CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id c7e9
authors Maver, T.W.
year 2002
title Predicting the Past, Remembering the Future
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 2-3
summary Charlas Magistrales 2There never has been such an exciting moment in time in the extraordinary 30 year history of our subject area, as NOW,when the philosophical theoretical and practical issues of virtuality are taking centre stage.The PastThere have, of course, been other defining moments during these exciting 30 years:• the first algorithms for generating building layouts (circa 1965).• the first use of Computer graphics for building appraisal (circa 1966).• the first integrated package for building performance appraisal (circa 1972).• the first computer generated perspective drawings (circa 1973).• the first robust drafting systems (circa 1975).• the first dynamic energy models (circa 1982).• the first photorealistic colour imaging (circa 1986).• the first animations (circa 1988)• the first multimedia systems (circa 1995), and• the first convincing demonstrations of virtual reality (circa 1996).Whereas the CAAD community has been hugely inventive in the development of ICT applications to building design, it hasbeen woefully remiss in its attempts to evaluate the contribution of those developments to the quality of the built environmentor to the efficiency of the design process. In the absence of any real evidence, one can only conjecture regarding the realbenefits which fall, it is suggested, under the following headings:• Verisimilitude: The extraordinary quality of still and animated images of the formal qualities of the interiors and exteriorsof individual buildings and of whole neighborhoods must surely give great comfort to practitioners and their clients thatwhat is intended, formally, is what will be delivered, i.e. WYSIWYG - what you see is what you get.• Sustainability: The power of «first-principle» models of the dynamic energetic behaviour of buildings in response tochanging diurnal and seasonal conditions has the potential to save millions of dollars and dramatically to reduce thedamaging environmental pollution created by badly designed and managed buildings.• Productivity: CAD is now a multi-billion dollar business which offers design decision support systems which operate,effectively, across continents, time-zones, professions and companies.• Communication: Multi-media technology - cheap to deliver but high in value - is changing the way in which we canexplain and understand the past and, envisage and anticipate the future; virtual past and virtual future!MacromyopiaThe late John Lansdown offered the view, in his wonderfully prophetic way, that ...”the future will be just like the past, onlymore so...”So what can we expect the extraordinary trajectory of our subject area to be?To have any chance of being accurate we have to have an understanding of the phenomenon of macromyopia: thephenomenon exhibitted by society of greatly exaggerating the immediate short-term impact of new technologies (particularlythe information technologies) but, more importantly, seriously underestimating their sustained long-term impacts - socially,economically and intellectually . Examples of flawed predictions regarding the the future application of information technologiesinclude:• The British Government in 1880 declined to support the idea of a national telephonic system, backed by the argumentthat there were sufficient small boys in the countryside to run with messages.• Alexander Bell was modest enough to say that: «I am not boasting or exaggerating but I believe, one day, there will bea telephone in every American city».• Tom Watson, in 1943 said: «I think there is a world market for about 5 computers».• In 1977, Ken Olssop of Digital said: «There is no reason for any individuals to have a computer in their home».The FutureJust as the ascent of woman/man-kind can be attributed to her/his capacity to discover amplifiers of the modest humancapability, so we shall discover how best to exploit our most important amplifier - that of the intellect. The more we know themore we can figure; the more we can figure the more we understand; the more we understand the more we can appraise;the more we can appraise the more we can decide; the more we can decide the more we can act; the more we can act themore we can shape; and the more we can shape, the better the chance that we can leave for future generations a trulysustainable built environment which is fit-for-purpose, cost-beneficial, environmentally friendly and culturally significactCentral to this aspiration will be our understanding of the relationship between real and virtual worlds and how to moveeffortlessly between them. We need to be able to design, from within the virtual world, environments which may be real ormay remain virtual or, perhaps, be part real and part virtual.What is certain is that the next 30 years will be every bit as exciting and challenging as the first 30 years.
series SIGRADI
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id a91c
authors Meyer, G., Rushmeier, H., Cohen, M., Greenberg, D. and Torrace, K.
