CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 8e02
authors Brown, A.G.P. and Coenen, F.P.
year 2000
title Spatial reasoning: improving computational efficiency
source Automation in Construction 9 (4) (2000) pp. 361-367
summary When spatial data is analysed the result is often very computer intensive: even by the standards of contemporary technologies, the machine power needed is great and the processing times significant. This is particularly so in 3-D and 4-D scenarios. What we describe here is a technique, which tackles this and associated problems. The technique is founded in the idea of quad-tesseral addressing; a technique, which was originally applied to the analysis of atomic structures. It is based on ideas concerning Hierarchical clustering developed in the 1960s and 1970s to improve data access time [G.M. Morton, A computer oriented geodetic database and a new technique on file sequencing, IBM Canada, 1996.], and on atomic isohedral (same shape) tiling strategies developed in the 1970s and 1980s concerned with group theory [B. Grunbaum, G.C. Shephard, Tilings and Patterns, Freeman, New York, 1987.]. The technique was first suggested as a suitable representation for GIS in the early 1980s when the two strands were brought together and a tesseral arithmetic applied [F.C. Holdroyd, The Geometry of Tiling Hierarchies, Ars Combanitoria 16B (1983) 211244.; S.B.M. Bell, B.M. Diaz, F.C. Holroyd, M.J.J. Jackson, Spatially referenced methods of processing raster and vector data, Image and Vision Computing 1 (4) (1983) 211220.; Diaz, S.B.M. Bell, Spatial Data Processing Using Tesseral Methods, Natural Environment Research Council, Swindon, 1986.]. Here, we describe how that technique can equally be applied to the analysis of environmental interaction with built forms. The way in which the technique deals with the problems described is first to linearise the three-dimensional (3-D) space being investigated. Then, the reasoning applied to that space is applied within the same environment as the definition of the problem data. We show, with an illustrative example, how the technique can be applied. The problem then remains of how to visualise the results of the analysis so undertaken. We show how this has been accomplished so that the 3-D space and the results are represented in a way which facilitates rapid interpretation of the analysis, which has been carried out.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 81ae
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Parks, Linda M.
year 1986
title Expert Systems and Engineering Design Knowledge
source Electronic Computation Conference Proceedings (9th : 1986 : Birmingham, AL) American Society of Civil Engineers, pp. 28-42. CADLINE has abstract only.
summary Of all the contributions of artificial intelligence (AI), expert systems show some of the most significant promise for engineering applications. An expert system provides a framework for acquiring, representing, and using knowledge about a particular application's domain. The role of knowledge in engineering design merits closer attention so that AI-oriented computer-aided engineering (CAE) systems can be developed and maintained systematically. Because 'knowledge' in engineering applications is loosely defined, it is necessary to identify knowledge types and the correlations between them before widespread engineering design applications can be achieved. The types of domain knowledge; facts, procedures, judgments, and control; differ from the classes of that knowledge; creative, innovative, and routine. Feasible engineering tasks for expert systems can be determined based on these types and classes of knowledge. Prototype expert systems have been developed for civil engineering applications to assist with interpretation, design, planning, diagnosis, control, and other engineering system functions. A number of these are described herein. Interpretive tasks require reasoning about a task in light of the knowledge available, while generative tasks create potential solutions to be tested against constraints. Only after classifying the domain by type and level can the engineer select an appropriate knowledge-engineering tool for the domain being considered. The critical features to be weighed after problem classification are knowledge representation techniques, control strategies, interface requirements, compatibility with traditional systems, and economic considerations. After considering all of these factors in the selection of the expert system took, the engineer can then proceed with the acquisition of knowledge and the construction and use of the expert system
keywords design, knowledge, civil engineering, expert systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 095b
authors Wagter, Harry
year 1986
title Stimulating Creativity by Using Computers
source ACADIA Workshop 86 Proceedings - Houston (Texas - USA) 24-26 October 1986, pp. 149-155
summary Discussions that cope with the relation between computers and creativity often turn out to be very sensitive. It seems that this aspect of computer technology makes people feel uneasy. This can easily be understood. Many examples can be found were interesting jobs with social contacts for workers changed into dull and monotone ones. This counts specially for administrative oriented organisations, but also in more technical based organisations we can see variations to this theme. Nevertheless many advantages can be mentioned for the organisation itself, and of course for the customer himself, who is being served more accurate, faster and with a higher degree of service. The discussion on creative aspects mainly takes place in the technical oriented professions. Architects among them seem to be strongly represented. Specially in relation to CAD-techniques being obstructed in one's creative possibilities is very often mentioned as an argument for not adopting the new techniques.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id a70f
