CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 181 to 200 of 206

_id eb6e
authors Gero, John S.
year 1986
title Knowledge-Based Design Systems in Architecture
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, p. 243
summary This paper describes continuing research in the Architectural Computing Unit of the University of Sydney on the development of knowledge-based design systems in architecture. It is broken into three parts: (i) antecedents - how did we get here? (ii) the present - where are we? (iii) a future - where might we go from here?
series eCAADe
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id ecc2
authors Gero, John S. and Balachandran, M. B.
year 1986
title Knowledge and Design Decision Processes
source Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1986. pp. 343- 352
summary This paper describes how knowledge engineering techniques can be employed within optimization design decision processes. It commences with a brief discussion about multicriteria design optimization prior to elaborating the use of knowledge within this decision process. Four areas are briefly described-- knowledge as a control mechanism in the generation of the Pareto optimal set, knowledge needed to select alternate generation processes, knowledge which can be induced from the Pareto optimal set, and knowledge needed to recognize optimization models. A system which implements these concepts is presented
keywords design process, knowledge, representation, optimization, decision making, multicriteria
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id c898
authors Gero, John S.
year 1986
title An Overview of Knowledge Engineering and its Relevance to CAAD
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 107-119
summary Computer-aided architectural design (CAAD) has come to mean a number of often disparate activities. These can be placed into one of two categories: using the computer as a drafting and, to a lesser extent, modelling system; and using it as a design medium. The distinction between the two categories is often blurred. Using the computer as a drafting and modelling tool relies on computing notions concerned with representing objects and structures numerically and with ideas of computer programs as procedural algorithms. Similar notions underly the use of computers as a design medium. We shall return to these later. Clearly, all computer programs contain knowledge, whether methodological knowledge about processes or knowledge about structural relationships in models or databases. However, this knowledge is so intertwined with the procedural representation within the program that it can no longer be seen or found. Architecture is concerned with much more than numerical descriptions of buildings. It is concerned with concepts, ideas, judgement and experience. All these appear to be outside the realm of traditional computing. Yet architects discoursing use models of buildings largely unrelated to either numerical descriptions or procedural representations. They make use of knowledge - about objects, events and processes - and make nonprocedural (declarative) statements that can only be described symbolically. The limits of traditional computing are the limits of traditional computer-aided design systems, namely, that it is unable directly to represent and manipulate declarative, nonalgorithmic, knowledge or to perform symbolic reasoning. Developments in artificial intelligence have opened up ways of increasing the applicability of computers by acquiring and representing knowledge in computable forms. These approaches supplement rather than supplant existing uses of computers. They begin to allow the explicit representations of human knowledge. The remainder of this chapter provides a brief introduction to this field and describes, through applications, its relevance to computer- aided architectural design.
series CAAD Futures
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 0ac3
authors Heckbert, Paul S.
year 1986
title Survey of Texture Mapping
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. November, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 56-67 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Texture mapping is one of the most successful new techniques in high-quality image synthesis. It can enhance the visual richness of raster-scan images immensely while entailing only a relatively small increase in computation. The technique has been applied to a number of surface attributes: surface color, surface normal, specularity, transparency, illumination, and surface displacement, to name a few. Although the list is potentially endless, the techniques of texture mapping are essentially the same in all cases. This article surveys the fundamentals of texture mapping, which can be split into two topics: the geometric mapping that warps a texture onto a surface, and the filtering necessary to avoid aliasing. An extensive bibliography is included
keywords texture mapping, representation, filtering, computer graphics, visualization
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 056c
authors Herzen, Michel
year 1986
title Computer Science within the Department of Architecture
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 49-51
summary The purpose of this short talk is to reveal the didactic option taken by DA-SFIT in the face of the rise of computer science and CAAD.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:00

_id e799
authors Howes, Jaki
year 1986
title Computer Education in Schools of Architecture and the Needs of Practice
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 45-48
summary In April 1985 there was a meeting (at Huddersfield Polytechnic) or representatives from 26 Schools of Architecture. At this, concern was expressed about the lack of direction from the RIBA with regard to the appropriate level of computer teaching on architectural courses. In addition, it was felt that it was essential that at least one member of a Visiting Board panel should be computer literate and in a position to give advice. These points were raised at the RIBA Computer Committee later in 1985, and the committee's attention was also drawn to comments contained in the report by HM Inspector on Public Sector Education in Architecture (1985) based on investigations made during 1984.
series eCAADe
email j.howes@lmu.ac.uk
last changed 1998/08/23 08:30