year 1986
title An Experimental Evaluation of Computer Graphics Imagery
source ACM Transactions on Graphics, 5, No. 1
summary Accurate simulation of light propagation within an environment and perceptually based imaging techniques are necessary for the creation of realistic images. A physical experiment that verifies the simulation of reflected light intensities for diffuse environments was conducted. Measurements of radiant energy flux densities are compared with predictions using the radiosity method for those physical environments. By using color science procedures the results of the light model simulation are then transformed to produce a color television image. The final image compares favorably with the original physical model. The experiment indicates that, when the physical model and the simulation were viewed through a view camera, subjects could not distinguish between them. The results and comparison of both test procedures are presented within this paper.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id a70f
authors Yessios, Chris
year 1986
title What has yet to be CAD
source ACADIA Workshop ‘86 Proceedings - Houston (Texas - USA) 24-26 October 1986, pp. 29-36
summary The theme of this Acadia Conference was to a large extent addressed by Mitchell in his article "'What was Computer-aided design?"', published about two years ago. While one has to agree with most of his points, I find his predictions gloomy enough to wish I could disagree. Luckily, Mitchell has chosen to address what the majority of the profession (and many architectural schools) currently consider to be CAD. It turns out that this CAD is not what CAD is supposed to be. I have, therefore, purposely chosen a title which appears to echo an opposite view. My intention is not to express disagreement but rather to project the other face of CAD, in my own mind, the only CAD which deserves the name. Whether the current CAD should or will be called CAD in the future is of non-essential significance. As teachers of architectural design we need to be concerned that architectural CAD remains, to date, a very immature field. It is CAD only by name, since a true CAD system has yet to be 'discovered". This presentation consists of three major sections. The first reviews why the currently available CAD systems do not have the ingredients which may justify them as design oriented machines. This discussion leads to the identification of architectural modeling and knowledge systems as the two main areas which need to be researched so that they may offer the basis for the development of truly design oriented machines. Each is discussed under a separate section, but the point is also made that the two should work hand-in-hand and should be integrated into a completely unified system.
series ACADIA
email cyessios@formz.com
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id sigradi2008_175
id sigradi2008_175
authors Knight, Terry; Larry Sass, Kenfield Griffith, Ayodh Vasant Kamath
year 2008
title Visual-Physical Grammars
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary This paper introduces new visual-physical design grammars for the design and manufacture of building assembly systems that provide visually rich, culturally resonant design variations for housing. The building systems are intended to be tailored for particular cultures and communities by incorporating vernacular, decorative design into the assembly design. Two complementary areas of computational design research are brought together in this work: shape grammars and digital fabrication. The visual or graphic aspects of the research are explored through shape grammars. The physical design and manufacturing aspects are explored through advanced digital design and fabrication technologies and, in particular, build on recent work on mono-material assemblies with interlocking components that can be fabricated with CNC machines and assembled easily by hand on-site (Sass, 2007). This paper describes the initial, proof-of-concept stage of this work: the development of an automated, visual-physical grammar for an assembly system based on a vernacular language of Greek meander designs. A shape grammar for the two-dimensional Greek meander language (Knight, 1986) was translated into a three-dimensional assembly system. The components of the system are uniquely designed, concrete “meander bricks” (Figure 1). The components have integrated alignment features so that they can be easily fitted and locked together manually without binding materials. Components interlock horizontally to form courses, and courses interlock vertically in different ways to produce a visual variety of meander walls. The assembly components were prototyped at desktop scale with a layered manufacturing machine to test their appearance after assembly and their potential for design variations (Figure 2). Components were then evaluated as full-scale concrete objects for satisfaction of physical constraints related to concrete forming and component strength. The automated grammar (computer program) for this system generates assembly design variations with complete CAD/CAM data for fabrication of components formed from layered, CNC cut molds. Using the grammar, a full-scale mockup of a corner wall section was constructed to assess the structural, material, and aesthetic feasibility of the system, as well as ease of assembly. The results of this study demonstrate clearly the potentials for embedding visual properties in structural systems. They provide the foundations for further work on assembly systems for complete houses and other small-scale structures, and grammars to generate them. In the long-term, this research will lead to new solutions for economical, easily manufactured housing which is especially critical in developing countries and for post-disaster environments. These new housing solutions will not only provide shelter but will also support important cultural values through the integration of familiar visual design features. The use of inexpensive, portable digital design and fabrication technologies will allow local communities to be active, cooperative participants in the design and construction of their homes. Beyond the specific context of housing, visual-physical grammars have the potential to positively impact design and manufacture of designed artifacts at many scales, and in many domains, particularly for artifacts where visual aesthetics need to be considered jointly with physical or material requirements and design customization or variation is important.
