CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 41 to 60 of 206

_id 86c3
authors Wirth, Niklaus
year 1986
title Algorithms and Data Structures
source 288 p. : ill. Englewood, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1986. includes bibliography and index
summary The book reflects the development of the use of computers and sophisticated algorithms to prepare and automatically typeset documents. It develops programs in step-wise fashion and express them in a well structured, detailed presentation. The book stresses the importance of performance analysis and demonstrates how algorithm selection and refinement are used most effectively in program design. Presents tested programs
keywords algorithms, data structures, programming, education
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:10

_id 4c79
authors Aguilar, Lorenzo
year 1986
title A Format for a Graphical Communications Protocol
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications vol. 6.no. 3 (March, 1986): pp. 52-62
summary This article describes the requirements for a graphical format on which a graphical on-line communications protocol can be based. It is argued that on-line graphical communications is similar to graphical session capture, and thus the author proposes an interactive graphical communications format using the GKSM session metafile. The discussion includes items that complement the GKSM metafile such as a format for on-line interactive exchange. One key application area of such a format is multimedia on-line conferencing. Therefore, a conferencing software architecture for processing the proposed format is presented. This format specification is made available to those planning multimedia conferencing systems
keywords user interface, communication, computer graphics, multimedia, standards
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 2ec8
authors Arditi, Aries and Gillman, Arthur E.
year 1986
title Computing for the Blind User
source BYTE Publication Inc. March, 1986. pp. 199-208. includes some reference notes
summary In this article the authors present some of the human-factors issues specific to non visual personal computing. The authors' concern is with the accuracy, speed, and generality of the blind-user interface, to make computers more accessible and efficient for blind and visually impaired persons
keywords user interface, disabilities
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id a35a
authors Arponen, Matti
year 2002
title From 2D Base Map To 3D City Model
source UMDS '02 Proceedings, Prague (Czech Republic) 2-4 October 2002, I.17-I.28
summary Since 1997 Helsinki City Survey Division has proceeded in experimenting and in developing the methods for converting and supplementing current digital 2D base maps in the scale 1:500 to a 3D city model. Actually since 1986 project areas have been produced in 3D for city planning and construction projects, but working with the whole map database started in 1997 because of customer demands and competitive 3D projects. 3D map database needs new data modelling and structures, map update processes need new working orders and the draftsmen need to learn a new profession; the 3D modeller. Laser-scanning and digital photogrammetry have been used in collecting 3D information on the map objects. During the years 1999-2000 laser-scanning experiments covering 45 km2 have been carried out utilizing the Swedish TopEye system. Simultaneous digital photography produces material for orto photo mosaics. These have been applied in mapping out dated map features and in vectorizing 3D buildings manually, semi automatically and automatically. In modelling we use TerraScan, TerraPhoto and TerraModeler sw, which are developed in Finland. The 3D city model project is at the same time partially a software development project. An accuracy and feasibility study was also completed and will be shortly presented. The three scales of 3D models are also presented in this paper. Some new 3D products and some usage of 3D city models in practice will be demonstrated in the actual presentation.
keywords 3D City modeling
series other
email matti.arponen@hel.fi
more www.udms.net
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 242d
authors Atkin, Brian L. and Gill, E. Moira
year 1986
title CAD and Management of Construction Projects
source Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Vol. 112, December, pp. 557-565
summary The increasing interest in computer-aided design (CAD) has prompted research that is aimed at identifying the opportunities for construction managers and building contractors. It has been found that the use of CAD systems in the U.K. is mainly confined to the production of detailed drawings. Indeed, most of the systems used are 2-D drafting tools and incapable of supporting the integration of even modest amounts of nongraphical (construction) data. On the other hand, many 3-D modeling systems have the potential to integrate construction data, although they appear to be almostignored. The use of 3-D modeling systems is considered to be the most suitable vehicle for successfully integrating these data. However, this is likely to necessitate the introduction of separate databases, preferably of the relational type. The use of 3-D modeling systems in assessing the construction implications of outline designs also presents interesting possibilities and is discussed.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 0f76
authors Balachandran, M. B. and Gero, John S.
year 1986
title Knowledge-based Design Optimization
source IAAI'86 Conference. 1986. pp. i:4:1-14
summary CADLINE has abstract only. Optimization is a well understood process in design domains. A designer formulates the design problem as a single criterion or multicriteria optimization problem and then selects an appropriate optimization algorithm to search for the optimal values for the design variables. The formulation and algorithm selection procedures have been considered to be activities which relied on substantive human knowledge. This paper describes a computer system, OPTIMA, which formulates design optimization problems from a pseudo-English description into canonical algebraic expressions. It then recognizes the formulation and selects appropriate algorithm(s) for their solutions. Finally, it runs the selected algorithm(s) and sends the results to the original descriptions. Areas of expert knowledge involved in carrying out the above tasks are identified. Such knowledge is explicitly encoded in the systems. The basic philosophy and key features of the system are described and are illustrated by examples
keywords algorithms, expert systems, knowledge base, design, optimization, structures, engineering
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 6002
authors Barduzzi, Ondina and Pascolo, Carlo
year 1986
title CAD System (Computer Aided Design) for the Planning of the Territory, with Reference to the Automatical Estimate of Works of Urbanization
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 167-179
summary Any applied research, no matter what discipline is concerned, needs affined and suitable tools; as regards the studies in the field of architecture and planning, the use of automatic systems of analysis, data ordering and comparison is of particular interest. The quickness of operations by means of computers and the corresponding graphical representation gives new possibilities for scientific work, once impossible, not certainly because of conceptual limits, but practically, for the limits of available tools. It is the wideness of applications of computers to be pointed out, for although studied for scientific reasons, their practical usefulness is often enormous. This has been generally verified. It guilts in particular for the CAD System, proposed and explained in this paper. The practical utility this and other systems from the same field have for the public administration, contractors and consultants is well known and therefore not necessary to be described further. The use of such systems is particularly convenient in those sectors where the graphical representation is the basic part of the production process.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 4ed0
authors Bartels, R.H., Beatty, J.C. and Barsky, B.A.
year 1986
title An Introduction to Splines for Use in Computer Graphics and Geometric Modeling
source xiv, 476 p. : ill. (some col.) Los Altos, California: Morgan Kaufmann Pub. Inc., 1986. Forewords by Pierre Bezier and Robin A. Forrest. Includes bibliography: p. 455-465 and index
summary Discusses the use of splines from the point of view of the computer scientist concentrating on parametric spline curves and parametric,tensor-product spline surfaces
keywords splines, theory, computer graphics, computational geometry
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:42

