CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 0ac3
authors Heckbert, Paul S.
year 1986
title Survey of Texture Mapping
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. November, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 56-67 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Texture mapping is one of the most successful new techniques in high-quality image synthesis. It can enhance the visual richness of raster-scan images immensely while entailing only a relatively small increase in computation. The technique has been applied to a number of surface attributes: surface color, surface normal, specularity, transparency, illumination, and surface displacement, to name a few. Although the list is potentially endless, the techniques of texture mapping are essentially the same in all cases. This article surveys the fundamentals of texture mapping, which can be split into two topics: the geometric mapping that warps a texture onto a surface, and the filtering necessary to avoid aliasing. An extensive bibliography is included
keywords texture mapping, representation, filtering, computer graphics, visualization
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id a35a
authors Arponen, Matti
year 2002
title From 2D Base Map To 3D City Model
source UMDS '02 Proceedings, Prague (Czech Republic) 2-4 October 2002, I.17-I.28
summary Since 1997 Helsinki City Survey Division has proceeded in experimenting and in developing the methods for converting and supplementing current digital 2D base maps in the scale 1:500 to a 3D city model. Actually since 1986 project areas have been produced in 3D for city planning and construction projects, but working with the whole map database started in 1997 because of customer demands and competitive 3D projects. 3D map database needs new data modelling and structures, map update processes need new working orders and the draftsmen need to learn a new profession; the 3D modeller. Laser-scanning and digital photogrammetry have been used in collecting 3D information on the map objects. During the years 1999-2000 laser-scanning experiments covering 45 km2 have been carried out utilizing the Swedish TopEye system. Simultaneous digital photography produces material for orto photo mosaics. These have been applied in mapping out dated map features and in vectorizing 3D buildings manually, semi automatically and automatically. In modelling we use TerraScan, TerraPhoto and TerraModeler sw, which are developed in Finland. The 3D city model project is at the same time partially a software development project. An accuracy and feasibility study was also completed and will be shortly presented. The three scales of 3D models are also presented in this paper. Some new 3D products and some usage of 3D city models in practice will be demonstrated in the actual presentation.
keywords 3D City modeling
series other
email matti.arponen@hel.fi
more www.udms.net
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 09b3
authors Bier, Eric A. and Sloan, Kenneth R. Jr.
year 1986
title Two-Part Texture Mappings
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications September, 1986. pp. 40-53 : col. ill. includes bibliography.
summary Most published techniques for mapping two-dimensional texture patterns onto three-dimensional curved surfaces assume that either the texture pattern has been predistorted to compensate for the distortion of the mapping or the curved surfaces are represented parametrically. The authors address the problem of mapping undistorted planar textures onto arbitrarily represented surfaces. Their mapping technique is done in two parts. First the texture pattern is embedded in 3- space on an intermediate surface. Then the pattern is projected onto the target surface in a way that depends only on the geometry of the target object (not on its parametrization). Both steps have relatively low distortion, so the original texture need not be predistorted. The authors also discuss interactive techniques that make two-part mapping practical
keywords texture mapping, curved surfaces, computer graphics, rendering
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id aec8
authors Bellinghall, Leigh
year 1986
title The MicroCad Explosion : An Eye to Applications Clarifies Choices
source computer Graphics World March, 1986. vol. 9: pp. 23-28 : col. ill.
summary Two strong trends affirm increasing market interest in micro systems. While early programs were developed for personal computers, turnkey system houses are now stretching heavy-duty mini and mainframe-hosted programs down to micros. This article gives a selective survey of popular micro-CAD software, looks at packages in both development areas
keywords drafting, systems, CAD, software, applications
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 4d2d
authors McCartney, Allan
year 1986
title Teaching Computer Aided Architectural Design - Problems of Identity and Support
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 88-96
summary A recent survey carried out in the U.K., which identified the activities in the majority of the Schools of Architecture in the field of CAAD, broadly indicated that whilst most of the schools provided a taught course in CAAD, the nature and extent of the content varied significantly. In many cases, student participation in CAAD was entirely voluntary, whilst in other cases a considerable amount of time was allocated within existing course structures.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:04

_id 4d30
authors De Cola, Bruno and De Cola, Sergio
year 1986
title Experience of Thematic Mapping Using Personal Computer
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 223-230
summary The work that is presented here is the result of research conducted within and by the "Observatory of territorial and planning transformation" group of the faculty of Architecture at the University of Reggio Calabria, which was formed as a consequence of a commission called Coordination of Territorial Planning (C.T.P) given to the Calabrian University by the Regional Government.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:15

_id 2071
authors Radford, Antony D.
year 1986
title Style in Knowledge-based Systems for Architecture
source 1986. pp.i:3:1-9
summary The role of style in mapping between design intentions and design forms in knowledge-based. A particular generative expert system in architecture is discussed with some examples
keywords synthesis, style, architecture, knowledge base, expert systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id cf75
authors Robertson, Philip K. and O'Callaghan, John F.
