present CAD systems and three dimensional design is based on the old plane projections; axonometrics and perspectives. However, there is an essentially better way which happens also to be natural to the new technology and simple to realize using it. This is the spherical projection.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/10/10 12:26

_id ac2c
authors Panunzi, Stefano and Sansoni, Claudio
year 1986
title Transformations of the Shanberg House - Analysis of a Plan and Planning Experimentations, Using the Instruments of Multicriterial Analysis as Means of Research.
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 97-110
summary During the last years some research programs have been developed aiming to analyse a particular architectonic language, using mathematical and informatic instruments. Some of these research programs have as second aim the making of a method for creating a geometrical planning-language: most of these studies are dedicated to the research into the laws which rule the personal style used by an author in certain works. Instead, this research program aims to analyse the planning process, not from the point of view of those who want to reconstruct the laws which describe the stile of a particular author but, by trying to understand the “compositive” process, analysing it by reconstructing the project itself, through a dynamic aggregative process of subsequent parts.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id 4577
authors Piegl, L.
year 1986
title Representation of Rational Bezier Curves and Surfaces by Recursive Algorithms
source Computer Aided Design Butterworth & Co. (publishers) Ltd., September, 1986. vol. 18: pp. 361-366 : ill.
summary includes a short bibliography. Recursive algorithms for the computation and subdivision of rational Bezier curves and surfaces are presented. The development uses the relationship between the R4 geometry and the rational scheme
keywords curves, curved surfaces, recursion, Bezier, representation
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id eb7a
authors Porada, Mikhael
year 1999
title Virtual Analogy and Architecture
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 69-73
summary Our fashion of thought is dialogic in its way to use simultaneously logic- mathematics and analogical approaches (Morin, 1986). The analogy works as well at the level of the unconscious by the construction of an analogon that permits us to recognise a face between thousand of others, despite changes intervened in time; as consciously where by an effort of constructive analogy, we establish bridges between different events or domains giving to the design a new lighting that puts it on the way to a solution. For this reason visual approach acquires a great importance in the establishment of similitude in conception. Many testimonies of scientists, philosophers, artists confirm this observation about their creative work, while underlining the danger of no founded analogies. In current life, analogy brings a support of likeness to the daily conversations, and the possibility to advance in the dialogue by a chaining of analogies having for objective to strengthen the speech.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/04/01 16:57

_id 012b
authors Radford, Antony D. and Mitchell, J.R.
year 1986
title Automated Architectural Detailing: a Knowledge Based Approach,
source 1986. vol. 2: pp. 737-745
summary The working detail in architecture is the means by which an architect describes to a builder how parts of a building are to be fashioned and assembled. The approach to automated architectural detailing described is based on the encoding of the appropriate knowledge in production rules in generative expert systems. An example of such a system for the automation of eaves detailing is presented. The system is written in Prolog with the graphics in Fortran
keywords expert systems, knowledge base, architecture, detailing, automation, design, synthesis, applications
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 6353
authors Raibert, Marc H.
year 1986
title Symmetry in Running
source Science. March, 1986. vol. 231: pp. 1292-1294 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Symmetry plays a key role in simplifying the control of legged robots and in giving them the ability to run and balance. The symmetries studied describe motion of the body and legs in terms of even and odd functions of time. A legged system running with these symmetries travels with a fixed forward speed and a stable upright posture. The symmetries used for controlling legged robots may help in elucidating the legged behavior of animals. Measurements of running in the cat and human show that the feet and body sometimes move as predicted by the even and odd symmetry functions
keywords symmetry, robotics, animation
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 6105
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Fenves, Stephen J.
