CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 206

_id 242d
authors Atkin, Brian L. and Gill, E. Moira
year 1986
title CAD and Management of Construction Projects
source Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Vol. 112, December, pp. 557-565
summary The increasing interest in computer-aided design (CAD) has prompted research that is aimed at identifying the opportunities for construction managers and building contractors. It has been found that the use of CAD systems in the U.K. is mainly confined to the production of detailed drawings. Indeed, most of the systems used are 2-D drafting tools and incapable of supporting the integration of even modest amounts of nongraphical (construction) data. On the other hand, many 3-D modeling systems have the potential to integrate construction data, although they appear to be almostignored. The use of 3-D modeling systems is considered to be the most suitable vehicle for successfully integrating these data. However, this is likely to necessitate the introduction of separate databases, preferably of the relational type. The use of 3-D modeling systems in assessing the construction implications of outline designs also presents interesting possibilities and is discussed.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 876b
authors Christiansson, Per
year 1986
title Structuring a Learning Building Design System
source Advancing Building Technology, CIB International Congress (10th : 1986 : Washington D. C.). 9 p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary It is now vital to aim at formulating computer system modules that possess a high ability to adapt their behavior to fundamental human values and a complex and unstandardized (not uniform) building process but at the same time put constraints on them so that we don't end up with a confusion of computerized routines hard to access, control and understand. In the paper formulations are made of basic artifact skeletons outgoing from the properties to give integrated CAD systems and to those rules by which the growth of the systems are governed. System learning domains including conceptual modelling tools are presented aiming at supporting professional skill, creativity and integration between process actors. The basis for system implementation is frames, descriptive language (PROLOG) and relational databases with regard taken to future possibilities to parallel processing
keywords modeling, learning, integration, database, AI, design, systems, frames
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id sigradi2008_175
id sigradi2008_175
authors Knight, Terry; Larry Sass, Kenfield Griffith, Ayodh Vasant Kamath
year 2008
title Visual-Physical Grammars
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary This paper introduces new visual-physical design grammars for the design and manufacture of building assembly systems that provide visually rich, culturally resonant design variations for housing. The building systems are intended to be tailored for particular cultures and communities by incorporating vernacular, decorative design into the assembly design. Two complementary areas of computational design research are brought together in this work: shape grammars and digital fabrication. The visual or graphic aspects of the research are explored through shape grammars. The physical design and manufacturing aspects are explored through advanced digital design and fabrication technologies and, in particular, build on recent work on mono-material assemblies with interlocking components that can be fabricated with CNC machines and assembled easily by hand on-site (Sass, 2007). This paper describes the initial, proof-of-concept stage of this work: the development of an automated, visual-physical grammar for an assembly system based on a vernacular language of Greek meander designs. A shape grammar for the two-dimensional Greek meander language (Knight, 1986) was translated into a three-dimensional assembly system. The components of the system are uniquely designed, concrete “meander bricks” (Figure 1). The components have integrated alignment features so that they can be easily fitted and locked together manually without binding materials. Components interlock horizontally to form courses, and courses interlock vertically in different ways to produce a visual variety of meander walls. The assembly components were prototyped at desktop scale with a layered manufacturing machine to test their appearance after assembly and their potential for design variations (Figure 2). Components were then evaluated as full-scale concrete objects for satisfaction of physical constraints related to concrete forming and component strength. The automated grammar (computer program) for this system generates assembly design variations with complete CAD/CAM data for fabrication of components formed from layered, CNC cut molds. Using the grammar, a full-scale mockup of a corner wall section was constructed to assess the structural, material, and aesthetic feasibility of the system, as well as ease of assembly. The results of this study demonstrate clearly the potentials for embedding visual properties in structural systems. They provide the foundations for further work on assembly systems for complete houses and other small-scale structures, and grammars to generate them. In the long-term, this research will lead to new solutions for economical, easily manufactured housing which is especially critical in developing countries and for post-disaster environments. These new housing solutions will not only provide shelter but will also support important cultural values through the integration of familiar visual design features. The use of inexpensive, portable digital design and fabrication technologies will allow local communities to be active, cooperative participants in the design and construction of their homes. Beyond the specific context of housing, visual-physical grammars have the potential to positively impact design and manufacture of designed artifacts at many scales, and in many domains, particularly for artifacts where visual aesthetics need to be considered jointly with physical or material requirements and design customization or variation is important.
keywords Shape grammar, digital fabrication, building assembly, mass customization, housing
series SIGRADI
email tknight@mit.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:54