_id 252d
authors Irving, R.H., Higgins, C.A. and Safayeni
year 1986
title Computerized Performance Monitoring Systems : Use and Abuse
source Communications of the ACM. August, 1986. vol. 29: pp. 794-801 : tables. includes bibliography
summary An exploratory study of computerized performance monitoring and control systems reveals both positive and negative effects. Responses of 50 clerical workers from 2 organizations with computerized monitoring were compared to 94 individuals from 3 organizations in similar jobs without computerized monitoring. The results indicate that computerized monitoring is associated with perceived increases in office productivity, more accurate and complete assessment of workers' performance, and higher levels of organizational control. Respondents indicate that managers overemphasize the importance of quantity and underemphasize the importance of quality in evaluating employee performance. Workers perceive increased stress, lower levels of satisfaction, and a decrease in the quality of their relationships with peers and management as a consequence of computerized monitoring. The relevance of existing models of performance monitoring is examined in light of these findings
keywords management, performance, evaluation
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id 2611
authors Lenart, Mihaly
year 1986
title Construction problems as Tiling Puzzles
source 1986? [21] p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary The design of building construction parts often means design synthesis: complex parts will be generated gradually by smaller subparts or elements. Since construction parts are three dimensional geometrical objects and many of them are built from mutually connected elements, one can find analogies between building puzzles and construction design. Tiling puzzles are a special kind of building puzzles whose elements pave the plane or space or a certain part of these. This paper is concerned with the connection between tiling problems and the design of construction parts of prefabricated building systems. Most of these problems are of combinatorial nature; many of them can be tackled only by computers
keywords tiling, design, methods, building, synthesis, construction, combinatorics, search
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id aad7
authors Mackenzie, C.A. and Gero, John S.
year 1986
title Learning in the Domain of Decisions and Performances
source IAAI'86 Conference. 1986. pp. i:1:1-9. CADLINE has abstract only
summary Many domains present themselves as mappings between two classes of spaces: decision spaces and performance spaces. All design domains can be represented in this manner where the designer takes decisions which manifest themselves as performances in the designed artifact. Learning in these domains can take account of the structural characteristics of the spaces and of the mappings. This paper describes a system, PARE, which learns in the domain of decisions and performances by making use of the characteristics of a particular structuring concept known as 'Pareto optimality.' Much is known about the concept and its features which are used as hypotheses. If the hypotheses succeed then learning takes place by specializing the hypotheses' characteristics. Characterizations of Pareto optimality are described and the feature extraction process shown. The feature extraction process utilizes fuzzy pattern matching. An example of the system, written in ConSUN workstations, is presented from the domain of fenestration design
keywords performance, learning, design process, optimization, analysis, applications, theory, systems
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c714
authors Majchrzak, Collins, P. and Mandeville, D.
year 1986
title A Quantitative Assessment of Changes in Work Activities Resulting from Computer-Assisted Design
source Behaviour and Information Technology 1986 v.5 n.3 p.259-271
summary In an effort to understand how computer-assisted design (CAD) can be optimized in an organizational setting, perceptions and attitudes of CAD users about their jobs and workplace are compared with those of non-users. Results indicate that the implementation of CAD may not result in the expected benefits if CAD is not appropriately managed. Job unpredictability, job autonomy, and job interdependence are three areas in particular needing management attention if CAD benefits are to be achieved.
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id d71c
authors Maver, T.W.
year 1986
title Social Impacts of Computer Aided Architectural Design
source Proceedings of The Architects Computer Conference, National University of Singapore
series other
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/06/02 13:00

_id ecc0
authors Maver, T.W.
year 1986
title Visual Impact Analysis: The Application of Computer Graphics to Architecture and Planning
source Proceedings of Eurographics UK, Glasgow
series other
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/06/02 13:00

_id 4d2d
authors McCartney, Allan
year 1986
title Teaching Computer Aided Architectural Design - Problems of Identity and Support
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 88-96
summary A recent survey carried out in the U.K., which identified the activities in the majority of the Schools of Architecture in the field of CAAD, broadly indicated that whilst most of the schools provided a taught course in CAAD, the nature and extent of the content varied significantly. In many cases, student participation in CAAD was entirely voluntary, whilst in other cases a considerable amount of time was allocated within existing course structures.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:04