year 1986
title Constraint Enforcement in a Structural Design Database
source Journal of the Structural Division. American Society of Civil Engineers, December, 1986. vol. 112: pp. 2565-2577
summary During the design of a commercial structure, large amounts of information pertaining to all aspects of the design must be stored, accessed, and operated upon. A database management system (DBMS), composed of a central repository of data and the associated software for controlling accesses to it, provides one way to generate, represent, manage, and use this information. However, DBMSs are not presently structured in such a way that they can flexibly represent complex engineering constraint relationships, including those defined by codes, standards, and specifications. This paper examines structural design constraints and addresses the question of how they can be incorporated into DBMSs. It presents four representations of engineering constraints: the text of a design specification, the equations extracted from the specification, the dependency network among the constrained data items, and a relational DBMS model. The database model was implemented using a commercially available DBMS and the limitations of the implementation are explored. What is new in this DBMS model is that a constraint dependency subnetwork is associated directly with the stored data that it constrains. The implemented result is a new abstraction, consisting of a relation and a set of computations and checks, that enforces the relationships embodied in the dependency network. The database user need only initially define a set of rules and computed attributes. These are then used by the DBMS to automatically perform the appropriate checks and assignments. The database user is, to a significant degree, free of constraint checking concerns because the system itself knows what to do
keywords constraints management, civil engineering, database, DBMS
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 81ae
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Parks, Linda M.
year 1986
title Expert Systems and Engineering Design Knowledge
source Electronic Computation Conference Proceedings (9th : 1986 : Birmingham, AL) American Society of Civil Engineers, pp. 28-42. CADLINE has abstract only.
summary Of all the contributions of artificial intelligence (AI), expert systems show some of the most significant promise for engineering applications. An expert system provides a framework for acquiring, representing, and using knowledge about a particular application's domain. The role of knowledge in engineering design merits closer attention so that AI-oriented computer-aided engineering (CAE) systems can be developed and maintained systematically. Because 'knowledge' in engineering applications is loosely defined, it is necessary to identify knowledge types and the correlations between them before widespread engineering design applications can be achieved. The types of domain knowledge; facts, procedures, judgments, and control; differ from the classes of that knowledge; creative, innovative, and routine. Feasible engineering tasks for expert systems can be determined based on these types and classes of knowledge. Prototype expert systems have been developed for civil engineering applications to assist with interpretation, design, planning, diagnosis, control, and other engineering system functions. A number of these are described herein. Interpretive tasks require reasoning about a task in light of the knowledge available, while generative tasks create potential solutions to be tested against constraints. Only after classifying the domain by type and level can the engineer select an appropriate knowledge-engineering tool for the domain being considered. The critical features to be weighed after problem classification are knowledge representation techniques, control strategies, interface requirements, compatibility with traditional systems, and economic considerations. After considering all of these factors in the selection of the expert system took, the engineer can then proceed with the acquisition of knowledge and the construction and use of the expert system
keywords design, knowledge, civil engineering, expert systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8312
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Wang, TsoJen E.
year 1986
title CDIS: An Engineering Constraint Definition and Integrity Enforcement System for Relational Databases
source Computers in Engineering International Conference Proceedings. 1986. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, vol. 2: pp. 273-280. CADLINE has abstract only
summary Database management systems (DBMS) are an essential component of the computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) environment. A database management system provides a powerful functionality for the storage, management, and use of engineering data. It is lacking, however, in its ability to deal with engineering constraints. In the past, constraint checking was performed by application programs. More recently DBMS's have been incorporating into their structure specifications for enforcing a limited set of integrity constraints and the mechanisms for invoking them automatically. To ensure the correctness of engineering data, an effective constraint management capability must be incorporated into any proposed engineering DBMS. This paper demonstrates how this can be done, proposes a systematic way to classify constraints so that integrity can be maintained efficiently, and discusses a prototype called CDIS which implements the concepts. This paper uses the relational database model to represent both engineering data and engineering constraints. Data integrity is defined and its enforcement through the use of engineering constraints is described. Existing methods for handling constraints are discussed. A new model that enables the engineer to associate design constraints with a relational database is presented and an example is given that demonstrates the model. Extensions to a DBMS to implement the concepts presented are described. No currently available DBMS provides the much needed capabilities proposed here
keywords civil engineering, relational database, constraints management
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ddss9846
id ddss9846
authors Rigatti, Decio
year 1998
title Rubem Berta Housing Estate: Order and Structure, Designand Use
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary The main goal of this paper is to investigate, through some space configurational based tools, a quite common phenomenon found in many different locations in Brazil, concerning the process of urban changes individually introduced by dwellers of public housing estates. A significant number of housing estates, particularly those designed according to rationalist concepts, seem to be unable to support space related social requirements and are then widely transformed when compared to the original layouts. Beyond the quantitative features, the morphological changes that take place in those housing estates mean a fundamental new approach to understand how completely new urban structures can arisefrom the space produced by a comprehensive urban design, took as a starting point for the transformations made by the dwellers of those settlements. As a case study is analysed the Rubem Berta Housing Estate which was built in Porto Alegre/RS, Brazil, for 20,000 people in the late 70’s. Since the begining of its occupation in 1986 and the invasion that took place in 1987, the urban transformations there have never stopped. It’s possible to realize that the dwellers individually use some constant physical rules to define the new settlement which are very similar within the estate itself and, at the same time, very similar to those found in other transformed housing estates of this sort. The physical rules introduced change the features of the entire settlement in two different levels: a) locally, through the transformations introduced in order to solve individual needs; b) globally, the local rules of physical transformations produce a new overall structure for the whole urban complex. The knowledge of this process makes it possible to bring to the surface of architectural theory some generic configurational codes that can be used as a tool for designing public housing estates in Brazil.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 882b
authors Rosenman, M.A., Manago, C. and Gero, J.S.