keywords Shape grammar, digital fabrication, building assembly, mass customization, housing
series SIGRADI
email tknight@mit.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:54

_id 678e
authors Aish, Robert
year 1986
title Three-dimensional Input and Visualization
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 68-84
summary The aim of this chapter is to investigate techniques by which man-computer interaction could be improved, specifically in the context of architectural applications of CAD. In this application the object being designed is often an assembly of defined components. Even if the building is not actually fabricated from such components, it is usually conceptualized in these terms. In a conventional graphics- based CAD system these components are usually represented by graphical icons which are displayed on the graphics screen and arranged by the user. The system described here consists of three- dimensional modelling elements which the user physically assembles to form his design. Unlike conventional architectural models which are static (i.e. cannot be changed by the users) and passive (i.e. cannot be read by a CAD system), this model is both 'user generated' and 'machine readable'. The user can create, edit and view the model by simple, natural modelling activities and without the need to learn complex operating commands often associated with CAD systems. In particular, the user can view the model, altering his viewpoint and focus of attention in a completely natural way. Conventional computer graphics within an associated CAD system are used to represent the detailed geometry which the different three-dimensional icons may represent. In addition, computer graphics are also used to present the output of the performance attributes of the objects being modelled. In the architectural application described in this chapter an energy- balance evaluation is displayed for a building designed using the modelling device. While this system is not intended to offer a completely free-form input facility it can be considered to be a specialist man-machine interface of particular relevance to architects or engineers.
series CAAD Futures
email Robert.Aish@bentley.com
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 0f76
authors Balachandran, M. B. and Gero, John S.
year 1986
title Knowledge-based Design Optimization
source IAAI'86 Conference. 1986. pp. i:4:1-14
summary CADLINE has abstract only. Optimization is a well understood process in design domains. A designer formulates the design problem as a single criterion or multicriteria optimization problem and then selects an appropriate optimization algorithm to search for the optimal values for the design variables. The formulation and algorithm selection procedures have been considered to be activities which relied on substantive human knowledge. This paper describes a computer system, OPTIMA, which formulates design optimization problems from a pseudo-English description into canonical algebraic expressions. It then recognizes the formulation and selects appropriate algorithm(s) for their solutions. Finally, it runs the selected algorithm(s) and sends the results to the original descriptions. Areas of expert knowledge involved in carrying out the above tasks are identified. Such knowledge is explicitly encoded in the systems. The basic philosophy and key features of the system are described and are illustrated by examples
keywords algorithms, expert systems, knowledge base, design, optimization, structures, engineering
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 6002
authors Barduzzi, Ondina and Pascolo, Carlo
year 1986
title CAD System (Computer Aided Design) for the Planning of the Territory, with Reference to the Automatical Estimate of Works of Urbanization
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 167-179
summary Any applied research, no matter what discipline is concerned, needs affined and suitable tools; as regards the studies in the field of architecture and planning, the use of automatic systems of analysis, data ordering and comparison is of particular interest. The quickness of operations by means of computers and the corresponding graphical representation gives new possibilities for scientific work, once impossible, not certainly because of conceptual limits, but practically, for the limits of available tools. It is the wideness of applications of computers to be pointed out, for although studied for scientific reasons, their practical usefulness is often enormous. This has been generally verified. It guilts in particular for the CAD System, proposed and explained in this paper. The practical utility this and other systems from the same field have for the public administration, contractors and consultants is well known and therefore not necessary to be described further. The use of such systems is particularly convenient in those sectors where the graphical representation is the basic part of the production process.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 4ed0
authors Bartels, R.H., Beatty, J.C. and Barsky, B.A.
