CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 81 to 100 of 206

_id 8db7
authors Gero, John S., Radford, Antony D. and Rosenman, Michael A. (et al)
year 1986
title Knowledge-based Building Design
source CIB 86, Advanced Building Technology, Proceedings. 1986. vol. 1: pp. 93-102
summary CADLINE has abstract only. The use of the right knowledge depends not only on its availability but also on the designer recognizing that it is needed. The great majority of failures in building design and construction come from the non-application of existing, recorded knowledge; the designer either could not find the right information, or never recognized that the existing basis for making design decisions was inadequate in a new context. This paper describes some work towards the development of knowledge-based computer-aided design tools in which the knowledge is explicit, explained and open to modification. The philosophy behind the work is that design is almost always better if it is based on better knowledge, and that knowledge should be linked as closely as possible to the design activity. Rather than rely on a theoretical discussion, the authors make some brief statements about the nature of such knowledge-based systems and then give some working examples from the Architectural Computing Unit in the University of Sydney
keywords building, knowledge base, design, architecture, CAD
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c52d
authors Gero, John S.
year 1986
title An Overview of Knowledge Engineering and its Relevance to CAAD
source Guildford: Butterworth, 1986. pp. 107-119
summary This paper introduces the concepts of knowledge engineering, a subset of artificial intelligence. It describes means of representing and manipulating non-numeric design knowledge using symbolic inference mechanisms. It then describes a subset of knowledge engineering--expert systems. Knowledge- based systems in computer-aided architectural design are presented as a new direction for CAAD which expands the role of the computer in design. Expert systems within a CAAD environment are discussed
keywords AI, knowledge base, design, architecture, CAD, representation, expert systems
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 0354
authors Goodman, Gary and Reddy, Raj D.
year 1978
title Alternative Control Structures for Speech Understanding Systems
source 1978 ? [13] p. : ill. includes bibliography Control structures are an essential part of any speech recognition system. They are the devices by which passive knowledge about the task and language is transformed into active and effective processes. In the chapter, three areas of control structures are defined and discussed: knowledge source interaction, knowledge source activation, and knowledge source focusing. Discussion relates the concepts presented to systems developed during the five-year ARPA speech understanding project. speech recognition / systems / control / structures / AI. 64. Goodman, Tim and Keith Unsworth. 'Manipulating Shape and Producing Geometric Continuity in B-spline Curves.' IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. February, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 50-56 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary This article examines some of the desirable features of B- splines that make them particularly suitable for computer- aided design. First, a theoretical analysis is presented regarding the effects upon the shape of a design curve when the bias and tension parameters are allowed to vary in certain ways. Second, the concept of geometric continuity is discussed, and conditions are derived upon the control vertices to ensure that the design curve has second-order geometric continuity. Illustrations of B-spline curves are presented to support the theoretical conclusions
keywords computational geometry, B-splines, curves, CAD
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 68aa
authors Greenberg, Donald P.
year 1986
title Computer Graphics and Visualization
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 63-67
summary The field of computer graphics has made enormous progress during the past decade. It is rapidly approaching the time when we will be able to create images of such realism that it will be possible to 'walk through' nonexistent spaces and to evaluate their aesthetic quality based on the simulations. In this chapter we wish to document the historical development of computer graphics image creation and describe some techniques which are currently being developed. We will try to explain some pilot projects that we are just beginning to undertake at the Program of Computer Graphics and the Center for Theory and Simulation in Science and Engineering at Cornell University.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id ad96
authors Gudes, Ehud and Bracha, Gilad
year 1986
title GCI : A Tool for Developing Interactive CAD User Interfaces
source 26 p. : ill. Israel: 1986? includes bibliography
summary GCI is a Unix based tool for developing interactive CAD programs. By separating command/menu definitions from the program, GCI makes it easier to change and extend the user interface. The language provided by GCI is used to define syntax of commands, menus, messages, and help text. Generally, GCI supports a static hierarchical structure of commands and menus. However, through a program interface, an application program has the freedom to change environments, commands and menus. This flexibility of run-time control of the user interface is essential for developing highly responsive interfaces in a CAD environment. This paper presents the main concepts and definition language of GCI. It then discusses architectural and implementation issues, and finally presents a typical application's view of using the tool