_id d790
authors Nakamae, E., Harada, K. and Ishizaki, T.
year 1986
title A montage method: the overlaying of the computer generated images onto a background phograph
source Computer Graphics, no. 4:207-214
summary A system of computer programs has been established to generate high quality montage image of considerable usefulness in architectural simulation which combine computer-generated images and photographed background pictures. Traditionally, there are two methods of creating architectural montages: (I) an artist paints new buildings onto a background scene usually generated photographically, and (2) a three-dlmensional scale model is created to simulate the whole landscape, and this model is then photographed. The montage method described here combines aspects of both traditional montage methods with significant improvement in accuracy and reduction of time and cost of preparation. Specifically, a digitized photograph is used as a background scene onto which is superimposed a 3D computer-generated image of a new building. The outstanding points of the new method are: (i) The shading and shadows of each computer generated image are calculated with higher accuracy, (ii) the fog effect is taken into account, and (iii) a new anti-aliasing technique improves the quality of the final montage image.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id aec5
authors Norman, Donald A. and Draper, Stephen W.
year 1986
title User Centered System Design : New Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction
source xiii, 186 p. : col. ill. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., 1986. includes bibliography and index
summary A pluralistic approach, design computers from the user's point of view
keywords systems, design, user interface, color, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 2b3a
authors Olsen, Dan R. Jr.
year 1986
title MIKE : The Menu Interaction Kontrol Environment
source ACM Transactions on Graphics. October, 1986. vol. 5: pp. 318-344 : ill. includes bibliography
summary User Interface Management System (UIMS) called MIKE that does not use the syntactic specifications found in most UIMSs is described. Instead, MIKE provides a default syntax that is automatically generated from the definition of the semantic commands that the interaction is to support. The default syntax is refined using an interface editor that allows modification of the representation of the interface. It is shown how active pictures can be created by adding action expressions to the viewports of MIKE's windowing system. The implications of MIKE's command based dialogue description are discussed in terms of extensible interfaces, device and dialogue-style independence, and system support functions
keywords design, user interface, management, systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 396b
authors Pheasant, Stephan
year 1986
title Bodyspace: Anthropometry
source Ergomonics and the Design of Work, Taylor and Francis, London
summary This edition has been revised to bring fresh insights into the principles and practice of anthropometrics, workspace design, sitting and seating, hands and handles, ergonomics in the office, ergonomics in the home, and health and safety at work.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 0151
authors Praderio, Giorgio
year 1986
title CAAD and Didactic in Bologna
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 111-120
summary Among the didactic directions of professional training, which Architecture and Urban Science Institute includes, CAAD is set in the courses of Drawing 2 (2nd year of degree course) and Architectural Design 2 (5th year): both ones belong to the didactic turn "compositivo"(drafting + design + project). In the course of Drawing 2, CAAD is presented in a simple, first step way: the most emphasized aspects are technology and description (especially graphic, in 2D, 2.5D, 3D) of objects and places. In the course of Architectural Design 2, CAD experience becomes project appliance and therefore simulation and modelling. The didactic direction, which appears from that, suggests then to consider Drawing as description of objects (in the steps of project process) explored as knowledge, generation,valuation and decision.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:06

_id 44fe
authors Ramaekers, J.M.A.
year 1986
title Experiences with CAD at the Hogere Technische School te Heerlen
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 121-126
summary In comparison with the educational institutions abroad, the Hogere Technische School can be translated with "Higher Technical School". In Germany it would be"Fachhochschule" The highest level of education at'- the HTS is similar to the level in the second year of the university. Contrary the university study, the study at the HTS is directed at the professional practice. The HTS is national well-known because of her education in CAD-instructions. at the moment CAD-instruction is best developed at the department of building engineering.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:07

_id a980
authors Rosenman, Michael A., Gero, John S. and Hutchinson, Peter J. (et al)
year 1986
title Expert Systems Applications in Computer-aided Design
source Guildford: Butterworth, 1986. pp. 218-225. Reprinted in Computer Aided Design 18(10): pp. 546-551
summary Rule-based expert system shells are demonstrated to be useful in elementary design decision making. Two applications are presented which utilize the BUILD shell. The first is concerned with the selection and design of earth-retaining structures and makes use of passive graphics in descriptions. The second is concerned with the analysis and synthesis of kitchens and uses graphics to allow the user to interact with the system. Such systems are useful when the range of options is small
keywords applications, CAD, expert systems, design process, architecture
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

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