CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 4ed0
authors Bartels, R.H., Beatty, J.C. and Barsky, B.A.
year 1986
title An Introduction to Splines for Use in Computer Graphics and Geometric Modeling
source xiv, 476 p. : ill. (some col.) Los Altos, California: Morgan Kaufmann Pub. Inc., 1986. Forewords by Pierre Bezier and Robin A. Forrest. Includes bibliography: p. 455-465 and index
summary Discusses the use of splines from the point of view of the computer scientist concentrating on parametric spline curves and parametric,tensor-product spline surfaces
keywords splines, theory, computer graphics, computational geometry
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:42

_id aa60
authors Christiansson, Per
year 1986
title Properties of Future Knowledge Based Systems : The Interactive Consultation System Example
source computer Aided Architectural Design - Developments in Education and Practice. 1986. 14 p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary An introduction to knowledge based systems is presented to point out possibilities and limitations of the new software and hardware technology now beginning to be available. A pilot study on the use of an expert system shell (the ES/P Advisor), is briefly discussed. A part of the Swedish concrete building code was implemented in the expert system shell to demonstrate the use of an interactive consultation system. Ideas on how compact video-discs can be used in this type of systems are also put forward
keywords knowledge base, systems, expert systems, CAD, media
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 2d41
authors Flemming, Ulrich
year 1986
title The Role of Shape Grammars in the Analysis and Creation of Designs
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1986. pp. 213-244 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The paper gives an informal introduction to the shape grammar formalism. It presents results form a case study in which this formalism was applied to a realistic problem in order to convey the flavor of work with such grammars, to demonstrate its advantages and to show that our familiarity with this formalism has now progressed to a level were issues of architectural substance can be addressed. The paper concludes with the outline of a simple way to implement shape grammars by computer: it does not resolve the theoretical problems that exist for such implementations, but makes non-trivial applications like the case study possible
keywords shape grammars, design, architecture
series CADline
last changed 2003/02/26 16:24

_id c898
authors Gero, John S.
year 1986
title An Overview of Knowledge Engineering and its Relevance to CAAD
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 107-119
summary Computer-aided architectural design (CAAD) has come to mean a number of often disparate activities. These can be placed into one of two categories: using the computer as a drafting and, to a lesser extent, modelling system; and using it as a design medium. The distinction between the two categories is often blurred. Using the computer as a drafting and modelling tool relies on computing notions concerned with representing objects and structures numerically and with ideas of computer programs as procedural algorithms. Similar notions underly the use of computers as a design medium. We shall return to these later. Clearly, all computer programs contain knowledge, whether methodological knowledge about processes or knowledge about structural relationships in models or databases. However, this knowledge is so intertwined with the procedural representation within the program that it can no longer be seen or found. Architecture is concerned with much more than numerical descriptions of buildings. It is concerned with concepts, ideas, judgement and experience. All these appear to be outside the realm of traditional computing. Yet architects discoursing use models of buildings largely unrelated to either numerical descriptions or procedural representations. They make use of knowledge - about objects, events and processes - and make nonprocedural (declarative) statements that can only be described symbolically. The limits of traditional computing are the limits of traditional computer-aided design systems, namely, that it is unable directly to represent and manipulate declarative, nonalgorithmic, knowledge or to perform symbolic reasoning. Developments in artificial intelligence have opened up ways of increasing the applicability of computers by acquiring and representing knowledge in computable forms. These approaches supplement rather than supplant existing uses of computers. They begin to allow the explicit representations of human knowledge. The remainder of this chapter provides a brief introduction to this field and describes, through applications, its relevance to computer- aided architectural design.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 5509
authors Koutamanis, Alexandros
year 1990
title Development of a computerized handbook of architectural plans
source Delft University of Technology