year 1986
title An Introduction to Splines for Use in Computer Graphics and Geometric Modeling
source xiv, 476 p. : ill. (some col.) Los Altos, California: Morgan Kaufmann Pub. Inc., 1986. Forewords by Pierre Bezier and Robin A. Forrest. Includes bibliography: p. 455-465 and index
summary Discusses the use of splines from the point of view of the computer scientist concentrating on parametric spline curves and parametric,tensor-product spline surfaces
keywords splines, theory, computer graphics, computational geometry
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:42

_id 644f
authors Bijl, Aart
year 1986
title Designing with Words and Pictures in a Logic Modelling Environment
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 128-145
summary At EdCAAD we are interested in design as something people do. Designed artefacts, the products of designing, are interesting only in so far as they tell us something about design. An extreme expression of this position is to say that the world of design is the thoughts in the heads of designers, plus the skills of designers in externalizing their thoughts; design artifacts, once perceived and accepted in the worlds of other people, are no longer part of the world of design. We can describe design, briefly, as a process of synthesis. Design has to achieve a fusion between parts to create new parts, so that the products are recognized, as having a right and proper place in the world of people. Parts should be understood as referring to anything - physical objects, abstract ideas, aspirations. These parts occur in some design environment from which parts are extracted, designed upon and results replaced; in the example of buildings, the environment is people and results have to be judged by reference to that environment. It is characteristic of design that both the process and the product are not subject to explicit and complete criteria. This view of design differs sharply from the more orthodox understanding of scientific and technological endeavours which rely predominantly on a process of analysis. In the latter case, the approach is to decompose a problem into parts until individual parts are recognized as being amenable to known operations and results are reassembled into a solution. This process has a peripheral role in design when evaluating selected aspects of tentative design proposals, but the absence of well-defined and widely recognized criteria for design excludes it from the main stream of analytical developments.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id caadria2006_601
id caadria2006_601
authors BINSU CHIANG, MAO-LIN CHIU
year 2006
title PRIVATE/UN-PRIVATE SPACE: Scenario-based Digital Design for Enhancing User Awareness
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 601-603
summary Context awareness is important for human senses of places as well as human computer interaction. The aim of this research paper is focusing on controlling the user's privacy in a smart space which is adaptive to different users for enhancing the user's awareness in his diary life. In Environmental Psychology, the definition of privacy is that an individual has the control of deciding what information of himself is released to others, and under how he interact with others. (Westin 1970) And privacy is categorized as the linguistic privacy and visual privacy. (Sundstorm 1986). Solutions for privacy control: Plan Layout, Vision Boundary, Access Control and Architecture Metaphor - the transmission of information is not ascertainable for every single user. Although information are shown in public, but information is implied by cues and symbols. Only a certain user or a group of users have access to the full context of information. The methodology is to form an analytic framework to study the relationship between information, user and activities by using the computational supports derived from KitchenSense, ConceptNet, Python, 3d Studio Max and Flash; and to record patterns built up by users' behaviour and actions. Furthermore, the scenario-based simulation can envision the real world conditions by adding interfaces for enhancing user awareness.
series CAADRIA
email n7693103@mail.ncku.edu.twmc2p@mail.ncku.edu.tw
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

_id 4361
authors Bishop, G. and Weimer, D.M.
year 1986
title Fast Phong Shading
source Computer Graphics (20) 4 pp. 103-106
summary Computer image generation systems often represent curved surfaces as a mesh of polygons that are shaded to restore a smooth appearance. Phong shading is a well known algorithm for producing a realistic shading but it has not been used by real-time systems because of the 3 additions, 1 division and 1 square root required per pixel for its evaluation. We describe a new formulation for Phong shading that reduces the amount of computation per pixel to only 2 additions for simple Lambertian reflection and 5 additions and 1 memory reference for Phong's complete reflection model. We also show how to extend our method to compute the specular component with the eye at a finite distance from the scene rather than at infinity as is usually assumed. The method can be implemented in hardware for real-time applications or in software to speed image generation for almost any system.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id e43b
authors Blasi, D. and Scudo, G.
year 1986
title Experience of Output Visualisation in Thermal Performance Analysis and Design.
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 186-191
summary GKS didactic application in output visualisation of thermal behaviour simulation in building analysis and design. Energy analysis is performed by BEETA (Built Environment Energy Test and Analysis) code. It is a numerical simulation code which allows to simulate the building multizone thermal behaviour with different passive devices (Direct Gain, Greenhouse, Solar Chimney, Trompe, Convective and Radiative Cooling etc.). The code is based on thermal network theory and methods; the set of thermal equation is normally solved every hour or less by the coefficient matrix inversion method. An interactive loop is provide for dealing with non- linear thermal conductance problems with continuous or step variation (i.e. air mixing through an opening between two spaces, Trompe wall convective loop, etc.) The code allows to take into account urban obstructions and shading devices.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id c5af
authors Bobrow, Daniel G. and Stefik, Mark J.
year 1986
title Perspective on Artificial Intelligence Programming
source Science. February, 1986. vol. 231: pp. 951-956
summary Programming systems for artificial intelligence application use specialized languages, environments, and knowledge-based tools to reduce the complexity of the programming task. Language style based on procedure, objects logic rules, and constraints reflect different models for organizing programs and facilitate program evaluation and understandability. To make programming easier, multiple styles can be integrated as sublanguages in programming environment. Programming environments provide tools that analyze programs and create informative displays of their structure. Programs can be modified by direct interaction with these displays. These tools and languages are helping computer scientists to regain a sense of control over systems that have become increasingly complex
keywords programming, AI
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id a6f1
authors Bridges, A.H.
year 1986
title Any Progress in Systematic Design?
