CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 206

_id 6ab7
authors Korson, Tim and McGregor, John D.
year 1990
title Understanding Object- Oriented : A Unifying Paradigm
source Communications of the ACM September, 1990. vol. 33: pp. 40-60. includes bibliography.
summary The purpose of this paper is to introduce terminology, concepts and basic techniques surrounding the object-oriented paradigm. software / OOPS / programming. 63. Koskela, Lauri, Raija Hynynen and Martti Kallavuo, et al. 'Expert Systems in Construction - Initial Experiences.' CAD and Robotics in Architecture and Construction, Proceedings of the International Joint Conference = CAO et Robotique en Architecture et B.T.P. Actes des Journees Internationales. June, 1986. Paris: Hermes, pp. 167-176. includes bibliography and abstracts in French and English. This paper describes development of expert systems for construction applications in the Laboratory of Building Economics of the Technical Research Centre of Finland. Five small expert systems are described. Experiences gained in the development work are evaluated. The future significance of expert systems for the construction industry is discussed, and an approach towards expert systems to be adopted by organizations in the construction industry is suggested
keywords construction, applications, economics, expert systems, knowledge, evaluation, analysis
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 2a91
authors Cox, Brad J.
year 1986
title Object-Oriented Programming : An Evolutionary Approach
source 274 p. : ill Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., 1986. includes index
summary Object oriented programming departs from conventional programming by emphasizing the relationship between consumers and suppliers of codes rather then the relationship between a programmer and his code. The author describes the development of an object-oriented C language compiler, and how it can be put to work
keywords systems, languages, software, programming, OOPS
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id a6a9
authors Goebel, Martin and Kroemker, Detlef
year 1986
title A Multi-Microprocessor GKS Workstation
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications July, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 54-60 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary Implementers of graphical application systems hesitate to interface their applications to the GKS standard not only because GKS functionality seems to be less sufficient for a particular application but also because the use of GKS -- as it is offered in portable software implementations -- usually means a loss of system performance. This article describes an installation of GKS on a multi-microprocessor that is based on functional distribution principles as well as on the object-oriented distribution of a graphics system. The main concepts and advantages of a GKS workstation using more than one processing unit with at least one output pipeline are described. The flexibility of this approach opens a perspective view to a GKS workstation that is configurable to application requirements
keywords standards, GKS, graphs, systems, hardware
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 8e43
authors Katz, R., Chang, E. and Bhateja, R.
year 1986
title Version Modeling concepts for Computer-Aided Design Databases
source ACM SIGMOD Intl. Conf On Management of Data
summary We describe a semantic object-oriented data model for representing how a complex design database evolves over time. Structural relationships, introduced by the data management system, are imposed on the objects created by existing CAD tools. The relationships supported by the model are (1) version histories, (2) time-varying configurations, and (3) equivalences among objects of different types. We describe mechanisms for (1) identifying current versions, (2) supporting dynamic configuration binding, and (3) verifying equivalence relationships. The data model is being implemented in a Version Server, under development at the University of California, Berkeley.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id f3aa
authors Tyler, Sherman William
year 1986
title SAUCI. Self-Adaptive User Computer Interfaces
source Carnegie Mellon University,Pittsburgh
summary Different approaches to the design of the human-computer interface have been taken in the past. These can be organized into four broad categories: tack-on; intuitive/empirical; formal; and conversational. There are several important interface design criteria that have never been adequately attained in any of these approaches. One is modularity, that is, maintaining a clear separation between the interface and its target system. A second criterion is self-adaptation, or the ability of the interface to modify its own behavior to suit a given individual user. Two further criteria relate to the interface's potential to guide users in performing typical high-level tasks on the target system and to provide intelligent advice on the use of that system. This research was focused on developing an integrated technique for achieving these four design criteria. To that end, an abstract architecture called SAUCI, or the Self-Adaptive User-Computer Interface, was proposed, embodying a knowledge-based, object-oriented approach to interface design. The foundation of this approach rests upon information encoded within sets of objects. This information includes separate knowledge bases describing the individual users, the commands of the target system, and the high-level tasks appropriate for that system. The behavior of the interface is controlled by various methods which call upon the knowledge bases in a rule-governed manner to decide what interface features should be present at each phase of the user's dialogue with the target system. To test the feasibility of the proposed architecture, a working interface was implemented on a Xerox 1108 computer in the LOOPS language, with a UNIX operating system running on a separate minicomputer as the target system. An empirical evaluation of this prototype revealed clear advantages over the standard interface. Closer examination pointed to each of the factors of modularity, task guidance, and user-tailored assistance as playing a significant role in these effects. A discussion of additional applications of this architecture and of areas for future development is offered as further evidence of the value of this approach as a general framework for human-computer interface design.  
