CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

PDF papers

Hits 141 to 160 of 206

_id 20a8
authors Ruffle, Simon
year 1986
title How Can CAD Provide for the Changing Role of the Architect?
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 197-199
summary At the RIBA Conference of 1981 entitled 'New Opportunities', and more recently at the 1984 ACA Annual Conference on 'Architects in Competition' there has been talk of marketing, new areas of practice, recapturing areas of practice lost to other professions, more accountability to client and public 'the decline of the mystique of the professional'. It is these issues, rather than technical advances in software and hardware, that will be the prime movers in getting computers into widespread practice in the future. In this chapter we will examine how changing attitudes in the profession might affect three practical issues in computing with which the author has been preoccupied in the past year. We will conclude by considering how, in future, early design stage computing may need to be linked to architectural theory, and, as this is a conference where we are encouraged to be outspoken, we will raise the issue of a computer-based theory of architecture.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 2b17
authors Salesin, David and Barzel, Ronen
year 1986
title Two-Bit Graphics
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. June, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 36-42 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Ordinary bitmaps allow pixels to be black or white. The authors introduce a second bitmap, the 'alpha' bitmap, which allows pixels to be transparent as well. The alpha bitmap makes it possible to have black-and-white images that are nonrectangular or that have holes in them. It also provides a richer set of operations for working with bitmaps. The article presents the mathematics for a two-bit compositing algebra, and suggest extensions for two-bit compositing, painting, and region filling. Each of these operations can be implemented with ordinary bitbits and presented on ordinary bitmap displays. The authors analyze the cost of each two-bit operation in terms of the number of bitbits it requires
keywords computer graphics, algorithms, display
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id a6cd
authors Salvemini, Mauro
year 1986
title Automatic Methods of Data Presentation for Planning Analysis and Urbanistic Applications
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 275-284
summary Urbanistics and land analysis on different scales both have a basic need: processing an ever increasing amount of data and numerical information. This might seem extremely easy to handle especially where we have computer at our disposal, but unfortunately that is not true. The great wealth of data and information now available means that on one hand an unarrestable process is set in motion whereby more and more data are required but the analysis and consultation of this data becomes longer, more complex and laborious as the amount of data increases. There is also the danger that data produces more data and gives way to a process which can be endless. The planner must also make quick decisions on what is happening and use several target analyses based on a vast quantity of data which he must process with the automatic system available. There must always be strict compatibility between the available data processing system and the quantity of data. The representation of data in image form is an important aid in carrying out correct analyses as well as in decision making .Basically it is a question of making synthetic, decisional use of information contained in raw data. Systems which can process data visually are practically indispensable in urbanistics.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:19

_id ab08
authors Samad, Tariq
year 1986
title A Natural Language Interface for Computer-Aided Design
source ix, 188 p. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1986. includes bibliography: p. [174]-184 and index. -- (Kluwer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science)
summary A description of CLEOPATRA, a natural language interface for a particular sub-domain of computer aided design--circuit simulation post processing. The language is based on an approach to natural language understanding that supplements a case frame parser with a few novel features that give the approach more generality and power than pervious approaches without sacrificing the intuitive appeal of case-frame semantics
keywords CAD, natural languages, user interface, integrated circuits
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id 28d8
authors Sarnak, Neil and Tarjan, Robert E.
year 1986
title Planar Point Location Using Persistent Search Trees
source Communications of the ACM July, 1986. vol. 29: pp. 669-679 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary A classical problem in computational geometry is the planar point location problem. This problem calls for preprocessing a polygonal subdivision of the plane defined by n line segments so that, given a sequence of points, the polygon containing each point can be determined quickly on-line. Several ways of solving this problem in O(log n) query time and O(n) space are known, but they are all rather complicated. The authors propose a simple O(log n) query-time, O(n) space solution, using persistent search trees. A persistent search tree differs from an ordinary search tree in that after an insertion or deletion, the old version of the tree can stillÔ h)0*0*0*°° ÔŒ be accessed. A persistent form of binary search tree that supports insertions and deletions in the present and queries in the past is developed. The time per query or update is O(log m), where m is the total number of updates, and the space needed is O(1) per update. The planar point location algorithm is an immediate application of this data structure. The structure also provides an alternative to Chazelle's 'hive graph' structure, which has a variety of applications in geometric retrieval
keywords search, data structures, algorithms, point inclusion, computational geometry
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 80a1
authors Sasada, Tsuyoshi Tee
year 1986
title Computer-Generated Animation for Architecture and Urban Design
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 285-294
summary Computer-generated animations are going to be a powerful design medium. During the last two years, we have created more than 10 animated films by using the computer. The purpose of animation varies as the case, however it is always related to the architecture and urban design. Using these computer-generated animation films, we edited a video tape of 54 minutes. Along with the video tape, this report shows our works in four parts with pictures taken from the films.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:20