year 1986
title The Generation of Color Sequences for Univariate and Bivariate Mapping
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. February, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 24-32 : ill. some col. includes bibliography
summary Recent technological advances have made it feasible to produce full color statistical maps on computer-controlled display systems. This has caused an appraisal of the use of color to represent statistical variables, and the development of a theoretical structure for the choice of suitable univariate and bivariate map coloring schemes. Realization of such schemes in an intuitive and controlled way is important to the comprehension of statistical variables from maps. Therefore, a method of generating specific color sequences within the framework of a uniform color space, allowing for the intuitive specification of color sequences and for their realization on various display systems, is presented
keywords mapping, color, display
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 452c
authors Vanier, D. J. and Worling, Jamie
year 1986
title Three-dimensional Visualization: A Case Study
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 92-102
summary Three-dimensional computer visualization has intrigued both building designers and computer scientists for decades. Research and conference papers present an extensive list of existing and potential uses for threedimensional geometric data for the building industry (Baer et al., 1979). Early studies on visualization include urban planning (Rogers, 1980), treeshading simulation (Schiler and Greenberg, 1980), sun studies (Anon, 1984), finite element analysis (Proulx, 1983), and facade texture rendering (Nizzolese, 1980). With the advent of better interfaces, faster computer processing speeds and better application packages, there had been interest on the part of both researchers and practitioners in three-dimensional -models for energy analysis (Pittman and Greenberg, 1980), modelling with transparencies (Hebert, 1982), super-realistic rendering (Greenberg, 1984), visual impact (Bridges, 1983), interference clash checking (Trickett, 1980), and complex object visualization (Haward, 1984). The Division of Building Research is currently investigating the application of geometric modelling in the building delivery process using sophisticated software (Evans, 1985). The first stage of the project (Vanier, 1985), a feasibility study, deals with the aesthetics of the mode. It identifies two significant requirements for geometric modelling systems: the need for a comprehensive data structure and the requirement for realistic accuracies and tolerances. This chapter presents the results of the second phase of this geometric modelling project, which is the construction of 'working' and 'presentation' models for a building.
series CAAD Futures
email Dana.Vanier@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 4c79
authors Aguilar, Lorenzo
year 1986
title A Format for a Graphical Communications Protocol
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications vol. 6.no. 3 (March, 1986): pp. 52-62
summary This article describes the requirements for a graphical format on which a graphical on-line communications protocol can be based. It is argued that on-line graphical communications is similar to graphical session capture, and thus the author proposes an interactive graphical communications format using the GKSM session metafile. The discussion includes items that complement the GKSM metafile such as a format for on-line interactive exchange. One key application area of such a format is multimedia on-line conferencing. Therefore, a conferencing software architecture for processing the proposed format is presented. This format specification is made available to those planning multimedia conferencing systems
keywords user interface, communication, computer graphics, multimedia, standards
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 678e
authors Aish, Robert
year 1986
title Three-dimensional Input and Visualization
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 68-84
summary The aim of this chapter is to investigate techniques by which man-computer interaction could be improved, specifically in the context of architectural applications of CAD. In this application the object being designed is often an assembly of defined components. Even if the building is not actually fabricated from such components, it is usually conceptualized in these terms. In a conventional graphics- based CAD system these components are usually represented by graphical icons which are displayed on the graphics screen and arranged by the user. The system described here consists of three- dimensional modelling elements which the user physically assembles to form his design. Unlike conventional architectural models which are static (i.e. cannot be changed by the users) and passive (i.e. cannot be read by a CAD system), this model is both 'user generated' and 'machine readable'. The user can create, edit and view the model by simple, natural modelling activities and without the need to learn complex operating commands often associated with CAD systems. In particular, the user can view the model, altering his viewpoint and focus of attention in a completely natural way. Conventional computer graphics within an associated CAD system are used to represent the detailed geometry which the different three-dimensional icons may represent. In addition, computer graphics are also used to present the output of the performance attributes of the objects being modelled. In the architectural application described in this chapter an energy- balance evaluation is displayed for a building designed using the modelling device. While this system is not intended to offer a completely free-form input facility it can be considered to be a specialist man-machine interface of particular relevance to architects or engineers.
series CAAD Futures
email Robert.Aish@bentley.com
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 2ec8
authors Arditi, Aries and Gillman, Arthur E.
year 1986
title Computing for the Blind User
source BYTE Publication Inc. March, 1986. pp. 199-208. includes some reference notes
summary In this article the authors present some of the human-factors issues specific to non visual personal computing. The authors' concern is with the accuracy, speed, and generality of the blind-user interface, to make computers more accessible and efficient for blind and visually impaired persons
keywords user interface, disabilities
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 242d
authors Atkin, Brian L. and Gill, E. Moira
year 1986
title CAD and Management of Construction Projects
source Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Vol. 112, December, pp. 557-565
summary The increasing interest in computer-aided design (CAD) has prompted research that is aimed at identifying the opportunities for construction managers and building contractors. It has been found that the use of CAD systems in the U.K. is mainly confined to the production of detailed drawings. Indeed, most of the systems used are 2-D drafting tools and incapable of supporting the integration of even modest amounts of nongraphical (construction) data. On the other hand, many 3-D modeling systems have the potential to integrate construction data, although they appear to be almostignored. The use of 3-D modeling systems is considered to be the most suitable vehicle for successfully integrating these data. However, this is likely to necessitate the introduction of separate databases, preferably of the relational type. The use of 3-D modeling systems in assessing the construction implications of outline designs also presents interesting possibilities and is discussed.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 0f76
authors Balachandran, M. B. and Gero, John S.