authors Yessios, Chris
year 1986
title What has yet to be CAD
source ACADIA Workshop 86 Proceedings - Houston (Texas - USA) 24-26 October 1986, pp. 29-36
summary The theme of this Acadia Conference was to a large extent addressed by Mitchell in his article "'What was Computer-aided design?"', published about two years ago. While one has to agree with most of his points, I find his predictions gloomy enough to wish I could disagree. Luckily, Mitchell has chosen to address what the majority of the profession (and many architectural schools) currently consider to be CAD. It turns out that this CAD is not what CAD is supposed to be. I have, therefore, purposely chosen a title which appears to echo an opposite view. My intention is not to express disagreement but rather to project the other face of CAD, in my own mind, the only CAD which deserves the name. Whether the current CAD should or will be called CAD in the future is of non-essential significance. As teachers of architectural design we need to be concerned that architectural CAD remains, to date, a very immature field. It is CAD only by name, since a true CAD system has yet to be 'discovered". This presentation consists of three major sections. The first reviews why the currently available CAD systems do not have the ingredients which may justify them as design oriented machines. This discussion leads to the identification of architectural modeling and knowledge systems as the two main areas which need to be researched so that they may offer the basis for the development of truly design oriented machines. Each is discussed under a separate section, but the point is also made that the two should work hand-in-hand and should be integrated into a completely unified system.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 8060
authors Bentley, Jon L. and Kernighan, Brian W.
year 1986
title GRAP - a Language for Typesetting Graphs
source communications of the ACM. August, 1986. vol. 29: pp. 782-792 : charts. includes bibliography
summary The authors describe a system that makes it easy and convenient to describe graphs and to include them as an integral part of the document formatting process
keywords programming, computer graphics, algorithms, business
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id c5af
authors Bobrow, Daniel G. and Stefik, Mark J.
year 1986
title Perspective on Artificial Intelligence Programming
source Science. February, 1986. vol. 231: pp. 951-956
summary Programming systems for artificial intelligence application use specialized languages, environments, and knowledge-based tools to reduce the complexity of the programming task. Language style based on procedure, objects logic rules, and constraints reflect different models for organizing programs and facilitate program evaluation and understandability. To make programming easier, multiple styles can be integrated as sublanguages in programming environment. Programming environments provide tools that analyze programs and create informative displays of their structure. Programs can be modified by direct interaction with these displays. These tools and languages are helping computer scientists to regain a sense of control over systems that have become increasingly complex
keywords programming, AI
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 4418
authors Franklin, Randolph, Wu, Peter, Y. F. and Samaddar, Sumitro (et al)
year 1986
title Prolog and Geometry Projects
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. November, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 46-55 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Prolog is a useful tool for geometry and graphics implementations because its primitives, such as unification, match the requirements of many geometric algorithms. During the last two years, programs have been implemented to solve several problems in Prolog, including a subset of the Graphical Kernel System, convex-hull calculation, planar graph traversal, recognition of groupings of objects, Boolean combinations of polygons using multiple precision rational numbers, and cartographic map overlay. Certain paradigms or standard forms of geometric programming in Prolog are becoming evident. They include applying a function to every element of a set, executing a procedure so long as a certain geometric pattern exists, and using unification to propagate a transitive function. This article describes the experiences, including paradigms of programming that seem useful, and finally lists those considered as the advantages and disadvantages of Prolog
keywords geometric modeling, computer graphics, PROLOG, programming
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 2363
authors Gross, Mark Donald
year 1986
title Design as exploring constraints
source Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Architecture
summary A theory of designing is proposed, developed, and illustrated with examples from the domain of physical form. Designing is seen as the exploration of alternative sets of constraints and of the regions of alternative solutions they bound. Designers with different objectives reach different solutions within the same set of constraints, as do designers with the same objectives operating under different constraints. Constraints represent design rules, relations, conventions, and natural laws to be maintained. Some constraints and objectives are given at the outset of a design but many more are adopted along the way. Varying the constraints and the objectives is part of the design process. The theory accounts for various kinds of expertise in designing: knowledge of particular constraints in a design domain; inference--calculating the consequences of design decisions; preference--using