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 5-15
summary In order to discuss this question it is necessary to reflect awhile on design methods in general. The usual categorization discusses 'generations' of design methods, but Levy (1981) proposes an alternative approach. He identifies five paradigm shifts during the course of the twentieth century which have influenced design methods debate. The first paradigm shift was achieved by 1920, when concern with industrial arts could be seen to have replaced concern with craftsmanship. The second shift, occurring in the early 1930s, resulted in the conception of a design profession. The third happened in the 1950s, when the design methods debate emerged; the fourth took place around 1970 and saw the establishment of 'design research'. Now, in the 1980s, we are going through the fifth paradigm shift, associated with the adoption of a holistic approach to design theory and with the emergence of the concept of design ideology. A major point in Levy's paper was the observation that most of these paradigm shifts were associated with radical social reforms or political upheavals. For instance, we may associate concern about public participation with the 1970s shift and the possible use (or misuse) of knowledge, information and power with the 1980s shift. What has emerged, however, from the work of colleagues engaged since the 1970s in attempting to underpin the practice of design with a coherent body of design theory is increasing evidence of the fundamental nature of a person's engagement with the design activity. This includes evidence of the existence of two distinctive modes of thought, one of which can be described as cognitive modelling and the other which can be described as rational thinking. Cognitive modelling is imagining, seeing in the mind's eye. Rational thinking is linguistic thinking, engaging in a form of internal debate. Cognitive modelling is externalized through action, and through the construction of external representations, especially drawings. Rational thinking is externalized through verbal language and, more formally, through mathematical and scientific notations. Cognitive modelling is analogic, presentational, holistic, integrative and based upon pattern recognition and pattern manipulation. Rational thinking is digital, sequential, analytical, explicatory and based upon categorization and logical inference. There is some relationship between the evidence for two distinctive modes of thought and the evidence of specialization in cerebral hemispheres (Cross, 1984). Design methods have tended to focus upon the rational aspects of design and have, therefore, neglected the cognitive aspects. By recognizing that there are peculiar 'designerly' ways of thinking combining both types of thought process used to perceive, construct and comprehend design representations mentally and then transform them into an external manifestation current work in design theory is promising at last to have some relevance to design practice.
series CAAD Futures
email a.h.bridges@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id f5db
authors Brooks, F.P.
year 1986
title Walkthrough - A Dynamic Graphics System for Simulating Virtual Buildings
source Proceedings 1986 Workshop on Interactive 3D Graphics. ACM: 9-22
summary As part of our graphics research into virtual worlds, we are building a tool for an architect and his client to use for rapid prototyping of buildings by visually "walking through" them in order to refine specifications. Our first prototype simulated the new UNC Computer Science building with some 8000 polygons. BSP-tree software on the Adage Ikonas gave a colored, shaded perspective view every 3-5 seconds while the user moved a cursor in real-time over floorplans shown on the Vector-General 3300. The current (third) version uses Pixel-Planes to generate 9 updates/second, view images shown 4' x 6' by projector. Active short- and long-term research questions include speed-up, stereo, a 6-DoF interface with eye-level defaults, and an interactive model-building, model-changing system.
series other
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 8e02
authors Brown, A.G.P. and Coenen, F.P.