_id aec8
authors Bellinghall, Leigh
year 1986
title The MicroCad Explosion : An Eye to Applications Clarifies Choices
source computer Graphics World March, 1986. vol. 9: pp. 23-28 : col. ill.
summary Two strong trends affirm increasing market interest in micro systems. While early programs were developed for personal computers, turnkey system houses are now stretching heavy-duty mini and mainframe-hosted programs down to micros. This article gives a selective survey of popular micro-CAD software, looks at packages in both development areas
keywords drafting, systems, CAD, software, applications
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id ed51
authors Bergeron, Philippe
year 1986
title A General Version of Crow's Shadow Volumes
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications September, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 17-28 : col. ill. includes bibliography.
summary In 1977 Frank Crow introduced a new class of algorithms for the generation of shadows. His technique, based on the concept of shadow volumes, assumes a polygonal database and a constrained environment. For example, polyhedrons must be closed, and polygons must be planar. This article presents a new version of Crow's algorithm, developed at the Universite de Montreal, which attempts a less constrained environment. The method has allowed the handling of both open and closed models and nonplanar polygons with the viewpoint anywhere, including any shadow volume. It does not, however, sacrifice the essential features of Crow's original version: penetration between polygons is allowed, and any number of light sources can be defined anywhere in 3D space, including the view volume and any shadow volume. The method has been used successfully in the film Tony de Peltrie and is easily incorporated into an existing scan-line, hidden-surface algorithm
keywords algorithms, shadowing, polygons, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id b25c
authors Bergeson, Donald E. and Cetin, Randal F.
year 1986
title ADAM - Architectural Design Applications Model
source ACADIA Workshop 86 Proceedings - Houston (Texas - USA) 24-26 October 1986, pp. 37-54
summary This paper will describe ADAM, a project to explore the potential for interfacing independent graphics software for the purpose of developing a microcomputer based design system. This system will be implemented in three undergraduate design studios at the University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign) School of Architecture. The three design studios are part of an experimental project to determine the usefulness of computers in the architectural design curriculum. The concept used throughout the design of this system is: "make use of what already exists, but use it smoothly together in such a way that the management system is totally invisible to the user." Many low- end quality graphics software packages are commercially available. Each has the capacity to address some aspect of the architectural design process, none will do it all . The problem is a lack of compatibility between software. ADAM is a management system designed to invisibly control and interface the use of an assembly of graphics programs and data base management systems to achieve compatibility. Because of these compatible interfaces, new and varied design tools can be created from existing software..
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/10/10 12:26

