CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 61 to 80 of 206

_id 0354
authors Goodman, Gary and Reddy, Raj D.
year 1978
title Alternative Control Structures for Speech Understanding Systems
source 1978 ? [13] p. : ill. includes bibliography Control structures are an essential part of any speech recognition system. They are the devices by which passive knowledge about the task and language is transformed into active and effective processes. In the chapter, three areas of control structures are defined and discussed: knowledge source interaction, knowledge source activation, and knowledge source focusing. Discussion relates the concepts presented to systems developed during the five-year ARPA speech understanding project. speech recognition / systems / control / structures / AI. 64. Goodman, Tim and Keith Unsworth. 'Manipulating Shape and Producing Geometric Continuity in B-spline Curves.' IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. February, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 50-56 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary This article examines some of the desirable features of B- splines that make them particularly suitable for computer- aided design. First, a theoretical analysis is presented regarding the effects upon the shape of a design curve when the bias and tension parameters are allowed to vary in certain ways. Second, the concept of geometric continuity is discussed, and conditions are derived upon the control vertices to ensure that the design curve has second-order geometric continuity. Illustrations of B-spline curves are presented to support the theoretical conclusions
keywords computational geometry, B-splines, curves, CAD
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ad96
authors Gudes, Ehud and Bracha, Gilad
year 1986
title GCI : A Tool for Developing Interactive CAD User Interfaces
source 26 p. : ill. Israel: 1986? includes bibliography
summary GCI is a Unix based tool for developing interactive CAD programs. By separating command/menu definitions from the program, GCI makes it easier to change and extend the user interface. The language provided by GCI is used to define syntax of commands, menus, messages, and help text. Generally, GCI supports a static hierarchical structure of commands and menus. However, through a program interface, an application program has the freedom to change environments, commands and menus. This flexibility of run-time control of the user interface is essential for developing highly responsive interfaces in a CAD environment. This paper presents the main concepts and definition language of GCI. It then discusses architectural and implementation issues, and finally presents a typical application's view of using the tool
keywords user interface, design, management, systems, tools, CAD
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 0ebf
id 0ebf
authors Hanson, N.L.R. and Radford, Antony D.
year 1986
title On Modelling the Work of the Architect Glenn Murcutt
source Design Computing, pp. 189-203
summary A prototypical design grammar for a class of country houses by the Australian award-winning architect Glenn Murcutt is developed. The rules of the design grammar are executed to create a design for a country house on a real site with a real brief, in parallel with a design by Murcutt himself. Feedback from Murcutt and the differences between the designs and the reasons for them are discussed. Some conclusions are drawn on the role and assumptions of design grammars as rule- based expert systems and the qualities of design activity which cannot be modelled by such systems
keywords expert systems, architecture, design, shape grammars, applications
series CADline
email b.martens@tuwien.ac.at
last changed 2003/12/01 19:29

_id 252d
authors Irving, R.H., Higgins, C.A. and Safayeni
year 1986
title Computerized Performance Monitoring Systems : Use and Abuse
source Communications of the ACM. August, 1986. vol. 29: pp. 794-801 : tables. includes bibliography
summary An exploratory study of computerized performance monitoring and control systems reveals both positive and negative effects. Responses of 50 clerical workers from 2 organizations with computerized monitoring were compared to 94 individuals from 3 organizations in similar jobs without computerized monitoring. The results indicate that computerized monitoring is associated with perceived increases in office productivity, more accurate and complete assessment of workers' performance, and higher levels of organizational control. Respondents indicate that managers overemphasize the importance of quantity and underemphasize the importance of quality in evaluating employee performance. Workers perceive increased stress, lower levels of satisfaction, and a decrease in the quality of their relationships with peers and management as a consequence of computerized monitoring. The relevance of existing models of performance monitoring is examined in light of these findings
keywords management, performance, evaluation
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id c55f
authors Kalay, Yehuda E.
year 1986
title The Impact of CAD On Architectural Design Education in the United States
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 348-355
summary Computer-Aided Design (CAD) began to appear in schools of architecture in the United States over 15 years ago. By 1982, over 50% of all accredited schools of architecture in North America included some form of CAD in their curricula. This number has continued to steadily increase. For the most part, the use of CAD has been restricted to the few individuals working on special "CAD projects" and to the researchers developing CAD products. The reasons for this limitation have included the low availability, difficulty of use, restricted access and high cost of the CAD systems, as well as limited faculty and administrative support. Recently, however, partly due to the introduction of micro- computer CAD software, and partly due to the growing awareness of the importance of CAD in architectural education and practice, some schools have begun to introduce CAD as part of the general design curriculum.
series eCAADe
email kalay@ced.berkeley.edu
last changed 1998/08/18 08:27