summary The dissertation investigates an approach to the development of visual / spatial computer representations for architectural purposes through the development of the computerized handbook of architectural plans (chap), a knowledge-based computer system capable of recognizing the metric properties of architectural plans. This investigation can be summarized as an introduction of computer vision to the computerization of architectural representations: chap represents an attempt to automate recognition of the most essential among conventional architectural drawings, floor plans. The system accepts as input digitized images of architectural plans and recognizes their spatial primitives (locations) and their spatial articulation on a variety of abstraction levels. The final output of chap is a description of the plan in terms of the grouping formations detected in its spatial articulation. The overall structure of the description is based on an analysis of its conformity to the formal rules of its “stylistic” context (which in the initial version of chap is classical architecture). Chapter 1 suggests that the poor performance of computerized architectural drawing and design systems is among others evidence of the necessity to computerize visual / spatial architectural representations. A recognition system such as chap offers comprehensive means for the investigation of a methodology for the development and use of such representations. Chapter 2 describes a fundamental task of chap: recognition of the position and shape of locations, the atomic parts of the description of an architectural plan in chap. This operation represents the final and most significant part of the first stage in processing an image input in machine environment. Chapter 3 moves to the next significant problem, recognition of the spatial arrangement of locations in an architectural plan, that is, recognition of grouping relationships that determine the subdivision of a plan into parts. In the absence of systematic and exhaustive typologic studies of classical architecture that would allow us to define a repertory of the location group types possible in classical architectural plans, Chapter 3 follows a bottom-up approach based on grouping relationships derived from elementary architectural knowledge and formalized with assistance from Gestalt theory and its antecedents. The grouping process described in Chapter 3 corresponds both in purpose and in structure to the derivation of a description of an image in computer vision [Marr 1982]. Chapter 4 investigates the well-formedness of the description of a classical architectural plan in an analytical manner: each relevant level (or sublevel) of the classical canon according to Tzonis & Lefaivre [1986] is transformed into a single group of criteria of well-formedness which is investigated independently. The hierarchical structure of the classical canon determines the coordination of these criteria into a sequence of cognitive filters which progressively analyses the correspondence of the descriptions derived as in Chapter 3 to the constraints of the canon. The methodology and techniques presented in the dissertation are primarily considered with respect to chap, a specific recognition system. The resulting specification of chap gives a measure of the use of such a system within the context of a computerized collection of architectural precedents and also presents several extensions to other areas of architecture. Although these extensions are not considered as verifiable claims, Chapter 5 describes some of their implications, including on the role of architectural drawing in computerized design systems, on architectural typologies, and on the nature and structure of generative systems in architecture.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id c3ca
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Watson, Bruce R.
year 1986
title ADI : An Adaptive Database Interface for Dynamic Databases
source ASME Symposium Proceedings on Knowledge based Expert Systems for Manufacturing. Anaheim, CA: American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Production Engineering Division, December, 1986. pp. 119-130. CADLINE has abstract only
summary The operation of a manufacturing organization often depends on its underlying design and manufacturing databases. In a manufacturing environment, many users, both individuals and application programs, must have access to one or more of the organization's databases to provide, use, or modify data, to control information flow, and to facilitate information management. Such databases routinely undergo dynamic changes in both their content and their structure. These changes commonly result from the design of new products, the introduction of new materials, and the introduction of new machines and processes on the shop floor. Such continuing changes must be reflected in the database schemas and subsequently require that application programs be updated and that online users be educated on a continuous basis. The problem addressed in this paper is that it is difficult for users and application programs to get the information that they need, when they need it, from the multiple heterogeneous database management system (DBMS) environments that have evolved in design and manufacturing organizations. The solution proposed here is to build a general, extendable interface between database users and the many sources of data available to them. This in itself is not a new suggestion; a number of researchers have addressed portions of this problem. In general, the interfaces that they have developed to date are best suited to environments where the structure of the database is static and does not change over time. One of the things that this paper proposes that is different from existing work is an interface which handles the dynamic restructuring nature of manufacturing databases, enabling a user to obtain the most accurate and up to date information as the structure and content of the underlying databases change. Another unique aspect of the DBMS interface proposed herein is that the interface attempts to capture the knowledge that an experienced human user incorporates in his search for data in a database, i.e., it seeks to identify and use the generic knowledge needed to operate a DBMS. This knowledge is used by the interface to enable both the online users and the application programs to request data without knowing the data's location or precisely how to ask for it. Further, the interface makes use of mechanisms that allow the user to request data without knowing the exact identity of the required entities that are stored in the database
keywords engineering, database, manufacturing, user interface
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 6cfe
authors Wagter, H.