keywords user interface, design, management, systems, tools, CAD
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 896b
authors Haider, Jawaid
year 1986
title A Conceptual Framework for Communication -Instruction in Architectural Design
source Pennsylvania State University
summary Existing design models, it is generally acknowledged, are inadequate to deal with the complexity of contemporary situations; and an assessment of self-conscious design manifests a slow development in the power and scope of conceptualizing. The quality of knowledge and conceptual tools available to the designer largely determine his ability to conceive and accomplish; conversely, the limitations of method are reflected in design solutions. Some emerging social problem-solving paradigms, which seek to construct a cognitive psychology of problem solving, have a direct relevance to architectural design. Notwithstanding the traditional criticism and scepticism, problem solving is predicated by task environment and problem space as these have a significant impact on design synthesis. Despite a rigorous search for theoretical perspectives and methods, the concern for the quality of the physical environment persists unabated. Historically, architecture has depended on other disciplines for its theoretical insight; but the application of borrowed theories without a viable framework for translation has often resulted in misinterpretation. Aggravating the problem is the art-science controversy which has consequences for architectural practice and education. What is required is a unified approach encompassing the scientific and artistic modes of inquiry. But a unified perspective, involving vast and disparate areas of human knowledge, demands a conceptual framework for integrative learning. The proposed model of this study provides such a framework and calls for a re-examination of the conventional boundaries of design disciplines. It advocates an interdisciplinary approach and recognizes the design process as inherently a learning process; this shifts the emphasis from product to process and allows students to plan and assess their own design/learning experience. While the study focuses on substantive issues, it identifies a strategy for integrative learning applicable within the existing context of design education. Despite its untested nature, the proposed model can become a vehicle for stimulating coordination of all facets of human knowledge and experience toward creative design synthesis. It inculcates a sense of critical assessment of generative ideas by presenting a conceptually clearer picture of the design process to elicit a response to and a better understanding of the task environment of architecture.
series thesis:PhD
email jxh40@psu.edu
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id e65f
authors Haines, Eric A. and Greenberg, Donald P.
year 1986
title The Light Buffer: A Shadow-Testing Accelerator
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. September, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 6-16 : col. ill. includes bibliography
summary In one area of computer graphics, realistic image synthesis, the ultimate goal is to produce a picture indistinguishable from a photograph of a real environment. A particularly powerful technique for simulating light reflection - an important element in creating this realism - is called ray tracing. This method produces images of excellent quality, but suffers from lengthy computation time that limits its practical use. This article presents a new method to reduce shadow testing time during ray tracing. The technique involves generating light buffers, each of which partitions the environment with respect to an individual light source. These partition descriptions are then used during shadow testing to quickly determine a small subset of objects that may have to be tested for intersection. The results of timing tests illustrate the beneficial performance of these techniques. The tests compare the standard ray-tracing algorithm to light buffers of varying resolution
keywords realism, synthesis, ray tracing, algorithms, computer graphics, shadowing
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 2b40
authors Hanson, N.L.R. and Radford, Antony D.
year 1986
title Living on the Edge : A Grammar For Some Country Houses by Glenn Murcutt
source Architecture Australia. 1986. vol. 75: pp. 66-73
summary Glenn Murcutt is an award-winning Australian architect whose work displays a consistent pattern of development in its response to the environment and brief. A set of syntactic and abductive rules is developed that models the generation of a subset of his work. The model and the architect's response to its operation is described
keywords architecture, shape grammars, applications
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 0ebf
id 0ebf
authors Hanson, N.L.R. and Radford, Antony D.
year 1986
title On Modelling the Work of the Architect Glenn Murcutt
source Design Computing, pp. 189-203
summary A prototypical design grammar for a class of country houses by the Australian award-winning architect Glenn Murcutt is developed. The rules of the design grammar are executed to create a design for a country house on a real site with a real brief, in parallel with a design by Murcutt himself. Feedback from Murcutt and the differences between the designs and the reasons for them are discussed. Some conclusions are drawn on the role and assumptions of design grammars as rule- based expert systems and the qualities of design activity which cannot be modelled by such systems
keywords expert systems, architecture, design, shape grammars, applications
series CADline
email b.martens@tuwien.ac.at
last changed 2003/12/01 19:29

_id 7f64
authors Harfmann, A.C., Swerdloff, L.M. and Kalay, Y.E.