objectives to guide decision-making; and partitioning--skill in dividing a large and complicated design into sets of simpler pieces, and understanding the dependencies between decisions. The ability to manage ambiguity and vagueness is an important aspect of design expertise. A computational model supporting the theory is proposed and its implementation discussed briefly. The constraint explorer, a computational environment for designing based on constraint descriptions is described. We see how the constraint explorer might be used in connection with a simple space- planning problem. The problem is taken from the procedures of the Stichting Architecten Research (S.A.R.), a specific architectural design methodology developed to help architects systematically explore layout variability in alternative floorplan designs. Finally, a selected review of related work in constraint-based programming environments, architectural design methods, and the intersection of the two fields is presented.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/03/15 05:49

_id ccb4
authors Helman, Paul and Veroff, Robert
year 1986
title Intermediate Problem Solving and Data Structure : Walls and Mirrors
source xxi, 612 p. : ill Menlo Park, California: The Benjamin/Cumming Company,inc., 1986. includes index.
summary An intermediate level presentation of recursion and recursive problem solving. The book integrates both problem solving and programming skills and uses the Pascal language for implementation
keywords programming, data structures, problem solving, recursion, PASCAL
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id e26f
authors Kalay, Y. (ed.)
year 1987
title Computability of Design
source New York: Wiley & Sons
summary Computer-aided design (CAD) has promised to transform the art and science of architectural design. Yet, despite some significant achievements in the past 3 decades, it has so far failed to do so. This stimulating volume, derived from a symposium held at SUNY, Buffalo in December 1986, explores the reasons why design is so difficult to support by computational means, and what can be done to alleviate this difficulty. Written by an interdisciplinary panel of experts, it presents a varied and comprehensive view of the ways creative design processes can be modelled. The contributors do not all reach the same conclusions, which makes this book lively reading. Topics are arranged into four parts: constructing models of the design process, the computational representation of design knowledge (including spatial information and implicit design intent), methods for computing the design process as a whole (including mathematical programming, expert systems, and shape grammars), and the integration of CAD with traditional design practices.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id a771
authors Roth, J., Hashimshony, R. and Ishai, E.
year 1986
title Using the Computer as a Teaching Aid for Architecture Students - Some Examples
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 127-135
summary The use of computers has become part of the regular curriculum in many schools of Architecture in the last few years. In addition to specific courses related to basic computer knowledge (e.g.: programming), the computer's main application is in the design studio for evaluating alternatives (e.g.: GOAL, GABLE), or as a drafting aid (e.g.: BIBLE AUTOCAD, ARC+). We believe that using the computer as a regular part of the teaching in all the courses is of great importance. In this paper we present three examples in which the computer was used as a teaching aid in courses not related to the design studio: "Morphology" and "Introduction to lnterior Design".

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:08

_id 68ef
authors Tweed, Christopher
year 1986
title A Computing Environment for CAAD Education
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 136-145
summary This paper describes a modelling system, MOLE (Modelling Objects with Logic Expressions), and its use as a computing environment for teaching architectural undergraduates. The paper also sketches the background to MOLE's development as a medium for research, and identifies benefits conferred on research and teaching through their common interest in MOLE. Teaching at EdCAAD is conducted in what is chiefly a research milieu. Hence our teaching methods exploit the products and experience of research. But the partnership is mutually rewarding, because teaching informs future research efforts through the experience gained from using MOLE. At present, our teaching concentrates on a ten-week elective course for fourth year architectural undergraduates. The main component of the course requires each student to program a simple application related to architectural design. Applications normally require a programming language with access to graphics routines, and in previous years we have used C or, more recently, Prolog with their graphics extensions. For the past two years MOLE has fulfilled this need. The paper begins by explaining the evolution of our approach to CAAD, leading to the development of the description system, MOLE. Section two outlines the main features of the version of MOLE which has been extended to provide a comprehensive computing environment for programming simple architectural applications. MOLE in use is the subject of section three which is illustrated with examples drawn from students' coursework projects and exercises. This is followed by a discussion of the lessons learned from teaching which highlight areas of MOLE's development that need more study. A concluding section summarises what has been learned, and poses vital questions that require answers before we can expect widespread acceptance of CAAD in practice.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:09

_id 69c7
authors Woodbury, Robert F.