year 1986
title A Model- based Expert System Shell
source 1986. pp. c:1:15
summary Rule-based expert systems, despite having demonstrated their usefulness in many circumstances, have been widely attacked for the shallowness of their knowledge. They have no knowledge about the knowledge which they possess and therefore can only be used in a very rigid manner. This paper shows that this meta-knowledge can be extracted from the rule base of an expert system and by producing a model of the artifact(s) described within, extend the functionality of the overall system. One of the benefits of this extended functionality is the ability of the model-based expert system to interface with external systems such as existing CAD systems. This paper describes the development of a general model-based expert system developed in the Department of Architectural Science, University of Sydney. The utility of the approach is shown in an example of the system interfacing with a commercially available CAD system. The CAD system is used to define the features of a building and a rule base dealing with some aspects of building regulations is applied to interpret the database produced by the CAD system
keywords expert systems, tools, CAD
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id 6728
authors Rossignac, Jaroslaw R. and Requicha, Aristides A. G.
year 1986
title Depth- Buffering Display Techniques for Constructive Solid Geometry
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. September, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 29-39 : ill. some col. includes bibliography
summary Solid modelers based on constructive solid geometry (CSG) typically generate shaded displays directly from CSG by using ray-casting techniques, which do not require information on the faces, edges, and vertices that bound a solid. This article describes an alternative - a simple new algorithm based on a depth-buffering or z-buffering approach. The z- buffer display algorithm operates directly on CSG, does not require explicit boundary data, and is easier to implement than ray casting. Ray-casting and z-buffering algorithms have comparable performances, but z-buffering is often faster for objects with complex surfaces, because it avoids expensive curve/surface intersection calculations. Because of their simplicity, depth-buffering algorithms for CSG are well- suited to hardware implementations, and may lead to machines simpler than those now being built for ray casting
keywords geometric modeling, CSG, display, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 20a8
authors Ruffle, Simon
year 1986
title How Can CAD Provide for the Changing Role of the Architect?
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 197-199
summary At the RIBA Conference of 1981 entitled 'New Opportunities', and more recently at the 1984 ACA Annual Conference on 'Architects in Competition' there has been talk of marketing, new areas of practice, recapturing areas of practice lost to other professions, more accountability to client and public 'the decline of the mystique of the professional'. It is these issues, rather than technical advances in software and hardware, that will be the prime movers in getting computers into widespread practice in the future. In this chapter we will examine how changing attitudes in the profession might affect three practical issues in computing with which the author has been preoccupied in the past year. We will conclude by considering how, in future, early design stage computing may need to be linked to architectural theory, and, as this is a conference where we are encouraged to be outspoken, we will raise the issue of a computer-based theory of architecture.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 6e61
authors Rychener, M.D., Farinacci, M.L. and Hulthage, I. (et al)
year 1986
title Integration Of Multiple Knowledge Sources in ALADIN, An Alloy Design System
source [3], 10 p. Pittsburgh, PA: Engineering Design Research Center, CMU, September, 1986. EDRC-05-04-86. includes bibliography
summary ALADIN is a knowledge-based system that aids metallurgists in the design of new aluminum alloys. Alloy design is characterized by creativity, intuition and conceptual reasoning. In this paper, the authors describe their approach to the challenges of applying artificial intelligence to this domain, including: how to focus the search, how to deal with subproblem interactions, how to integrate multiple, incomplete design models, and how to represent complex, metallurgical structure knowledge
keywords engineering, applications, design, methods, knowledge, representation
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id 28d8
authors Sarnak, Neil and Tarjan, Robert E.