_id ed11
authors Kieffer, Bruce D.
year 1986
title An Interactive CAD Based System Integrating Visual Analysis & Design
source ACADIA Workshop ‘86 Proceedings - Houston (Texas - USA) 24-26 October 1986, pp. 191-202
summary The paper describes the development of an enhanced CAD based instructional system specifically focusing on a linkage between the analytical and creative tasks necessary during the early schematic or conceptual design. The first two components of the system are fairly conventional items and include a tutorial and library of six (6) two and three dimensional CAD design files which document the visual and organizational aspects of archetype buildings and spaces. The CAD facility allows a user to selectively highlight and combine for review, various features of a buildings design. This allows its users to literally, "build-up" an understanding of the complexity of factors at work in recognizably good building. The final component to a customized CAD environment allowing users to develop their own designs with the same tools used during analysis of the archetypes. In addition to a description of the system, the paper identifies the effectiveness measures and instructional setting being established for evaluation of the system.
series ACADIA
email bkieffer@wisc.edu
last changed 2003/04/28 13:22

_id ac18
authors Knight, Terry W.
year 1986
title Transformations of Languages of Designs
source University of California, Graduate School of Architecture and Urban PIanning, Los Angeles
summary Stylistic change and innovation is a central and traditional issue in art and architecture. In this study, a formal model is developed for representing stylistic change. Styles are defined in terms of rule-based systems called shape grammars that generate languages of designs. Changes in styles are represented as transformations of the shape grammars that define these styles. The model is first sketched informally and considered in relation to other, traditional approaches to style and change. It is then presented in detail and illustrated with numerous simple examples. Last, the model is applied to describe actual, historical examples of stylistic transformations: one in the decorative arts, one in the fine arts, and one in architecture.
series thesis:PhD
email tknight@mit.edu
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id ae5f
authors Krishnamurti, Ramesh
year 1986
title Modelling Design Descriptions
source January, 1986. [5] p. : ill
summary This paper reports some of the principles that underlie a modelling environment being developed at EdCAAD. It describes research that is part of a larger programme directed at computer-based systems that can accommodate the idiosyncratic nature of design practice, without prescriptions to the form or content of designs. That is, towards developing systems to assist in the design process by enabling designers -via conversations with the machine - to make 'reasonable' statements about design objects; to ask 'reasonable' questions about these objects; and to perform 'reasonable' tasks on these objects. Implicit in the authors' approach is the view that designing is an activity dependent on designers' perceptions of design tasks and their resolution. In the context of computer-aided design, this view of design demands that the crucial element in any machine environment lies in the ability of the machine to accept (partial) descriptions of design objects. Moreover, these descriptions can be manipulated according to some (perhaps unanticipated) criteria that the designer may wish to apply. The authors present a model for intentional descriptions of objects. That is, a description that can be structures so that it can be used to recognize objects and can be compared with other descriptions. Such a description of an object should be organized around entities with associated descriptions, it must be able to represent partial knowledge about an object, and it must accommodate multiple descriptors which can describe the object from different viewpoints. Last, but not least, these descriptions should possess a quality of 'truth' in that they reflect the (factual or otherwise) beliefs held by the designer. One way to treat these descriptions is to regard them as statements that belong to some logical framework
keywords design process, representation, intentionallity
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id a920
authors Kulcke, Richard
year 1989
title CAAD in the Architectural Education of the Fachhochschulen in the Federal Republic of Germany
source CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4] Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989, pp. 4.3.1
summary For over 10 years the author has been a teacher in the field of "computer application in architecture" at the Fachhochschule. Since 1985 he regularly has been taking part in the conferences of A.I.I.D.A. (Arbeitskreis INFORMATIK IN DER ARCHlTEKTENAUSBILDUNG). All the faculties of architecture at the Fachhochschulen (about 10) can send their representatives of CAAD to the conferences. A.I.I.D.A. has been having 2 conferences a year since 1985. At the last conference in Wiesbaden a paper with statements of A.I.I.D.A. for the further education in CAAD was finished. The author presents and explains this paper. On the other hand he shows the actual education program of CAAD of his faculty. The education in CAAD started in 1972 with basic information without practical elements. Now the practical work with the workstation is talking most of the time . The computer application is available for subjects like Building Economics, Building and Structure Design and others. With his assistant the author developed programs of the field of Building Economics. In 1986 he started introduce CAD with AutoCAD in the education program. Now also other colleagues start to integrate CAAD into their subjects.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/24 09:44