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id e12d
authors Johnson, Robert E.
year 1986
title Micro-computers and Computer Aided Design Instruction
source ACADIA Workshop ‘86 Proceedings - Houston (Texas - USA) 24-26 October 1986, pp. 173-181
summary During the past few years we have been involved in a variety of experiments that teach the use of computers to non-computer oriented architecture students. These teaching experiences have led to the development of an experimental, entry-level course in computer-aided architectural design using the Macintosh personal computer. Objectives of this course included: a) to provide an introductory course to students with little or no prior computer experience, b) to use the course as a vehicle for illustrating principles of computer-aided design, c) to course so that it would be applicable to design in general, not just architectural design, and d) whenever possible, to use "off the shelf', generic, readily accessible software. The history of these developments will be presented along with a very preliminary evaluation of results.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/10/10 12:26

_id 8267
authors Shapiro, Ehud
year 1986
title Concurrent Prolog : A Progress Report
source IEEE Computer. August, 1986. vol. 19: pp.44-58. includes bibliography
summary Concurrent Prolog is a logic programming language designed for concurrent programming and parallel execution. A process- oriented language, it embodies dataflow synchronization and guarded-command indeterminacy as its basic control mechanisms. This article outlines the basic concepts and definition of the language, and surveys the major programming techniques that emerged out of three years of its use. The history of the language development, implementation, and applications are reviewed
keywords PROLOG, programming, AI, languages, concurrency, control, techniques
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id 678e
authors Aish, Robert
year 1986
title Three-dimensional Input and Visualization
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 68-84
summary The aim of this chapter is to investigate techniques by which man-computer interaction could be improved, specifically in the context of architectural applications of CAD. In this application the object being designed is often an assembly of defined components. Even if the building is not actually fabricated from such components, it is usually conceptualized in these terms. In a conventional graphics- based CAD system these components are usually represented by graphical icons which are displayed on the graphics screen and arranged by the user. The system described here consists of three- dimensional modelling elements which the user physically assembles to form his design. Unlike conventional architectural models which are static (i.e. cannot be changed by the users) and passive (i.e. cannot be read by a CAD system), this model is both 'user generated' and 'machine readable'. The user can create, edit and view the model by simple, natural modelling activities and without the need to learn complex operating commands often associated with CAD systems. In particular, the user can view the model, altering his viewpoint and focus of attention in a completely natural way. Conventional computer graphics within an associated CAD system are used to represent the detailed geometry which the different three-dimensional icons may represent. In addition, computer graphics are also used to present the output of the performance attributes of the objects being modelled. In the architectural application described in this chapter an energy- balance evaluation is displayed for a building designed using the modelling device. While this system is not intended to offer a completely free-form input facility it can be considered to be a specialist man-machine interface of particular relevance to architects or engineers.
series CAAD Futures
email Robert.Aish@bentley.com
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 6733
authors Bettels, Juergen and Myers, David R.
year 1986
title The PIONS Graphics System
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. July, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 30-38 : col. ill. includes a short bibliography
summary During 1979, CERN began to evaluate how interactive computer graphics displays could aid the analysis of high-energy physics experiments at the new Super Proton Synchrotron collider. This work led to PIONS, a 3D graphics system, which features the ability to store and view hierarchical graphics structures in a directed-acyclic-graph database. It is possible to change the attributes of these structures by making selections on nongraphical information also stored in the database. PIONS is implemented as an object-oriented message-passing system based on SmallTalk design principles. It supports multiple viewing transformations, logical input devices, and 2D and 3D primitives. The design allows full use to be made of display hardware that provides dynamic 3D picture transformation
keywords visualization, computer graphics, database, systems, modeling
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 09b3
authors Bier, Eric A. and Sloan, Kenneth R. Jr.
year 1986
title Two-Part Texture Mappings
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications September, 1986. pp. 40-53 : col. ill. includes bibliography.