year 2000
title Spatial reasoning: improving computational efficiency
source Automation in Construction 9 (4) (2000) pp. 361-367
summary When spatial data is analysed the result is often very computer intensive: even by the standards of contemporary technologies, the machine power needed is great and the processing times significant. This is particularly so in 3-D and 4-D scenarios. What we describe here is a technique, which tackles this and associated problems. The technique is founded in the idea of quad-tesseral addressing; a technique, which was originally applied to the analysis of atomic structures. It is based on ideas concerning Hierarchical clustering developed in the 1960s and 1970s to improve data access time [G.M. Morton, A computer oriented geodetic database and a new technique on file sequencing, IBM Canada, 1996.], and on atomic isohedral (same shape) tiling strategies developed in the 1970s and 1980s concerned with group theory [B. Grunbaum, G.C. Shephard, Tilings and Patterns, Freeman, New York, 1987.]. The technique was first suggested as a suitable representation for GIS in the early 1980s when the two strands were brought together and a tesseral arithmetic applied [F.C. Holdroyd, The Geometry of Tiling Hierarchies, Ars Combanitoria 16B (1983) 211–244.; S.B.M. Bell, B.M. Diaz, F.C. Holroyd, M.J.J. Jackson, Spatially referenced methods of processing raster and vector data, Image and Vision Computing 1 (4) (1983) 211–220.; Diaz, S.B.M. Bell, Spatial Data Processing Using Tesseral Methods, Natural Environment Research Council, Swindon, 1986.]. Here, we describe how that technique can equally be applied to the analysis of environmental interaction with built forms. The way in which the technique deals with the problems described is first to linearise the three-dimensional (3-D) space being investigated. Then, the reasoning applied to that space is applied within the same environment as the definition of the problem data. We show, with an illustrative example, how the technique can be applied. The problem then remains of how to visualise the results of the analysis so undertaken. We show how this has been accomplished so that the 3-D space and the results are represented in a way which facilitates rapid interpretation of the analysis, which has been carried out.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id a661
authors Cajati, Claudio and Calandro, Lucia
year 1986
title Architectural analysis of buildings in order to choice new functional destinations: an application of computer graphics for Faculty of Architecture's students
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 17-19
summary The research tries to give a little but meaningful answer to the specific context of the Faculty of Architecture of Naples. Such a context presents a delay of teachers and researchers, in their teaching and researching activity, in beginning the CAAD way. Often the delay is due to a wrong attitude: a too high or too low expectation towards the use of the computer. In such a situation, the chief target of the research is the student of architecture. It is possible and useful to address a clear message, by a simple educational material, just to the student of architecture; not necessarily by producing a software or modifying some existing one, but also applying a given available software to an important architectural question.
series eCAADe
email cajatic@libero.it
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id 4431
authors Calderaro, V. and Platone, C.
year 1986
title Information systems and internvention technologies programmed to aid the energy saving within the limits of the existing building property rescue
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 192-201
summary In our national territory the rescue of the existing building property is a very important problem. For that reason, starting front the presupposition that the existing buildings, restoration finds its real achievement by means of technological and installing interventions strictly connected with the energy costs and consumptions, this study sets as a planning method on various degrees to analyze, single out and propose the possible solutions based on qualitative and quantitative researches into the thermo-physical behaviour of the above-mentioned buildings. From a research done into the principal building properties related with the different national areas we can single out significant morphological samples and typical technological structures. This first analytical study allows the singling out of significant building models on which it's possible to value the thermal behaviour and possible subsequent restoring interventions by applying computerized mathematical models or by operating diagrams deduced from them. First of all, these mathematical models for simulation allow a valuation of the main thermal parameters (dispersion both in absolute value and in volumetric factor, medium thermal transmittance (U value) of geometrical models deduced from the typical above - mentioned cases.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/04/01 18:58

_id 45ac
authors Capitanio, L., Nasoni, M., Piroddi, E., Scandurra, E. and Schiavoni, U.
year 1986
title Programs for the Representation of the Territorial DataPrograms for the Representation of the Territorial DataPrograms for the Representation of the Territorial Data
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 39-44
summary The programs afterwards briefly described, were used during the courses of Urban Planning of the Department of Building Techniques and Environment Control of Engineering Faculty of Rome. Those programs are chiefly directed to didactic use and to optimization of the graphic representation of regional and urban phenomena. Both those programs make use of censual data from ISTAT stored, by Urban Planning courses teachers, on Univac/ 1100 computer in Interdepartmental Center for Scientific Calculus of Rome First University.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 07:59

_id 6643
authors Carrara, Gianfranco and Novembri, Gabriele
year 1986
title Expert System for Building Design
source Congress of the International Council for Building Research, Studies and Documentation (10th : 1986 : Washington). vol. 2: pp. 651-658. includes bibliography. -- abstract also in French
summary At the CABD LAB at the University of Rome, an interactive expert system for architecture is being implemented to supervise building design at every stage of development. The system operates by checking the consistency of design choices against given sets of constraints, and by automatically checking the design process. It is therefore an innovation with respect to current architectural software developed as specific design aids. The system is based on a general representation of building objects (from components to the whole building) by means of semantic nets and a set of inferential procedures. The general representation is developed by making explicit the relational structures according to which architects organize their knowledge about building objects. To do this, the `Frame' formalism is used: this is a knowledge representation technique used in the field of artificial intelligence. It is then shown that such an expert CAAD system is a general purpose tool for architectural design, enabling architects to assess any constraint and/or building attribute by means of a declarative method, which in no way affects their own specific design methodologies
keywords semantic networks, representation, constraints, expert systems, CAD, building, design process, knowledge, frames
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

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