_id 44e3
authors Schiavoni, Ugo
year 1986
title An Areal Data Management Package
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 295-304
summary The Areal Data Management Package was created to fulfill the need for a data manipulation system on the basis of a grid cell data structure. The package was originally developed for use by research operators in land planning and natural resources. Over the past three years the package has been used extensively by various users, including students under and postgraduates. The ADM has been designed for users having no experience with computers, but it does assume understanding of resources and land planning information. The specific manipulative capabilities of ADM Package are designed to help land use planners analyze the natural and man-made characteristics of an area. The ADM is intended as a tool to manage spatially disposed thematic and categorical information, in many cases supplementing or analysis.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:21

_id 46b0
authors Schijf, Rik
year 1986
title CAD in the Netherlands: Integrated CAD
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 176-184
summary One of the things in which a small country can excel is its number of architects' offices per inhabitant. In the Netherlands this is approximately one in 6500, or twice the UK density (CBS, 1984; CICA, 1982). Of the 2150 Dutch offices, 88 per cent employ less than 10 people, which compares rather well with the British Situation. For the Netherlands it is interesting that its boom in CAD, on average an annual doubling or tripling for the next few years, is likely to coincide with a revolution in CAD itself. There is no doubt that very soon the personal and larger CAD systems will clash at supermicro-level.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id e981
authors Scott, David S. and Iyengar, S. Sitharama
year 1986
title TID - A Translation Invariant Data Structure for Storing Images
source Communications of the ACM. May, 1986. vol. 29: pp. 418-429 : some ill. includes bibliography
summary There are a number of techniques for representing pictorial information, among them are borders, arrays, and skeletons. Quadtrees are often used to store black and white picture information. A variety of techniques have been suggested for improving quadtrees, including linear quadtrees, QMAT's (quadtree medial axis transform), forests of quadtrees, etc. The major purpose of these improvements is to reduce the storage required without greatly increasing the processing costs. All of these methods suffer from the fact that the structure of the underlying quadtree can be very sensitive to the placement of the origin. This paper discusses a translation invariant data structure (which is named TID) for storing and processing images based on the medial axis transform of the image that consists of all the maximal black squares contained in the image. Also discussed is the performance of TID with other existing structures such as QMATs, forests of quadtrees, and normalized quadtrees. Some discussion on the union and intersection of images using TID is included
keywords data structures, representation, image processing, quadtree
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 020d
authors Shaviv, Edna
year 1986
title Layout Design Problems: Systematic Approaches
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 28-52
summary The complexity of the layout design problems known as the 'spatial allocation problems' gave rise to several approaches, which can be generally classified into two main streams. The first attempts to use the computer to generate solutions of the building layout, while in the second, computers are used only to evaluate manually generated solutions. In both classes the generation or evaluation of the layout are performed systematically. Computer algorithms for 'spatial allocation problems' first appeared more than twenty-five years ago (Koopmans, 1957). From 1957 to 1970 over thirty different programs were developed for generating the floor plan layout automatically, as is summarized in CAP-Computer Architecture Program, Vol. 2 (Stewart et al., 1970). It seems that any architect who entered the area of CAAD felt that it was his responsibility to find a solution to this prime architectural problem. Most of the programs were developed for batch processing, and were run on a mainframe without any sophisticated input/output devices. It is interesting to mention that, because of the lack of these sophisticated input/output devices, early researchers used the approach of automatic generation of optimal or quasioptimal layout solution under given constraints. Gradually, we find a recession and slowdown in the development of computer programs for generation of layout solutions. With the improvement of interactive input/output devices and user interfaces, the inclination today is to develop integrated systems in which the architectural solution is obtained manually by the architect and is introduced to the computer for the appraisal of the designer's layout solution (Maver, 1977). The manmachine integrative systems could work well, but it seems that in most of the integrated systems today, and in the commercial ones in particular, there is no route to any appraisal technique of the layout problem. Without any evaluation techniques in commercial integrated systems it seems that the geometrical database exists Just to create working drawings and sometimes also perspectives.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id avocaad_2001_20
id avocaad_2001_20
authors Shen-Kai Tang
year 2001
title Toward a procedure of computer simulation in the restoration of historical architecture