year 1986
title A New Generation Needs New Tools (A Proposal for a Joint Effort)
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 323-327
summary After an introduction describing the present situation on computer- programs used in learning environments, some remarks are made on what future programs should look like. Although the design and the building process are both extremely complex, a proposal is made to carry out a project in a joint effort among ECAADE members to achieve a new generation of learning tools. These tools should also be of good service in a consulting environment.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/05/16 19:36

_id 4c79
authors Aguilar, Lorenzo
year 1986
title A Format for a Graphical Communications Protocol
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications vol. 3 (March, 1986): pp. 52-62
summary This article describes the requirements for a graphical format on which a graphical on-line communications protocol can be based. It is argued that on-line graphical communications is similar to graphical session capture, and thus the author proposes an interactive graphical communications format using the GKSM session metafile. The discussion includes items that complement the GKSM metafile such as a format for on-line interactive exchange. One key application area of such a format is multimedia on-line conferencing. Therefore, a conferencing software architecture for processing the proposed format is presented. This format specification is made available to those planning multimedia conferencing systems
keywords user interface, communication, computer graphics, multimedia, standards
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 678e
authors Aish, Robert
year 1986
title Three-dimensional Input and Visualization
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 68-84
summary The aim of this chapter is to investigate techniques by which man-computer interaction could be improved, specifically in the context of architectural applications of CAD. In this application the object being designed is often an assembly of defined components. Even if the building is not actually fabricated from such components, it is usually conceptualized in these terms. In a conventional graphics- based CAD system these components are usually represented by graphical icons which are displayed on the graphics screen and arranged by the user. The system described here consists of three- dimensional modelling elements which the user physically assembles to form his design. Unlike conventional architectural models which are static (i.e. cannot be changed by the users) and passive (i.e. cannot be read by a CAD system), this model is both 'user generated' and 'machine readable'. The user can create, edit and view the model by simple, natural modelling activities and without the need to learn complex operating commands often associated with CAD systems. In particular, the user can view the model, altering his viewpoint and focus of attention in a completely natural way. Conventional computer graphics within an associated CAD system are used to represent the detailed geometry which the different three-dimensional icons may represent. In addition, computer graphics are also used to present the output of the performance attributes of the objects being modelled. In the architectural application described in this chapter an energy- balance evaluation is displayed for a building designed using the modelling device. While this system is not intended to offer a completely free-form input facility it can be considered to be a specialist man-machine interface of particular relevance to architects or engineers.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id a35a
authors Arponen, Matti
year 2002
title From 2D Base Map To 3D City Model
source UMDS '02 Proceedings, Prague (Czech Republic) 2-4 October 2002, I.17-I.28
summary Since 1997 Helsinki City Survey Division has proceeded in experimenting and in developing the methods for converting and supplementing current digital 2D base maps in the scale 1:500 to a 3D city model. Actually since 1986 project areas have been produced in 3D for city planning and construction projects, but working with the whole map database started in 1997 because of customer demands and competitive 3D projects. 3D map database needs new data modelling and structures, map update processes need new working orders and the draftsmen need to learn a new profession; the 3D modeller. Laser-scanning and digital photogrammetry have been used in collecting 3D information on the map objects. During the years 1999-2000 laser-scanning experiments covering 45 km2 have been carried out utilizing the Swedish TopEye system. Simultaneous digital photography produces material for orto photo mosaics. These have been applied in mapping out dated map features and in vectorizing 3D buildings manually, semi automatically and automatically. In modelling we use TerraScan, TerraPhoto and TerraModeler sw, which are developed in Finland. The 3D city model project is at the same time partially a software development project. An accuracy and feasibility study was also completed and will be shortly presented. The three scales of 3D models are also presented in this paper. Some new 3D products and some usage of 3D city models in practice will be demonstrated in the actual presentation.
keywords 3D City modeling
series other
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 0f76
authors Balachandran, M. B. and Gero, John S.