year 1986
title Knowledge-based Design Optimization
source IAAI'86 Conference. 1986. pp. i:4:1-14
summary CADLINE has abstract only. Optimization is a well understood process in design domains. A designer formulates the design problem as a single criterion or multicriteria optimization problem and then selects an appropriate optimization algorithm to search for the optimal values for the design variables. The formulation and algorithm selection procedures have been considered to be activities which relied on substantive human knowledge. This paper describes a computer system, OPTIMA, which formulates design optimization problems from a pseudo-English description into canonical algebraic expressions. It then recognizes the formulation and selects appropriate algorithm(s) for their solutions. Finally, it runs the selected algorithm(s) and sends the results to the original descriptions. Areas of expert knowledge involved in carrying out the above tasks are identified. Such knowledge is explicitly encoded in the systems. The basic philosophy and key features of the system are described and are illustrated by examples
keywords algorithms, expert systems, knowledge base, design, optimization, structures, engineering
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id e220
authors Balachandran, M.B. and Gero, John S.
year 1986
title Formulating and Recognizing Engineering Optimization Problems
source Aus. Conf Mechs. Struct. and Mats (10th : 1986 : Adelaide) edited by G. Sved. pp. 223-228. CADLINE has abstract only.
summary In applying optimization methodology to engineering design, a considerable amount of knowledge is utilized to construct and solve mathematical design models. However, computer based systems to assist this process have concentrated mainly on the numeric computational aspects of the process. This paper outlines a computer system which uses a knowledge-based systems approach to formulate and recognize design optimization problems. Areas of expert knowledge involved in mathematical design modeling and optimization are identified. Such knowledge is encoded explicitly in the system. An example is presented
keywords knowledge base, systems, engineering, design, mathematics, modeling, structures
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 6c8e
authors Barbera, Salvatore and Correnti, Gabriele
year 1986
title Reticular and Linear Planning of Erecting Yards Aided by Personal Computer
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 157-166
summary This study has been carried out during the Course of Ergotecnica Edile hold at the Instituto Dipartimentale di Architettura e Urbanistica of Catania University, and it has been addressed to the students of the Faculty of Civil Engineering (manufacturing and direction of civil works). The present study aims at instructing the students as refers to planning, through computers, erecting yards. Work-planning is specifically important with reference both to the starting program and to the carrying on of the work. Within this context, workplanning is useful as regard the control and contingent correction of the work. In the latter case, divergencies between work-evolution and forecast are of primary value.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 6002
authors Barduzzi, Ondina and Pascolo, Carlo
year 1986
title CAD System (Computer Aided Design) for the Planning of the Territory, with Reference to the Automatical Estimate of Works of Urbanization
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 167-179
summary Any applied research, no matter what discipline is concerned, needs affined and suitable tools; as regards the studies in the field of architecture and planning, the use of automatic systems of analysis, data ordering and comparison is of particular interest. The quickness of operations by means of computers and the corresponding graphical representation gives new possibilities for scientific work, once impossible, not certainly because of conceptual limits, but practically, for the limits of available tools. It is the wideness of applications of computers to be pointed out, for although studied for scientific reasons, their practical usefulness is often enormous. This has been generally verified. It guilts in particular for the CAD System, proposed and explained in this paper. The practical utility this and other systems from the same field have for the public administration, contractors and consultants is well known and therefore not necessary to be described further. The use of such systems is particularly convenient in those sectors where the graphical representation is the basic part of the production process.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 4ed0
authors Bartels, R.H., Beatty, J.C. and Barsky, B.A.
year 1986
title An Introduction to Splines for Use in Computer Graphics and Geometric Modeling
source xiv, 476 p. : ill. (some col.) Los Altos, California: Morgan Kaufmann Pub. Inc., 1986. Forewords by Pierre Bezier and Robin A. Forrest. Includes bibliography: p. 455-465 and index
summary Discusses the use of splines from the point of view of the computer scientist concentrating on parametric spline curves and parametric,tensor-product spline surfaces
keywords splines, theory, computer graphics, computational geometry
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:42

_id 8060
authors Bentley, Jon L. and Kernighan, Brian W.
year 1986
title GRAP - a Language for Typesetting Graphs
source communications of the ACM. August, 1986. vol. 29: pp. 782-792 : charts. includes bibliography
summary The authors describe a system that makes it easy and convenient to describe graphs and to include them as an integral part of the document formatting process
keywords programming, computer graphics, algorithms, business
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id a3bd
authors Beretta Covacivich, N., loannilli, M., Lazzari, M., Scandurra E. and Schiavoni U.
year 1986
title Urban Planning Computer Aided Methods
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 180-185
summary In the practice of urban centers analysis and of urban planning projects, a noticeable aspect is the absence of some essential information required in the planning process due to the natural difficulty to manage the numerous data to process.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

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