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the field of architectural design, “visualization¨ generally refers to some media, communicating and representing the idea of designers, such as ordinary drafts, maps, perspectives, photos and physical models, etc. (Rahman, 1992; Susan, 2000). The main reason why we adopt visualization is that it enables us to understand clearly and to control complicated procedures (Gombrich, 1990). Secondly, the way we get design knowledge is more from the published visualized images and less from personal experiences (Evans, 1989). Thus the importance of the representation of visualization is manifested.Due to the developments of computer technology in recent years, various computer aided design system are invented and used in a great amount, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and collaboration, etc. (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The conventional media are greatly replaced by computer media, and the visualization is further brought into the computerized stage. The procedure of visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA), addressed by Rahman (1992), is renewed and amended for the intervention of computer (Liu, 2000). Based on the procedures above, a great amount of applied researches are proceeded. Therefore it is evident that the computer visualization is helpful to the discussion and evaluation during the design process (Hall, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998; Liu, 1997; Sasada, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1993, 1997, 1998). In addition to the process of architectural design, the computer visualization is also applied to the subject of construction, which is repeatedly amended and corrected by the images of computer simulation (Liu, 2000). Potier (2000) probes into the contextual research and restoration of historical architecture by the technology of computer simulation before the practical restoration is constructed. In this way he established a communicative mode among archeologists, architects via computer media.In the research of restoration and preservation of historical architecture in Taiwan, many scholars have been devoted into the studies of historical contextual criticism (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000). Clues that accompany the historical contextual criticism (such as oral information, writings, photographs, pictures, etc.) help to explore the construction and the procedure of restoration (Hung, 1995), and serve as an aid to the studies of the usage and durability of the materials in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998). Many clues are lost, because historical architecture is often age-old (Hung, 1995). Under the circumstance, restoration of historical architecture can only be proceeded by restricted pictures, written data and oral information (Shi, 1989). Therefore, computer simulation is employed by scholars to simulate the condition of historical architecture with restricted information after restoration (Potier, 2000). Yet this is only the early stage of computer-aid restoration. The focus of the paper aims at exploring that whether visual simulation of computer can help to investigate the practice of restoration and the estimation and evaluation after restoration.By exploring the restoration of historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example), this study aims to establish a complete work on computer visualization, including the concept of restoration, the practice of restoration, and the estimation and evaluation of restoration.This research is to simulate the process of restoration by computer simulation based on visualized media (restricted pictures, restricted written data and restricted oral information) and the specialized experience of historical architects (Potier, 2000). During the process of practicing, communicates with craftsmen repeatedly with some simulated alternatives, and makes the result as the foundation of evaluating and adjusting the simulating process and outcome. In this way we address a suitable and complete process of computer visualization for historical architecture.The significance of this paper is that we are able to control every detail more exactly, and then prevent possible problems during the process of restoration of historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 7a08
authors Smith Shaw, Doris
year 1986
title Case Studies in Architectural CADD Education
source ACADIA Workshop ‘86 Proceedings - Houston (Texas - USA) 24-26 October 1986, pp. 157-172
summary Stages in the formation of concepts necessary for mastery can be observed in cognitive development in many different areas of study. These stages seem to follow a particular hierarchy common to most learners. Distinct levels can be recognized by patterns of procedural errors. The remediation of errors can then take the form of building a conceptual framework rather than training in procedural patterns. This has been found to be highly efficient for learners at all stages since it can be aimed at the underlying problem area and not at isolated errors which may change frequently. It was felt, that concept development of architects learning to use computer-aided drawing programs would show such levels. Preliminary studies made at the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory upon selected subjects using computer-aided lessons in AutoCAD as a basis for observations reveal several categories of errors in using computer-aided design. These case studies show that the design process can be enhanced by automated drawing and design tools if the conceptual relationships are established as a part of the learning environment. Even more important, the observations show that architects have particular characteristics which differ from engineers and other CAD users. These differences require that education and software be tailored to their needs.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/10/10 12:26