_id 644f
authors Bijl, Aart
year 1986
title Designing with Words and Pictures in a Logic Modelling Environment
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 128-145
summary At EdCAAD we are interested in design as something people do. Designed artefacts, the products of designing, are interesting only in so far as they tell us something about design. An extreme expression of this position is to say that the world of design is the thoughts in the heads of designers, plus the skills of designers in externalizing their thoughts; design artifacts, once perceived and accepted in the worlds of other people, are no longer part of the world of design. We can describe design, briefly, as a process of synthesis. Design has to achieve a fusion between parts to create new parts, so that the products are recognized, as having a right and proper place in the world of people. Parts should be understood as referring to anything - physical objects, abstract ideas, aspirations. These parts occur in some design environment from which parts are extracted, designed upon and results replaced; in the example of buildings, the environment is people and results have to be judged by reference to that environment. It is characteristic of design that both the process and the product are not subject to explicit and complete criteria. This view of design differs sharply from the more orthodox understanding of scientific and technological endeavours which rely predominantly on a process of analysis. In the latter case, the approach is to decompose a problem into parts until individual parts are recognized as being amenable to known operations and results are reassembled into a solution. This process has a peripheral role in design when evaluating selected aspects of tentative design proposals, but the absence of well-defined and widely recognized criteria for design excludes it from the main stream of analytical developments.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id caadria2006_601
id caadria2006_601
authors BINSU CHIANG, MAO-LIN CHIU
year 2006
title PRIVATE/UN-PRIVATE SPACE: Scenario-based Digital Design for Enhancing User Awareness
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 601-603
summary Context awareness is important for human senses of places as well as human computer interaction. The aim of this research paper is focusing on controlling the user's privacy in a smart space which is adaptive to different users for enhancing the user's awareness in his diary life. In Environmental Psychology, the definition of privacy is that an individual has the control of deciding what information of himself is released to others, and under how he interact with others. (Westin 1970) And privacy is categorized as the linguistic privacy and visual privacy. (Sundstorm 1986). Solutions for privacy control: Plan Layout, Vision Boundary, Access Control and Architecture Metaphor - the transmission of information is not ascertainable for every single user. Although information are shown in public, but information is implied by cues and symbols. Only a certain user or a group of users have access to the full context of information. The methodology is to form an analytic framework to study the relationship between information, user and activities by using the computational supports derived from KitchenSense, ConceptNet, Python, 3d Studio Max and Flash; and to record patterns built up by users' behaviour and actions. Furthermore, the scenario-based simulation can envision the real world conditions by adding interfaces for enhancing user awareness.
series CAADRIA
email n7693103@mail.ncku.edu.twmc2p@mail.ncku.edu.tw
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