year 1986
title Planar Point Location Using Persistent Search Trees
source Communications of the ACM July, 1986. vol. 29: pp. 669-679 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary A classical problem in computational geometry is the planar point location problem. This problem calls for preprocessing a polygonal subdivision of the plane defined by n line segments so that, given a sequence of points, the polygon containing each point can be determined quickly on-line. Several ways of solving this problem in O(log n) query time and O(n) space are known, but they are all rather complicated. The authors propose a simple O(log n) query-time, O(n) space solution, using persistent search trees. A persistent search tree differs from an ordinary search tree in that after an insertion or deletion, the old version of the tree can stillÔ h)0*0*0*°° ÔŒ be accessed. A persistent form of binary search tree that supports insertions and deletions in the present and queries in the past is developed. The time per query or update is O(log m), where m is the total number of updates, and the space needed is O(1) per update. The planar point location algorithm is an immediate application of this data structure. The structure also provides an alternative to Chazelle's 'hive graph' structure, which has a variety of applications in geometric retrieval
keywords search, data structures, algorithms, point inclusion, computational geometry
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 80a1
authors Sasada, Tsuyoshi Tee
year 1986
title Computer-Generated Animation for Architecture and Urban Design
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 285-294
summary Computer-generated animations are going to be a powerful design medium. During the last two years, we have created more than 10 animated films by using the computer. The purpose of animation varies as the case, however it is always related to the architecture and urban design. Using these computer-generated animation films, we edited a video tape of 54 minutes. Along with the video tape, this report shows our works in four parts with pictures taken from the films.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:20

_id 44e3
authors Schiavoni, Ugo
year 1986
title An Areal Data Management Package
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 295-304
summary The Areal Data Management Package was created to fulfill the need for a data manipulation system on the basis of a grid cell data structure. The package was originally developed for use by research operators in land planning and natural resources. Over the past three years the package has been used extensively by various users, including students under and postgraduates. The ADM has been designed for users having no experience with computers, but it does assume understanding of resources and land planning information. The specific manipulative capabilities of ADM Package are designed to help land use planners analyze the natural and man-made characteristics of an area. The ADM is intended as a tool to manage spatially disposed thematic and categorical information, in many cases supplementing or analysis.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:21

_id 020d
authors Shaviv, Edna
year 1986
title Layout Design Problems: Systematic Approaches
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 28-52
summary The complexity of the layout design problems known as the 'spatial allocation problems' gave rise to several approaches, which can be generally classified into two main streams. The first attempts to use the computer to generate solutions of the building layout, while in the second, computers are used only to evaluate manually generated solutions. In both classes the generation or evaluation of the layout are performed systematically. Computer algorithms for 'spatial allocation problems' first appeared more than twenty-five years ago (Koopmans, 1957). From 1957 to 1970 over thirty different programs were developed for generating the floor plan layout automatically, as is summarized in CAP-Computer Architecture Program, Vol. 2 (Stewart et al., 1970). It seems that any architect who entered the area of CAAD felt that it was his responsibility to find a solution to this prime architectural problem. Most of the programs were developed for batch processing, and were run on a mainframe without any sophisticated input/output devices. It is interesting to mention that, because of the lack of these sophisticated input/output devices, early researchers used the approach of automatic generation of optimal or quasioptimal layout solution under given constraints. Gradually, we find a recession and slowdown in the development of computer programs for generation of layout solutions. With the improvement of interactive input/output devices and user interfaces, the inclination today is to develop integrated systems in which the architectural solution is obtained manually by the architect and is introduced to the computer for the appraisal of the designer's layout solution (Maver, 1977). The manmachine integrative systems could work well, but it seems that in most of the integrated systems today, and in the commercial ones in particular, there is no route to any appraisal technique of the layout problem. Without any evaluation techniques in commercial integrated systems it seems that the geometrical database exists Just to create working drawings and sometimes also perspectives.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

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