_id a230
authors Stazi, A., Munafo, P. and Giampieri, O.
year 1986
title Proceedings Relative to a Quick Determination of Thermal Performances of Passive Solar Systems
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 305-322
summary In the following report it's reported on a research still going on, which aims at establishing easy to use computing methods to allow to quickly compute the thermal loads at first stage of approximation and the performances of the most significant solar systems, which can be applied private. The research is developing through three steps. In the first step the research team recognised the most and housings occurring in residence building. In the second step, also with regard to the outcomes of the theoretical reference model has been loads and the performances of the passive solar systems have been computed for, when varying a few parameters regarding building typology, alignment of the body of the building, flats layout, walls shape, and so on. In the third step the interval range, where the model can fit into, and the correcting coefficients are set through theoretical and experimental tests.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:23

_id 6444
authors Toriya, H., Saton, T. and Ueda, K. (et al)
year 1986
title UNDO and REDO Operations for Solid Modeling
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. April, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 35-42 : ill. some col. includes bibliography
summary This article describes a method of representing a solid design process using a tree structure. This representation supports UNDO and REDO operations for regenerating any solid in a pervious stage of the design. The implementation of invertible set operations is also given in detail
keywords solid modeling, representation
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:42

_id 6cfe
authors Wagter, H.
year 1986
title A New Generation Needs New Tools (A Proposal for a Joint Effort)
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 323-327
summary After an introduction describing the present situation on computer- programs used in learning environments, some remarks are made on what future programs should look like. Although the design and the building process are both extremely complex, a proposal is made to carry out a project in a joint effort among ECAADE members to achieve a new generation of learning tools. These tools should also be of good service in a consulting environment.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/05/16 19:36