_id 4361
authors Bishop, G. and Weimer, D.M.
year 1986
title Fast Phong Shading
source Computer Graphics (20) 4 pp. 103-106
summary Computer image generation systems often represent curved surfaces as a mesh of polygons that are shaded to restore a smooth appearance. Phong shading is a well known algorithm for producing a realistic shading but it has not been used by real-time systems because of the 3 additions, 1 division and 1 square root required per pixel for its evaluation. We describe a new formulation for Phong shading that reduces the amount of computation per pixel to only 2 additions for simple Lambertian reflection and 5 additions and 1 memory reference for Phong's complete reflection model. We also show how to extend our method to compute the specular component with the eye at a finite distance from the scene rather than at infinity as is usually assumed. The method can be implemented in hardware for real-time applications or in software to speed image generation for almost any system.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id e43b
authors Blasi, D. and Scudo, G.
year 1986
title Experience of Output Visualisation in Thermal Performance Analysis and Design.
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 186-191
summary GKS didactic application in output visualisation of thermal behaviour simulation in building analysis and design. Energy analysis is performed by BEETA (Built Environment Energy Test and Analysis) code. It is a numerical simulation code which allows to simulate the building multizone thermal behaviour with different passive devices (Direct Gain, Greenhouse, Solar Chimney, Trompe, Convective and Radiative Cooling etc.). The code is based on thermal network theory and methods; the set of thermal equation is normally solved every hour or less by the coefficient matrix inversion method. An interactive loop is provide for dealing with non- linear thermal conductance problems with continuous or step variation (i.e. air mixing through an opening between two spaces, Trompe wall convective loop, etc.) The code allows to take into account urban obstructions and shading devices.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id a6f1
authors Bridges, A.H.
year 1986
title Any Progress in Systematic Design?
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 5-15
summary In order to discuss this question it is necessary to reflect awhile on design methods in general. The usual categorization discusses 'generations' of design methods, but Levy (1981) proposes an alternative approach. He identifies five paradigm shifts during the course of the twentieth century which have influenced design methods debate. The first paradigm shift was achieved by 1920, when concern with industrial arts could be seen to have replaced concern with craftsmanship. The second shift, occurring in the early 1930s, resulted in the conception of a design profession. The third happened in the 1950s, when the design methods debate emerged; the fourth took place around 1970 and saw the establishment of 'design research'. Now, in the 1980s, we are going through the fifth paradigm shift, associated with the adoption of a holistic approach to design theory and with the emergence of the concept of design ideology. A major point in Levy's paper was the observation that most of these paradigm shifts were associated with radical social reforms or political upheavals. For instance, we may associate concern about public participation with the 1970s shift and the possible use (or misuse) of knowledge, information and power with the 1980s shift. What has emerged, however, from the work of colleagues engaged since the 1970s in attempting to underpin the practice of design with a coherent body of design theory is increasing evidence of the fundamental nature of a person's engagement with the design activity. This includes evidence of the existence of two distinctive modes of thought, one of which can be described as cognitive modelling and the other which can be described as rational thinking. Cognitive modelling is imagining, seeing in the mind's eye. Rational thinking is linguistic thinking, engaging in a form of internal debate. Cognitive modelling is externalized through action, and through the construction of external representations, especially drawings. Rational thinking is externalized through verbal language and, more formally, through mathematical and scientific notations. Cognitive modelling is analogic, presentational, holistic, integrative and based upon pattern recognition and pattern manipulation. Rational thinking is digital, sequential, analytical, explicatory and based upon categorization and logical inference. There is some relationship between the evidence for two distinctive modes of thought and the evidence of specialization in cerebral hemispheres (Cross, 1984). Design methods have tended to focus upon the rational aspects of design and have, therefore, neglected the cognitive aspects. By recognizing that there are peculiar 'designerly' ways of thinking combining both types of thought process used to perceive, construct and comprehend design representations mentally and then transform them into an external manifestation current work in design theory is promising at last to have some relevance to design practice.
series CAAD Futures
email a.h.bridges@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 2eb1
authors Bridges, Alan H.
year 1986
title Alternative Approaches Towards the Teaching of Computer Aided Architectural Design
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 331-340
summary The problems of architectural education in general and CAD education in particular are discussed. The paper suggests that the computing requirements of architectural practice are different to those of architectural education and that much of the software used in schools of architecture is not used in an educationally structured way. A number of proposals for the educational use of computers are made, together with recommendations for a common computing environment.
series eCAADe
email a.h.bridges@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id f5db
authors Brooks, F.P.
year 1986
title Walkthrough - A Dynamic Graphics System for Simulating Virtual Buildings
source Proceedings 1986 Workshop on Interactive 3D Graphics. ACM: 9-22
summary As part of our graphics research into virtual worlds, we are building a tool for an architect and his client to use for rapid prototyping of buildings by visually "walking through" them in order to refine specifications. Our first prototype simulated the new UNC Computer Science building with some 8000 polygons. BSP-tree software on the Adage Ikonas gave a colored, shaded perspective view every 3-5 seconds while the user moved a cursor in real-time over floorplans shown on the Vector-General 3300. The current (third) version uses Pixel-Planes to generate 9 updates/second, view images shown 4' x 6' by projector. Active short- and long-term research questions include speed-up, stereo, a 6-DoF interface with eye-level defaults, and an interactive model-building, model-changing system.
series other
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id c211
authors Brown, A.G.P.
year 1986
title A Year's Experience with CATIA and CADAM
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 7-16
summary In June 1985 Liverpool University obtained the CAD packages CATIA and CADAM to run on its IBM 4341 mainframe. The following is a brief description of the investigations which have taken place in the first year of their implementation to gauge the usefulness of these packages, principalLy as CAAD teaching aids. Neither CATIA nor CADAM were initially developed as architectural design aids so a matter of initial concern was their appropriateness for teaching (and possibly research) in an architectural environment.
series eCAADe
email andygpb@liv.ac.uk
last changed 1998/08/18 07:56

_id a661
authors Cajati, Claudio and Calandro, Lucia
year 1986
title Architectural analysis of buildings in order to choice new functional destinations: an application of computer graphics for Faculty of Architecture's students
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 17-19
summary The research tries to give a little but meaningful answer to the specific context of the Faculty of Architecture of Naples. Such a context presents a delay of teachers and researchers, in their teaching and researching activity, in beginning the CAAD way. Often the delay is due to a wrong attitude: a too high or too low expectation towards the use of the computer. In such a situation, the chief target of the research is the student of architecture. It is possible and useful to address a clear message, by a simple educational material, just to the student of architecture; not necessarily by producing a software or modifying some existing one, but also applying a given available software to an important architectural question.
series eCAADe
email cajatic@libero.it
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

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