year 1986
title VEGA : A Geometric Modelling System
source 11 p. : ill. Engineering Design Research Center, CMU, April 1986. DRC-48-03-87. includes bibliography
summary VEGA is a program which models rigid solid objects in three dimensions. Specifically, its domain is assemblies of planar faced polyhedra. VEGA supports a variety of operations to create, modify, query and delete these assemblies. VEGA is intended to serve two purposes: that of a new medium of representation for the design process; and of a programming package to support geometric applications in a wide variety of domains. Here the author addresses primarily the first of these purposes, that of a new medium for design. Designers of physical objects use an external medium, traditionally paper or physical models, not only to record their work, but to provide information which assists in the understanding of implications of design decisions. Designers proceed by performing operations, which reflect internal design decisions, on this external medium. The operations used in design are generally reflective of these physical media. For example, models built of clay tend to be formed by a subtractive processes, whereas models built of wood tend to be additive in nature. Designers who use drawings as their medium still tend to use operations which reflect operations on physical models. Computers provide the fascinating potential to provide a much wider variety of operations at a much greater speed than is available with the traditional means of representation. In addition, a computer based representation can provide quantitative information not easily accessible from traditional forms. This opens the potential for the inclusion of formal means of evaluation in the design process; something which is generally almost absent in traditional design teaching. A computer program which effectively and 'naturally' models physical objects and operations on them would be a valuable assistance to both the teaching and practice design. VEGA has been designed with these objectives in mind. VEGA represents physical objects with a scheme known as boundary representation and provides a wide variety of operations on these objects. VEGA also provides means to associate other, non-geometric, information with the objects it represents. VEGA is implemented under the ANDREW system. It communicates to ANDREW through a graphics package, also developed by the author's group. VEGA is intended to serve as a medium for future studio courses in the Architecture, Industrial Design and Arts education
keywords geometric modeling, solid modeling, CAD, education, assemblies, B-rep, systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 4100
authors Yeh, Yun D. and Munakata, Toshinori
year 1986
title Dynamic Initial Allocation and Local Reallocation Procedure for Multiple Stacks
source Communications of the ACM. February, 1986. vol. 29: pp. 134-141 : graphs. includes bibliography
summary Two new procedures for manipulating multiple stacks which share sequential locations are discussed. The first is the dynamic initial allocation procedure in which each stack is allocated as its first element arrives rather than having every stack preallocated at the very beginning of the entire process. The second is the local relocation procedure, in this scheme, when a stack overflows, only its neighboring stacks, rather than the entire memory area, are reorganized provided that certain condition is satisfied. The results of simulation appear to suggest that these approaches improve the operational performance in many applications. With appropriate modifications these concepts may also be applied to any other type of multiple linear lists sharing sequential memory locations
keywords algorithms, data structures, programming, techniques
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 63d0
authors Carrara, Gianfranco and Novembri, Gabriele
year 1986
title Constraint-bounded design search
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 146-157
summary The design process requires continual checking of the consistency of design choices against given sets of goals that have been fulfilled. Such a check is generally performed by comparing abstract representations of design goals with these of the sought real building objects (RBO) resulting from complex intellectual activities closely related to the designer's culture and to the environment in which he operates. In this chapter we define a possible formalization of such representations concerning the goals and the RBO that are usually considered in the architectural design process by our culture in our environment. The representation of design goals is performed by expressing their objective aspects (requirements) and by defining their allowable values (performance specifications). The resulting system of requirements defines the set of allowable solutions and infers an abstract representation of the sought building objects (BO) that consists of the set of characteristics (attributes and relations) which are considered relevant to represent the particular kind of RBO with respect to the consistency check with design goals. The values related to such characteristics define the performances of the RBO while their set establishes its behaviour. Generally speaking, there is no single real object corresponding to an abstract representation but the whole class of the RBO that are equivalent with respect to the values assumed by the considered characteristics. The more we increase the number of these, as well as their specifications, the smaller the class becomes until it coincides with a single real object - given that the assessed specifications be fully consistent. On the other hand, the corresponding representation evolves to the total prefiguration of the RBO. It is not therefore possible to completely define a BO representation in advance since this is inferred by the considered goals and is itself a result of the design process. What can only be established in advance is that any set of characteristics assumed to represent any RBO consists of hierarchic, topological, geometrical and functional relations among the parts of the object at any level of aggregation (from components to space units, to building units, to the whole building) that we define representation structure (RS). Consequently the RS may be thought as the elementary structures that, by superposition and interaction, set up the abstract representation that best fit with design goals.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id a48f
authors Krishnan, D. and Patnaik, L.M.