_id 0a6e
authors Walters, Roger
year 1986
title CAAD: Shorter-term Gains; Longerterm Costs?
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 185-196
summary Assessment of CAAD systems in use is complex: it needs careful qualifications and is often contradictory. It is suggested that little progress has been made in making sense of the impacts of computing on design and design organizations. Impacts are more diverse and complicated than has been assumed. Assessments tend to be either overtly optimistic or pessimistic, yet the need is to be realistic. Moreover, impacts have been the subject of speculation and marketing rather than systematic study. Carefully documented case studies of projects or longitudinal studies of organizational impacts remain the exception. This chapter draws upon recorded user experience reported elsewhere (Walters, 1983)' and presents an assessment of the performance in use of current production systems. It presents an end-user view and also identifies a number of outstanding design research topics It is suggested that different systems in different organizations in different settings will give rise to new impacts. A wide variety of outcomes is possible. It seems unlikely that any simple set of relationships can account for all the data that inquiry reveals. The task becomes one of identifying variables that lead to differential outcomes, as the same cause may lead to different effects (Attewell and Rule, 1984). This becomes a long-term task. Each optimistic impact may be countered by some other more pessimistic impact. Moreover, the changes brought about on design by computing are significant because both beneficial and non- beneficial impacts are present together. Impacts are held in a dynamic balance that is subject to constant evolution. This viewpoint accounts for otherwise conflicting conclusions. It is unlikely that the full range of impacts is yet known, and a wide range of impacts and outcomes already need to be taken into account. It seems that CAD alone cannot either guarantee improved design or that it inevitably leads to some diminished role for the designer. CAD can lead to either possible outcome, depending upon the particular combination of impacts present. Careful matching of systems to design organization and work environment is therefore needed. The design management role becomes crucial.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 47c5
authors Weiler, Kevin J.
year 1986
title Topological Structures for Geometric Modeling
source Computer and Systems Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
summary Geometric modeling technology for representing three-dimensional objects has progressed from early wireframe representations, through surface representations, to the most recent representation, solid modeling. Each of these forms has many possible representations. The boundary representation technique, where the surfaces, edges, and vertices of objects are represented explicitly, has found particularly wide application. Many of the more sophisticated versions of boundary representations explicitly store topological information about the positional relationships among surfaces, edges, and vertices. This thesis places emphasis on the use of topological information about the shape being modeled to provide a framework for geometric modeling boundary representations and their implementations, while placing little constraint on the actual geometric surface representations used. The major thrusts of the thesis fall into two areas of geometric modeling. First, a theoretical basis for two-manifold solid modeling boundary topology representation is developed. The minimum theoretical and minimum practical topological adjacency information required for the unambiguous topological representation of manifold solid objects is determined. This provides a basis for checking the correctness of existing and proposed representations. The correctness of the winged edge structure is also explored, and several new representations which have advantages over existing techniques are described and their sufficiency verified. Second, a non-two-manifold boundary geometric modeling topology representation is developed which allows the unified and simultaneous representation of wireframe, surface, and solid modeling forms, while featuring a representable range beyond what is achievable in any of the previous modeling forms. In addition to exterior surface features, interior features can be modeled, and non-manifold features can be represented directly. A new data structure, the Radial Edge structure, which provides access to all topological adjacencies in a non-manifold boundary representation, is described and its completeness is verified. A general set of non-manifold topology manipulation operators is also described which is independent of a specific data structure and is useful for insulating higher levels of geometric modeling functionality from the specifics and complexities of underlying data structures. The coordination of geometric and topological information in a geometric modeling system is also discussed.
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 02c6
authors Wheeler, B.J.Q
year 1986
title A Unified Model for Building
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 200-231
summary It is commonly recognized that the time-honoured procedure for preparing an architectural design for building on site is inefficient. Each member of a team of consultant professionals makes an independently documented contribution. For a typical project involving an architect and structural, electrical, mechanical and public services engineers there will be at least five separate sets of general- arrangement drawings, each forming a model of the building, primarily illustrating one discipline but often having to include elements of others in order to make the drawing readable. For example, an air-conditioning duct-work layout is more easily understood when superimposed on the room layout it serves which the engineer is not responsible for but has to understand. Both during their parallel evolution and later, when changes have to be made during the detailed design and production drawing stages, it is difficult and time consuming to keep all versions coordinated. Complete coordination is rarely achieved in time, and conflicts between one discipline and another have to be rectified when encountered on site with resulting contractual implications. Add the interior designer, the landscape architect and other specialized consultants at one end of the list and contractors' shop drawings relating to the work of all the consultants at the other, and the number of different versions of the same thing grows, escalating the concomitant task of coordination. The potential for disputes over what is the current status of the design is enormous, first, amongst the consultants and second, between the consultants and the contractor. When amendments are made by one party, delay and confusion tend to follow during the period it takes the other parties to update their versions to include them. The idea of solving this problem by using a common computer-based model which all members of the project team can directly contribute to is surely a universally assumed goal amongst all those involved in computer-aided building production. The architect produces a root drawing or model, the 'Architect's base plan', to which the other consultants have read-only access and on top of which they can add their own write-protected files. Every time they access the model to write in the outcome of their work on the project they see the current version of the 'Architect's base plan' and can thus respond immediately to recent changes and avoid wasting time on redundant work. The architect meanwhile adds uniquely architectural material in his own overlaid files and maintains the root model as everybody's work requires. The traditional working pattern is maintained while all the participants have the ability to see their colleagues, work but only make changes to those parts for which they are responsible.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 2df1
authors Woodbury, Robert F.
year 1986
title Strategies for Interactive Design Systems
source 20 p. : ill. Pittsburgh, PA: Engineering Design Research Center, September, 1986. EDRC-48-02-87.
summary An information processing model of human problem solving is used to develop strategies for the design of systems for the interactive generation of designs. Systems of this type are currently not strongly developed anywhere, nor does there exist in the literature a paradigm for their creation. Design is a task which requires different interactive support than that traditionally provided by CAD systems. In this paper, those differences are uncovered by comparison of two tasks: one, named Definition in this paper, which seems to be well supported by existing systems; and the other, the task of Design. Use of an information processing model of human problem solving shows that differences between the tasks can be found in every potentially variant portion of the model. The information processing model is again used as a framework to propose mechanisms to support design. These mechanisms act by changing the underlaying phenomena upon which the information processing model is built and thus effecting changes, either parametric or structural, in the model. The relative importance of the proposed mechanisms is discussed, leading to the conclusion that the interactive support of search is the most strategic direction for future research
keywords design process, problem solving, research, techniques, user interface, systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 82ab
authors Wrona, Stefan K.
year 1986
title The Profits of CAAD Can Be Increased by an Integrated Participatory Design Approach
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 53-57
summary Computer-aided Architectural Design is understood in Poland as comprising all computer applications in an architectural design office. In Polish architectural practice (with a few exceptions) it is still under theoretical consideration and in an experimental phase. Therefore if we are talking about the future of CAAD in Poland we are thinking about a much more long-term future than for Western countries. However, if new economic and organizational changes initiated in Poland in the early 1980s continue, future problems and solutions in CAAD will, for us, become similar to those in Western countries.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

For more results click below:

show page 0... show page 2show page 3show page 4show page 5show page 6this is page 7show page 8show page 9show page 10HOMELOGIN (you are user _anon_531828 from group guest) CUMINCAD Papers Powered by SciX Open Publishing Services 1.002