summary Most published techniques for mapping two-dimensional texture patterns onto three-dimensional curved surfaces assume that either the texture pattern has been predistorted to compensate for the distortion of the mapping or the curved surfaces are represented parametrically. The authors address the problem of mapping undistorted planar textures onto arbitrarily represented surfaces. Their mapping technique is done in two parts. First the texture pattern is embedded in 3- space on an intermediate surface. Then the pattern is projected onto the target surface in a way that depends only on the geometry of the target object (not on its parametrization). Both steps have relatively low distortion, so the original texture need not be predistorted. The authors also discuss interactive techniques that make two-part mapping practical
keywords texture mapping, curved surfaces, computer graphics, rendering
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 8764
authors Bruderlin, B.
year 1986
title Constructing Three Dimensional Geometric Objects Defined by Constraints
source Workshop on Interactive 3D Graphics A CM, I 11- 129
summary We developed a system for automatically building three-dimensional geometric objects that are defined by their topology and by geometric constraints. A solid modeller is used for sketching the object. The geometric constraints are first evaluated symbolically by an algorithm written in Prolog. The symbolic solution is then numerically evaluated by procedures linked to Prolog.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 295a
authors De Grassi, Mario
year 1986
title Rational Data Model: An Approach for Building Design and Planning
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 231-242
summary A model of the building object utilizing the typical formal structures of the relational data model is presented, which allows interactive design procedures to be foreseen and at the same time the use of the model for a data base containing information on building objects, to be used for normative planning and for building design.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:15

_id d37c
authors Haines, Eric A. and Greenberg, Donald P.
year 1986
title The Light Buffer: A Ray Tracer Shadow Testing Accelerator
source Comput. Graph. and App., vol. 6, no. 9, pp. 6-16, IEEE, Sept. 1986
summary The basic ideas presented are classifying objects from the light's viewpoint, and caching shadowing objects. The classification scheme uses a modified z-buffer to create lists of objects in sorted order for each "pixel" the light sees and determining depths beyond which no light passes. The other technique presented is caching the object that was last intersected by a shadow ray and immediately testing this object for the next shadow ray for the same light at the same location in the ray tree. Shadow caching is simple and applicable to almost any ray tracer. Dieter Bayer implemented the light buffer for POV-Ray.
series other
email erich@acm.org
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 67d2
authors Kajiya, J.T. and Kay, T.L.
year 1986
title Ray tracing complex scenes
source Computer Graphics, 20 4, 269-78
summary A new algorithm for speeding up ray-object intersection calculations is presented. Objects are bounded by a new type of extent, which can be made to fit convex hulls arbitrarily tightly. The objects are placed into a hierarchy. A new hierarchy traversal algorithm is presented which is efficient in the sense that objects along the ray are queried in ancient order. Furthermore , we demonstrate that it is currently possible to raytrace scenes containing hundreds of thousands of objects.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ae5f
authors Krishnamurti, Ramesh
year 1986
title Modelling Design Descriptions
source January, 1986. [5] p. : ill
summary This paper reports some of the principles that underlie a modelling environment being developed at EdCAAD. It describes research that is part of a larger programme directed at computer-based systems that can accommodate the idiosyncratic nature of design practice, without prescriptions to the form or content of designs. That is, towards developing systems to assist in the design process by enabling designers -via conversations with the machine - to make 'reasonable' statements about design objects; to ask 'reasonable' questions about these objects; and to perform 'reasonable' tasks on these objects. Implicit in the authors' approach is the view that designing is an activity dependent on designers' perceptions of design tasks and their resolution. In the context of computer-aided design, this view of design demands that the crucial element in any machine environment lies in the ability of the machine to accept (partial) descriptions of design objects. Moreover, these descriptions can be manipulated according to some (perhaps unanticipated) criteria that the designer may wish to apply. The authors present a model for intentional descriptions of objects. That is, a description that can be structures so that it can be used to recognize objects and can be compared with other descriptions. Such a description of an object should be organized around entities with associated descriptions, it must be able to represent partial knowledge about an object, and it must accommodate multiple descriptors which can describe the object from different viewpoints. Last, but not least, these descriptions should possess a quality of 'truth' in that they reflect the (factual or otherwise) beliefs held by the designer. One way to treat these descriptions is to regard them as statements that belong to some logical framework
keywords design process, representation, intentionallity
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id 29c2
authors Ozel, Filiz
year 1991
title An Intelligent Simulation Approach in Simulating Dynamic Processes in Architectural Environments
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 177-190
summary The implications of object-oriented data models and rule-based reasoning systems is being researched in a wide variety of application areas ranging from VLSI circuit design (Afsannanesh et al 1990) to architectural environments (Coyne et al 1990). The potential of this approach in the development of discrete event simulations is also being scrutinized (Birtwistle et al 1986). Such computer models are usually called "expert simulations" or "intelligent simulations". Typically rule-basing in such models allows the definition of intelligent-objects that can reason about the simulated dynamic processes through an inferencing system. The major advantage of this approach over traditional simulation languages is its ability to provide direct reference to real world objects and processes. The simulation of dynamic processes in architectural environments poses an additional Problem of resolving the interaction of architectural objects with other objects such as humans, water, smoke etc., depending on the process simulated. Object-oriented approach promises potential in solving this specific problem. The first part of this paper addresses expert simulation approach within the context of architectural settings, then the second part summarizes work done in the application of such an approach to an emergency egress simulation.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/07 10:03

_id c92d
authors Sederberg, Thomas W. and Goldman, Ronald N.