year 1986
title The Terminal Crit
source ACADIA Workshop ‘86 Proceedings - Houston (Texas - USA) 24-26 October 1986, pp. 79-87
summary Numerous attempts have been made to develop formal design methods with -the purpose of increasing the predictability, consistency and dissemination of the design process and improving the quality of the objects produced. The ill- structured nature of design, and the perception of design activities as intuitive and experience dependent have frustrated many of the efforts to structure these process. The growing complexity of the built environment and advances in technology have led to a more rigorous effort to understand and externalize creative activities. Computer aided design tools have recently been playing an important role in the evolution of the design process as a rationally defined activity. The use of- computers for drafting, analysis, and 2 or 3 dimensional modeling is rapidly becoming an accepted method in many design schools and practitioners. A next logical step in the externalization of the design process is to endow the computer with the ability to manipulate and critique parts of the design. Under this scenario, the "terminal crit" is redefined to mean critiques that are carried out by both the designer and the computer. The paper presents the rationalization of the design process as a continuum into which CAD has been introduced. The effects of computers on the design process are studied through a specific incorporation of CAD tools into a conventional design studio, and a research project intended to advance the role of CAD in design.
series ACADIA
email HARFMAAC@UCMAIL.UC.EDU
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 2156
authors Hashimshony, Rivka, Roth, J. and Wachman, A.
year 1986
title A Model for Generating Floor-Plans in Multi-Story Buildings
source International Journal of Design Computing. April, 1986. vol. 1: pp. 136-157 : ill. includes bibliography
summary A graph-theoretic method for computer generation of rectangular floor plans for multi-story buildings is outlined. The problem formulation takes account of adjacency requirements of rooms, dimensional constraints, and the need for vertical alignments of elements such as stairs and elevators. The solution method is to first turn the required adjacencies graph into a layout graph by adding edges, then color and direct the layout graph, cut the colored directed graph into two subgraphs, and finally use the PERT technique to dimension the plan. An example problem of design of a medical clinic is formulated and solved using this method
keywords space allocation, architecture, CAD, floor plans, synthesis, graphs, dimensioning
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 2ceb
authors Hearn, Donald and Baker, Pauline M.
year 1986
title Windowing and Clipping -- - Chapter 6
source Computer Graphics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ.: Prentice Hall, 1986. pp. 123-141 : ill. includes a short bibliography
summary Applications programs define pictures in a world coordinate system. This can be any Cartesian coordinate system that a user finds convenient. Pictures defined in world coordinates are then mapped by the graphics system into device coordinates. Typically, a graphics package allows a user to specify which area of the picture definition is to be displayed and where it is to be placed on the display device. A single area could be chosen for display, or several areas could be selected. These areas can be placed in separate display locations, or one area can serve as a small insert into a larger area. This transformation process involves operations for translating and scaling selected areas and for deleting picture parts outside the areas. These operations are referred to as windowing and clipping
keywords clipping, windowing, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id caadria2009_053
id caadria2009_053
authors Hu, Hui-Jiun; Jen Yen
year 2009
title Conceptual Model for Design Team toward Website Construction
source Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Yunlin (Taiwan) 22-25 April 2009, pp. 503-510
summary Since mid 1990s internet has been developing rapidly to become the most booming and emerging media in late history and play an important role in living. Therefore, how to design an interface of easy to use has become an important issue pertaining to Human Computer Interaction. Norman (1986) proposed in the human computer interaction, there is a design model in the mind of designer. In turn, the designer will follow design model and to design a set of system image that is functional, learnable, and usable. Therefore, we want to understand the critical factor of influencing toward website construction, we should find out the mental model that web design team at first. In this paper, we using the Interactive Qualitative Analysis (IQA) approach. The data collection method of the participant of the focus group’s silent brainstorming is adopted. Further analyze web design team’s the conceptual model on website construction through inductive coding and axial coding. The result shows the affinities of 9 web design team is thus produced. And, Business Decision, Team Performance, Self-Fulfillment and Entrepreneur Communication are main influence factor. These factors can lead trend and goal of a website.