year 1986
title Knowledge-based Design Optimization
source IAAI'86 Conference. 1986. pp. i:4:1-14
summary CADLINE has abstract only. Optimization is a well understood process in design domains. A designer formulates the design problem as a single criterion or multicriteria optimization problem and then selects an appropriate optimization algorithm to search for the optimal values for the design variables. The formulation and algorithm selection procedures have been considered to be activities which relied on substantive human knowledge. This paper describes a computer system, OPTIMA, which formulates design optimization problems from a pseudo-English description into canonical algebraic expressions. It then recognizes the formulation and selects appropriate algorithm(s) for their solutions. Finally, it runs the selected algorithm(s) and sends the results to the original descriptions. Areas of expert knowledge involved in carrying out the above tasks are identified. Such knowledge is explicitly encoded in the systems. The basic philosophy and key features of the system are described and are illustrated by examples
keywords algorithms, expert systems, knowledge base, design, optimization, structures, engineering
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id e220
authors Balachandran, M.B. and Gero, John S.
year 1986
title Formulating and Recognizing Engineering Optimization Problems
source Aus. Conf Mechs. Struct. and Mats (10th : 1986 : Adelaide) edited by G. Sved. pp. 223-228. CADLINE has abstract only.
summary In applying optimization methodology to engineering design, a considerable amount of knowledge is utilized to construct and solve mathematical design models. However, computer based systems to assist this process have concentrated mainly on the numeric computational aspects of the process. This paper outlines a computer system which uses a knowledge-based systems approach to formulate and recognize design optimization problems. Areas of expert knowledge involved in mathematical design modeling and optimization are identified. Such knowledge is encoded explicitly in the system. An example is presented
keywords knowledge base, systems, engineering, design, mathematics, modeling, structures
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id aec8
authors Bellinghall, Leigh
year 1986
title The MicroCad Explosion : An Eye to Applications Clarifies Choices
source computer Graphics World March, 1986. vol. 9: pp. 23-28 : col. ill.
summary Two strong trends affirm increasing market interest in micro systems. While early programs were developed for personal computers, turnkey system houses are now stretching heavy-duty mini and mainframe-hosted programs down to micros. This article gives a selective survey of popular micro-CAD software, looks at packages in both development areas
keywords drafting, systems, CAD, software, applications
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 8060
authors Bentley, Jon L. and Kernighan, Brian W.
year 1986
title GRAP - a Language for Typesetting Graphs
source communications of the ACM. August, 1986. vol. 29: pp. 782-792 : charts. includes bibliography
summary The authors describe a system that makes it easy and convenient to describe graphs and to include them as an integral part of the document formatting process
keywords programming, computer graphics, algorithms, business
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id ed51
authors Bergeron, Philippe
year 1986
title A General Version of Crow's Shadow Volumes
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications September, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 17-28 : col. ill. includes bibliography.
summary In 1977 Frank Crow introduced a new class of algorithms for the generation of shadows. His technique, based on the concept of shadow volumes, assumes a polygonal database and a constrained environment. For example, polyhedrons must be closed, and polygons must be planar. This article presents a new version of Crow's algorithm, developed at the Universite de Montreal, which attempts a less constrained environment. The method has allowed the handling of both open and closed models and nonplanar polygons with the viewpoint anywhere, including any shadow volume. It does not, however, sacrifice the essential features of Crow's original version: penetration between polygons is allowed, and any number of light sources can be defined anywhere in 3D space, including the view volume and any shadow volume. The method has been used successfully in the film Tony de Peltrie and is easily incorporated into an existing scan-line, hidden-surface algorithm
keywords algorithms, shadowing, polygons, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id b25c
authors Bergeson, Donald E. and Cetin, Randal F.
year 1986
title ADAM - Architectural Design Applications Model
source ACADIA Workshop ‘86 Proceedings - Houston (Texas - USA) 24-26 October 1986, pp. 37-54
summary This paper will describe ADAM, a project to explore the potential for interfacing independent graphics software for the purpose of developing a microcomputer based design system. This system will be implemented in three undergraduate design studios at the University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign) School of Architecture. The three design studios are part of an experimental project to determine the usefulness of computers in the architectural design curriculum. The concept used throughout the design of this system is: "make use of what already exists, but use it smoothly together in such a way that the management system is totally invisible to the user." Many low- end quality graphics software packages are commercially available. Each has the capacity to address some aspect of the architectural design process, none will do it all . The problem is a lack of compatibility between software. ADAM is a management system designed to invisibly control and interface the use of an assembly of graphics programs and data base management systems to achieve compatibility. Because of these compatible interfaces, new and varied design tools can be created from existing software..