year 1986
title Algebraic Geometry for Computer-Aided Geometric Design
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. June, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 52-59
summary An object description associating a tolerance with each of its topological features (vertices, edges, and faces) is introduced. The use of tolerances leads to a definition of topological consistency that is readily applied to boundary representations. The implications of using tolerances to aid in making consistent topological determinations from imprecise geometric data are explored and applied to the calculations of a polyhedral solid modeler
keywords Algorithms; Curves; Computational Geometry; Mathematics; Education; Intersection
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 452c
authors Vanier, D. J. and Worling, Jamie
year 1986
title Three-dimensional Visualization: A Case Study
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 92-102
summary Three-dimensional computer visualization has intrigued both building designers and computer scientists for decades. Research and conference papers present an extensive list of existing and potential uses for threedimensional geometric data for the building industry (Baer et al., 1979). Early studies on visualization include urban planning (Rogers, 1980), treeshading simulation (Schiler and Greenberg, 1980), sun studies (Anon, 1984), finite element analysis (Proulx, 1983), and facade texture rendering (Nizzolese, 1980). With the advent of better interfaces, faster computer processing speeds and better application packages, there had been interest on the part of both researchers and practitioners in three-dimensional -models for energy analysis (Pittman and Greenberg, 1980), modelling with transparencies (Hebert, 1982), super-realistic rendering (Greenberg, 1984), visual impact (Bridges, 1983), interference clash checking (Trickett, 1980), and complex object visualization (Haward, 1984). The Division of Building Research is currently investigating the application of geometric modelling in the building delivery process using sophisticated software (Evans, 1985). The first stage of the project (Vanier, 1985), a feasibility study, deals with the aesthetics of the mode. It identifies two significant requirements for geometric modelling systems: the need for a comprehensive data structure and the requirement for realistic accuracies and tolerances. This chapter presents the results of the second phase of this geometric modelling project, which is the construction of 'working' and 'presentation' models for a building.
series CAAD Futures
email Dana.Vanier@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 4d8b
authors Wright, Paul K.
year 1986
title A Manufacturing Hand
source pp. 13- 23 : ill Pittsburgh, PA: Engineering Design Research Center, CMU, September, 1986. includes bibliography.
summary In unmanned Flexible Manufacturing Cells, robots can be used for loading machines, inspection activities, and assembly operations. What kind of robotic end-effector should be built for such tasks? The human hand has evolved to be a general purpose manipulator that adapts to the richness of our daily lives but, in doing so, it is not particularly suited to manufacturing operations. Here, special tools, fixtures, and protective layers are heavily relied on. This paper describes the initial development of a hand specifically for manufacturing work. This has involved the manufacture of an instrumented wrist with an adjustable remote center of compliance, and the design of fingers for gripping. Object shapes have also been analyzed in order to provide for a stable static grip. Importantly, these studies of the physical aspects of prehension have been matched to tasks. The research has considered a range of industrial operations and specified the level of end-effector control needed. This work is leading to some design guides for robotic end-effectors which, it is hoped, will be of use to industrial designers
keywords robotics, CAD, CAM, CAE, automation, manufacturing
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id a7de
authors Bic, Lubomir and Jonathan P. Gilbert
year 1986
title Learning from AI : New Trends in Database Technology
source IEEE Computer. March, 1986. vol. 19: pp. 44-54. includes bibliography
summary With the steadily increasing demand for user-oriented systems, new trends in database technology have evolved outside of the scope of the traditional data models. The authors are concentrated in this article on two closely related efforts: The incorporation of more semantic modeling capabilities into database models, and the development of better user environment, which include user friendly interfaces and support different user views of the content and organization of the data
keywords AI, user interface, database, relational database
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

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