keywords website construction; web design team; conceptual model; Interactive Qualitative Analysis (IQA)
series CAADRIA
email momo@tit.edu.tw
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id a833
authors Jong, M. de
year 1986
title A Spatial Relational Reference Model (3RM)
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 85-91
summary In this chapter we hope to provide the reader with an impression of the objective, framework and possibilities of 3RM in the construction industry. In Dutch, 3RM stands for 'Ruimtelijk Relationeel Referentie Model' (Spatial Relational Reference Model). The model could begin to be used as an information-bearer in the building industry within which the specific trade information for each of the building participants could be interrelated, including drafting symbolism, building costs, physical qualities and building regulations. In this way, the model can be used as a means to a more efficient running of the building process and enabling the integration of information, at project level, provided by various building participants. The project should be defined in the same way as is a typical architectural project, whereby the actual development as well as the project management is carried out by architects. For the time being, development is limited to integral use at the design stage, but it also offers sufficient expansion possibilities to be able to function as a new communications model throughout the complete building process. We shall first provide information as to the origin, the objective and the execution of the project. Thereafter, we shall attempt to state the theoretical information problem within the building industry and the solution to this offered through 3RM. Finally, we shall report upon the results of the first phase of the 3RM project.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id c55f
authors Kalay, Yehuda E.
year 1986
title The Impact of CAD On Architectural Design Education in the United States
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 348-355
summary Computer-Aided Design (CAD) began to appear in schools of architecture in the United States over 15 years ago. By 1982, over 50% of all accredited schools of architecture in North America included some form of CAD in their curricula. This number has continued to steadily increase. For the most part, the use of CAD has been restricted to the few individuals working on special "CAD projects" and to the researchers developing CAD products. The reasons for this limitation have included the low availability, difficulty of use, restricted access and high cost of the CAD systems, as well as limited faculty and administrative support. Recently, however, partly due to the introduction of micro- computer CAD software, and partly due to the growing awareness of the importance of CAD in architectural education and practice, some schools have begun to introduce CAD as part of the general design curriculum.
series eCAADe
email kalay@ced.berkeley.edu
last changed 1998/08/18 08:27

_id ed11
authors Kieffer, Bruce D.
year 1986
title An Interactive CAD Based System Integrating Visual Analysis & Design
source ACADIA Workshop ‘86 Proceedings - Houston (Texas - USA) 24-26 October 1986, pp. 191-202
summary The paper describes the development of an enhanced CAD based instructional system specifically focusing on a linkage between the analytical and creative tasks necessary during the early schematic or conceptual design. The first two components of the system are fairly conventional items and include a tutorial and library of six (6) two and three dimensional CAD design files which document the visual and organizational aspects of archetype buildings and spaces. The CAD facility allows a user to selectively highlight and combine for review, various features of a buildings design. This allows its users to literally, "build-up" an understanding of the complexity of factors at work in recognizably good building. The final component to a customized CAD environment allowing users to develop their own designs with the same tools used during analysis of the archetypes. In addition to a description of the system, the paper identifies the effectiveness measures and instructional setting being established for evaluation of the system.
series ACADIA
email bkieffer@wisc.edu
last changed 2003/04/28 13:22

_id 682d
authors Kim, Uk
year 1986
title Model for an Integrated Design Evaluation System using Knowledge Bases
source ACADIA Workshop ‘86 Proceedings - Houston (Texas - USA) 24-26 October 1986, pp. 204-215
summary Computer-aided architectural design (CAAD) systems need to be integrated so that one unified system can generate and do various analysis and evaluation of building models. A data system can not solve this problem because all design concepts can not be stored in the database before the design is completed. As design stage proceeds, design concept and necessary information for analysis and evaluation become complex and detailed. In order to accommodate increasing entities and new relationships between them, knowledge-based systems are integrated into the database of building models. frame structure and production rules are adopted to represent knowledge about the database, and to represent evaluation rules respectively. The system is implemented in Prolog on an Apollo workstation.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/10/10 12:26

_id ac18
authors Knight, Terry W.