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/10/10 12:26

_id 0335
authors Berzins, Valdis, Gray, Michael and Naumann, David
year 1986
title Abstraction-Based Software Development
source communications of the ACM. May, 1986. vol. 29: pp. 402-415. includes bibliography
summary At the university of Minnesota an interdisciplinary team has been developing and running an ongoing course sequence in software engineering. The project served the dual purpose of giving the students some experience in applying the theory of software engineering to problems large enough to require a group effort, and at the same time enabling the development team to evaluate the effectiveness of the concepts and tools used. In this article the authors report on their experience with these concepts and tools, concentrating on the software- engineering rather than training and technology transfer aspects of the process
keywords software, engineering, abstraction, programming
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 6733
authors Bettels, Juergen and Myers, David R.
year 1986
title The PIONS Graphics System
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. July, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 30-38 : col. ill. includes a short bibliography
summary During 1979, CERN began to evaluate how interactive computer graphics displays could aid the analysis of high-energy physics experiments at the new Super Proton Synchrotron collider. This work led to PIONS, a 3D graphics system, which features the ability to store and view hierarchical graphics structures in a directed-acyclic-graph database. It is possible to change the attributes of these structures by making selections on nongraphical information also stored in the database. PIONS is implemented as an object-oriented message-passing system based on SmallTalk design principles. It supports multiple viewing transformations, logical input devices, and 2D and 3D primitives. The design allows full use to be made of display hardware that provides dynamic 3D picture transformation
keywords visualization, computer graphics, database, systems, modeling
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 09b3
authors Bier, Eric A. and Sloan, Kenneth R. Jr.
year 1986
title Two-Part Texture Mappings
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications September, 1986. pp. 40-53 : col. ill. includes bibliography.
summary Most published techniques for mapping two-dimensional texture patterns onto three-dimensional curved surfaces assume that either the texture pattern has been predistorted to compensate for the distortion of the mapping or the curved surfaces are represented parametrically. The authors address the problem of mapping undistorted planar textures onto arbitrarily represented surfaces. Their mapping technique is done in two parts. First the texture pattern is embedded in 3- space on an intermediate surface. Then the pattern is projected onto the target surface in a way that depends only on the geometry of the target object (not on its parametrization). Both steps have relatively low distortion, so the original texture need not be predistorted. The authors also discuss interactive techniques that make two-part mapping practical
keywords texture mapping, curved surfaces, computer graphics, rendering
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 644f
authors Bijl, Aart
year 1986
title Designing with Words and Pictures in a Logic Modelling Environment
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 128-145
summary At EdCAAD we are interested in design as something people do. Designed artefacts, the products of designing, are interesting only in so far as they tell us something about design. An extreme expression of this position is to say that the world of design is the thoughts in the heads of designers, plus the skills of designers in externalizing their thoughts; design artifacts, once perceived and accepted in the worlds of other people, are no longer part of the world of design. We can describe design, briefly, as a process of synthesis. Design has to achieve a fusion between parts to create new parts, so that the products are recognized, as having a right and proper place in the world of people. Parts should be understood as referring to anything - physical objects, abstract ideas, aspirations. These parts occur in some design environment from which parts are extracted, designed upon and results replaced; in the example of buildings, the environment is people and results have to be judged by reference to that environment. It is characteristic of design that both the process and the product are not subject to explicit and complete criteria. This view of design differs sharply from the more orthodox understanding of scientific and technological endeavours which rely predominantly on a process of analysis. In the latter case, the approach is to decompose a problem into parts until individual parts are recognized as being amenable to known operations and results are reassembled into a solution. This process has a peripheral role in design when evaluating selected aspects of tentative design proposals, but the absence of well-defined and widely recognized criteria for design excludes it from the main stream of analytical developments.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

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