year 1986
title GEODERM : Geometric Shape Design System Using an Entity-Relationship Model
source Computer Aided Design. May, 1986. vol. 18: pp. 207-218 : ill. includes bibliography and 7 appendixes
summary GEODERM, a microcomputer-based solid modeler which incorporates the parametric object model, is discussed. The entity-relationship model, which is used to describe the conceptual schema of the geometric database, is also presented. Three of the four modules of GEODERM, which have been implemented are described in some detail. They are the Solid Definition Language (SDL), the Solid Manipulation Language (SML) and the User-System Interface
keywords CAD, solid modeling, relational database, geometric modeling,parametrization
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8816
authors Penn, Michael A. and Patterson, Richard R.
year 1986
title Projective Geometry and its Application to Computer Graphics
source xi, 403 p. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1986. includes bibliography: p. 394-395
summary The goal of the book is to support the design of solutions to computer graphic problems through an understanding of the underlying elements of projective geometry. Some of the topics discussed are: How to view the structure of two and three dimensional graphic libraries, how to create two dimensional perspective and parallel images of a three dimensional object, how to draw the graph of a function of two real variables, and more
keywords computer graphics, projective geometry
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 40fe
authors Gero, John S., Oxman, Rivka E. and Manago, C.
year 1986
title Graphics and Expert Systems
source AUSGRAPH '86 Australian Conference on Computer Graphics (4th : 1986 : Sydney). pp. 25-29 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Expert systems are a novel software technology which aim to model the behavior and knowledge of human experts. This paper presents two modes of interaction between graphics and expert systems in the domain of computer-aided design. The first concerns the interaction between an expert system and commercial CAD systems. The second demonstrates how expert systems can control design oriented graphical representations. Examples from both modes are presented from systems developed at Sydney University
keywords computer graphics, expert systems, CAD, architecture
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 0335
authors Berzins, Valdis, Gray, Michael and Naumann, David
year 1986
title Abstraction-Based Software Development
source communications of the ACM. May, 1986. vol. 29: pp. 402-415. includes bibliography
summary At the university of Minnesota an interdisciplinary team has been developing and running an ongoing course sequence in software engineering. The project served the dual purpose of giving the students some experience in applying the theory of software engineering to problems large enough to require a group effort, and at the same time enabling the development team to evaluate the effectiveness of the concepts and tools used. In this article the authors report on their experience with these concepts and tools, concentrating on the software- engineering rather than training and technology transfer aspects of the process
keywords software, engineering, abstraction, programming
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 0949
authors Vessey, Iris and Weber, Ron
year 1986
title Structured Tools and Conditional logic : An Empirical Investigation
source Communications of the ACM. January, 1986. vol 29: pp. 48-57 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Prior research has identified two psychological processes that appear to be used by programmers when they perform design and coding tasks: Taxonomizing-identifying the conditions that evoke particular action, and sequencing- converting the taxa into linear sequence of program code. The article describes an experiment that seeks to provide insight into the relative strength and limitations of three structured tools -- structured english, decision tables and decision trees how they facilitate these two process
keywords programming, tools, practice
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

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