year 1986
title Transformations of Languages of Designs
source University of California, Graduate School of Architecture and Urban PIanning, Los Angeles
summary Stylistic change and innovation is a central and traditional issue in art and architecture. In this study, a formal model is developed for representing stylistic change. Styles are defined in terms of rule-based systems called shape grammars that generate languages of designs. Changes in styles are represented as transformations of the shape grammars that define these styles. The model is first sketched informally and considered in relation to other, traditional approaches to style and change. It is then presented in detail and illustrated with numerous simple examples. Last, the model is applied to describe actual, historical examples of stylistic transformations: one in the decorative arts, one in the fine arts, and one in architecture.
series thesis:PhD
email tknight@mit.edu
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id sigradi2008_175
id sigradi2008_175
authors Knight, Terry; Larry Sass, Kenfield Griffith, Ayodh Vasant Kamath
year 2008
title Visual-Physical Grammars
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary This paper introduces new visual-physical design grammars for the design and manufacture of building assembly systems that provide visually rich, culturally resonant design variations for housing. The building systems are intended to be tailored for particular cultures and communities by incorporating vernacular, decorative design into the assembly design. Two complementary areas of computational design research are brought together in this work: shape grammars and digital fabrication. The visual or graphic aspects of the research are explored through shape grammars. The physical design and manufacturing aspects are explored through advanced digital design and fabrication technologies and, in particular, build on recent work on mono-material assemblies with interlocking components that can be fabricated with CNC machines and assembled easily by hand on-site (Sass, 2007). This paper describes the initial, proof-of-concept stage of this work: the development of an automated, visual-physical grammar for an assembly system based on a vernacular language of Greek meander designs. A shape grammar for the two-dimensional Greek meander language (Knight, 1986) was translated into a three-dimensional assembly system. The components of the system are uniquely designed, concrete “meander bricks” (Figure 1). The components have integrated alignment features so that they can be easily fitted and locked together manually without binding materials. Components interlock horizontally to form courses, and courses interlock vertically in different ways to produce a visual variety of meander walls. The assembly components were prototyped at desktop scale with a layered manufacturing machine to test their appearance after assembly and their potential for design variations (Figure 2). Components were then evaluated as full-scale concrete objects for satisfaction of physical constraints related to concrete forming and component strength. The automated grammar (computer program) for this system generates assembly design variations with complete CAD/CAM data for fabrication of components formed from layered, CNC cut molds. Using the grammar, a full-scale mockup of a corner wall section was constructed to assess the structural, material, and aesthetic feasibility of the system, as well as ease of assembly. The results of this study demonstrate clearly the potentials for embedding visual properties in structural systems. They provide the foundations for further work on assembly systems for complete houses and other small-scale structures, and grammars to generate them. In the long-term, this research will lead to new solutions for economical, easily manufactured housing which is especially critical in developing countries and for post-disaster environments. These new housing solutions will not only provide shelter but will also support important cultural values through the integration of familiar visual design features. The use of inexpensive, portable digital design and fabrication technologies will allow local communities to be active, cooperative participants in the design and construction of their homes. Beyond the specific context of housing, visual-physical grammars have the potential to positively impact design and manufacture of designed artifacts at many scales, and in many domains, particularly for artifacts where visual aesthetics need to be considered jointly with physical or material requirements and design customization or variation is important.
keywords Shape grammar, digital fabrication, building assembly, mass customization, housing
series SIGRADI
email tknight@mit.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:54

_id 0e5e
authors Kociolek, A.
year 1986
title CAD in Polish Building
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 235-245
summary There is little CAAD in Polish architectural design offices, and only recently have practising architects discovered the computer. On the other hand, CAAD has been used for some time in research and development based at universities or in large design organizations. This chapter gives a broad picture of the computerization of building design in Poland, a complex process which concerns planning and financing, hardware, software, CAD practice, standardization, training, education, etc. Here architectural applications are treated on an equal basis, together with other applications representing design disciplines involved in design, such as structural and mechanical engineering. The underlying philosophy of this chapter is a belief that proper and well-balanced computerization of design in building which leaves creative work to human beings should result in better design and eventually in improvements in the built environment. Therefore integration of the design process in building seems more important for design practice than attempts to replace an architect by a computer, although the intellectual attraction of this problem is recognized.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

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