_id 687b
authors Lansdown, John
year 1986
title Requirements for Knowledge-based Systems in Design
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 120-127
summary Even from the comparatively small amount of work that has been done in this area it is already clear that expert systems can be of value in many architectural applications. This is particularly so in those applications involving what broadly can be called, 'classification' (such as fault diagnosis, testing for conformity with regulations and so on). What we want to look at in this chapter are some of the developments in knowledge-based systems (KBS) which will be needed in order to make them more useful in a broader application area and, especially, in creative design. At the heart of these developments will be two things: (1), more appropriate methods of representing knowledge which are as accessible to humans as they are to computers; and (2), better ways of ensuring that this knowledge can be brought to bear exactly where and when it is needed. Knowledge engineers usually call these elements, respectively, 'knowledge representation' and 'control'.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id cc1a
authors Lien, Kristian, Go Suzuki and Westerberg, Arthur W.
year 1986
title The Role of Expert Systems Technology In Design
source [2] 49 p. : diagrams Engineering Design Research Center, CMU, September, 1986 EDRC-06-13-86. includes bibliography.
summary Using a scenario format, this paper first reviews the nature of chemical process design, showing that designers quickly make major decisions with minimal information and constantly revise their strategy to solve a problem. To automate this activity on a computer will require models of the process being created at several levels of abstraction as well as models that capture the beliefs of the modeler about the abilities of himself, others and the aids available and models of strategies for complex problem solving. The second section of the paper extensively reviews current expert system concepts, illustrating each of them with design examples. It is argued that expert systems are knowledge based. The authors describe many of the control strategies used in today's systems, and also consider different problem representations - rules, logic and frames - and indicate when each might be preferred. The last section presents the authors views on what will be involved in creating a future expert system for design
keywords engineering, abstraction, expert systems, CAD, design process, representation, knowledge base, frames, control
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id c361
authors Logan, Brian S.
year 1986
title Representing the Structure of Design Problems
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 158-170
summary In recent years several experimental CAD systems have emerged which, focus specifically on the structure of design problems rather than on solution generation or appraisal (Sussman and Steele, 1980; McCallum, 1982). However, the development of these systems has been hampered by the lack of an adequate theoretical basis. There is little or no argument as to what the statements comprising these models actually mean, or on the types of operations that should be provided. This chapter describes an attempt to develop a semantically adequate basis for a model of the structure of design problems and presents a representation of this model in formal logic.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id aad7
authors Mackenzie, C.A. and Gero, John S.
year 1986
title Learning in the Domain of Decisions and Performances
source IAAI'86 Conference. 1986. pp. i:1:1-9. CADLINE has abstract only
summary Many domains present themselves as mappings between two classes of spaces: decision spaces and performance spaces. All design domains can be represented in this manner where the designer takes decisions which manifest themselves as performances in the designed artifact. Learning in these domains can take account of the structural characteristics of the spaces and of the mappings. This paper describes a system, PARE, which learns in the domain of decisions and performances by making use of the characteristics of a particular structuring concept known as 'Pareto optimality.' Much is known about the concept and its features which are used as hypotheses. If the hypotheses succeed then learning takes place by specializing the hypotheses' characteristics. Characterizations of Pareto optimality are described and the feature extraction process shown. The feature extraction process utilizes fuzzy pattern matching. An example of the system, written in ConSUN workstations, is presented from the domain of fenestration design
keywords performance, learning, design process, optimization, analysis, applications, theory, systems
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id a6f7
authors Mitchell, J.R. and Radford, Antony D.
year 1986
title Adding Knowledge to Computer-Aided Detailing
source 1986. pp. 31-35
summary A knowledge based approach to computer-aided detailing is described with an example of a generative system for the design of eaves details for domestic architecture. The program uses Prolog as a knowledge base with an integrated color raster graphics display facility
keywords knowledge base, systems, architecture, CAD, detailing
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id d790
authors Nakamae, E., Harada, K. and Ishizaki, T.
year 1986
title A montage method: the overlaying of the computer generated images onto a background phograph
source Computer Graphics, no. 4:207-214
summary A system of computer programs has been established to generate high quality montage image of considerable usefulness in architectural simulation which combine computer-generated images and photographed background pictures. Traditionally, there are two methods of creating architectural montages: (I) an artist paints new buildings onto a background scene usually generated photographically, and (2) a three-dlmensional scale model is created to simulate the whole landscape, and this model is then photographed. The montage method described here combines aspects of both traditional montage methods with significant improvement in accuracy and reduction of time and cost of preparation. Specifically, a digitized photograph is used as a background scene onto which is superimposed a 3D computer-generated image of a new building. The outstanding points of the new method are: (i) The shading and shadows of each computer generated image are calculated with higher accuracy, (ii) the fog effect is taken into account, and (iii) a new anti-aliasing technique improves the quality of the final montage image.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id aec5
authors Norman, Donald A. and Draper, Stephen W.
year 1986
title User Centered System Design : New Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction
source xiii, 186 p. : col. ill. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., 1986. includes bibliography and index
summary A pluralistic approach, design computers from the user's point of view
keywords systems, design, user interface, color, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 2b3a
authors Olsen, Dan R. Jr.
year 1986
title MIKE : The Menu Interaction Kontrol Environment
source ACM Transactions on Graphics. October, 1986. vol. 5: pp. 318-344 : ill. includes bibliography
summary User Interface Management System (UIMS) called MIKE that does not use the syntactic specifications found in most UIMSs is described. Instead, MIKE provides a default syntax that is automatically generated from the definition of the semantic commands that the interaction is to support. The default syntax is refined using an interface editor that allows modification of the representation of the interface. It is shown how active pictures can be created by adding action expressions to the viewports of MIKE's windowing system. The implications of MIKE's command based dialogue description are discussed in terms of extensible interfaces, device and dialogue-style independence, and system support functions
keywords design, user interface, management, systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 29c2
authors Ozel, Filiz
year 1991
title An Intelligent Simulation Approach in Simulating Dynamic Processes in Architectural Environments
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 177-190
summary The implications of object-oriented data models and rule-based reasoning systems is being researched in a wide variety of application areas ranging from VLSI circuit design (Afsannanesh et al 1990) to architectural environments (Coyne et al 1990). The potential of this approach in the development of discrete event simulations is also being scrutinized (Birtwistle et al 1986). Such computer models are usually called "expert simulations" or "intelligent simulations". Typically rule-basing in such models allows the definition of intelligent-objects that can reason about the simulated dynamic processes through an inferencing system. The major advantage of this approach over traditional simulation languages is its ability to provide direct reference to real world objects and processes. The simulation of dynamic processes in architectural environments poses an additional Problem of resolving the interaction of architectural objects with other objects such as humans, water, smoke etc., depending on the process simulated. Object-oriented approach promises potential in solving this specific problem. The first part of this paper addresses expert simulation approach within the context of architectural settings, then the second part summarizes work done in the application of such an approach to an emergency egress simulation.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/07 10:03

_id 4f56
authors Paasi, Jyrki
year 1986
title Architectural Space Synthesizer - The last link of a CAAD system
source ACADIA Workshop ‘86 Proceedings - Houston (Texas - USA) 24-26 October 1986, pp. 217-223
summary Computer technology and CAD are about to change radically the thousands of years of tradition of the architect's work. We are leaving behind the old method of drawing by hand, replacing the pencil with a stylus for pointing elements of mathematical models of projects. We are changing over from two dimensional to three dimensional design. Decisive for the architect to achieve a successful outcome has always been and will always be the visualisation of the project right from its early stages. There is a trend -in our time and a risk in the. new technology of fragmenting our work and making it more abstract. The new technology is based on the old one and in the beginning its user still has the habits of the old. Therefore the visualisation in present CAD systems and three dimensional design is based on the old plane projections; axonometrics and perspectives. However, there is an essentially better way which happens also to be natural to the new technology and simple to realize using it. This is the spherical projection.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/10/10 12:26

_id 6075
authors Paasi, Jyrki
year 1986
title The space synthesizer of Helsinki University of Technology
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 253-257
summary Computer technology and CAD are about to change radically the thousands of years of tradition of the architect's work. We are leaving behind the old method of drawing by hand, replacing the pencil with a stylus for pointing elements of mathematical models of projects. We are changing over from two dimensional to three dimensional design. Decisive for the architect to achieve a successful outcome has always been and will always be the visualisation of the project right from its early stages. There is a trend in our time and a risk in the new technology of fragmenting our work and making it more abstract. The new technology is based on the old one and in the beginning its user still has the habits of the old. Therefore the visualisation in present CAD systems and three dimensional design is based on the old plan projections; axonometrics and perspectives. However, there is an essentially better way which happens also to be natural to the new technology and simple to realize using it. This is the spherical projection.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:18

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