_id 0565
authors Oxman, Robert and Oxman, Rivka
year 1990
title The Computability of Architectural Knowledge
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 171-185
summary In an important contribution to the theoretical foundation of design computing, Mitchell noted "an increasingly urgent need to establish a demonstrably sound, comprehensive, rigorously formalized theoretical foundation upon which to base practical software development efforts" (Mitchell, 1986). In this paper we propose such a theoretical framework. A basic assumption of this work is that the advancement of design computing is dependent upon the emergence of a rigorous formulation of knowledge in design. We present a model of knowledge in architectural design which suggests a promising conceptual basis for dealing with knowledge in computer-aided design systems. We require models which can represent the formal knowledge and manipulative operations of the designer in all of their complexity-that is formal models rather than just geometric models. Shape Grammars (Stiny,1980) represent an example of such models, and constitute a relatively high level of design knowledge as compared to, for example, use of symmetry operations to generate simple formal configurations. Building upon an understanding of the classes of design knowledge as the conceptual basis for formal modeling systems may contribute a new realization of the potential of the medium for design. This will require a comprehensive approach to the definition of architectural and design knowledge. We consider here the implications of a well-defined body of architectural and design knowledge for design education and the potential mutual interaction-in a knowledge-rich environment-of design learning and CAAD learning. The computational factors connected with the representation of design knowledge and its integration in design systems are among the key problems of CAAD. Mitchell's model of knowledge in design incorporates formal knowledge in a comprehensive, multi-level, hierarchical structure in which types of knowledge are correlated with computational concepts. In the main focus of this paper we present a structured, multi-level model of design knowledge which we discuss with respect to current architectural theoretical considerations. Finally, we analyze the computational and educational relevance of such models.
series CAAD Futures
email arrro01@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 678e
authors Aish, Robert
year 1986
title Three-dimensional Input and Visualization
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 68-84
summary The aim of this chapter is to investigate techniques by which man-computer interaction could be improved, specifically in the context of architectural applications of CAD. In this application the object being designed is often an assembly of defined components. Even if the building is not actually fabricated from such components, it is usually conceptualized in these terms. In a conventional graphics- based CAD system these components are usually represented by graphical icons which are displayed on the graphics screen and arranged by the user. The system described here consists of three- dimensional modelling elements which the user physically assembles to form his design. Unlike conventional architectural models which are static (i.e. cannot be changed by the users) and passive (i.e. cannot be read by a CAD system), this model is both 'user generated' and 'machine readable'. The user can create, edit and view the model by simple, natural modelling activities and without the need to learn complex operating commands often associated with CAD systems. In particular, the user can view the model, altering his viewpoint and focus of attention in a completely natural way. Conventional computer graphics within an associated CAD system are used to represent the detailed geometry which the different three-dimensional icons may represent. In addition, computer graphics are also used to present the output of the performance attributes of the objects being modelled. In the architectural application described in this chapter an energy- balance evaluation is displayed for a building designed using the modelling device. While this system is not intended to offer a completely free-form input facility it can be considered to be a specialist man-machine interface of particular relevance to architects or engineers.
series CAAD Futures
email Robert.Aish@bentley.com
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 4431
authors Calderaro, V. and Platone, C.
year 1986
title Information systems and internvention technologies programmed to aid the energy saving within the limits of the existing building property rescue
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 192-201
summary In our national territory the rescue of the existing building property is a very important problem. For that reason, starting front the presupposition that the existing buildings, restoration finds its real achievement by means of technological and installing interventions strictly connected with the energy costs and consumptions, this study sets as a planning method on various degrees to analyze, single out and propose the possible solutions based on qualitative and quantitative researches into the thermo-physical behaviour of the above-mentioned buildings. From a research done into the principal building properties related with the different national areas we can single out significant morphological samples and typical technological structures. This first analytical study allows the singling out of significant building models on which it's possible to value the thermal behaviour and possible subsequent restoring interventions by applying computerized mathematical models or by operating diagrams deduced from them. First of all, these mathematical models for simulation allow a valuation of the main thermal parameters (dispersion both in absolute value and in volumetric factor, medium thermal transmittance (U value) of geometrical models deduced from the typical above - mentioned cases.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/04/01 18:58

_id 6643
authors Carrara, Gianfranco and Novembri, Gabriele
year 1986
title Expert System for Building Design
source Congress of the International Council for Building Research, Studies and Documentation (10th : 1986 : Washington). vol. 2: pp. 651-658. includes bibliography. -- abstract also in French
summary At the CABD LAB at the University of Rome, an interactive expert system for architecture is being implemented to supervise building design at every stage of development. The system operates by checking the consistency of design choices against given sets of constraints, and by automatically checking the design process. It is therefore an innovation with respect to current architectural software developed as specific design aids. The system is based on a general representation of building objects (from components to the whole building) by means of semantic nets and a set of inferential procedures. The general representation is developed by making explicit the relational structures according to which architects organize their knowledge about building objects. To do this, the `Frame' formalism is used: this is a knowledge representation technique used in the field of artificial intelligence. It is then shown that such an expert CAAD system is a general purpose tool for architectural design, enabling architects to assess any constraint and/or building attribute by means of a declarative method, which in no way affects their own specific design methodologies
keywords semantic networks, representation, constraints, expert systems, CAD, building, design process, knowledge, frames
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id aa60
authors Christiansson, Per
year 1986
title Properties of Future Knowledge Based Systems : The Interactive Consultation System Example
source computer Aided Architectural Design - Developments in Education and Practice. 1986. 14 p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary An introduction to knowledge based systems is presented to point out possibilities and limitations of the new software and hardware technology now beginning to be available. A pilot study on the use of an expert system shell (the ES/P Advisor), is briefly discussed. A part of the Swedish concrete building code was implemented in the expert system shell to demonstrate the use of an interactive consultation system. Ideas on how compact video-discs can be used in this type of systems are also put forward
keywords knowledge base, systems, expert systems, CAD, media
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id c62d
authors Davis, Randall
year 1986
title Knowledge-Based Systems
source Science February, 1986. vol. 231: pp. 957-963 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary First developed two decades ago, knowledge-based systems have seen widespread application in recent years. While performance has been a strong focus of attention, building such systems has also expanded our conception of a computer program from a black box providing an answer to something capable of explaining its answers, acquiring new knowledge, and transferring knowledge to students. These abilities derive from distinguishing clearly what the program knows from how that knowledge will be used, making it possible to use the same knowledge in different ways
keywords AI, knowledge base, systems, theory
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id c27d
authors Flemming, U., Coyne, R.F. and Glavin, T.J. (et al)
year 1986
title ROOS1 -- Version One of a Generative Expert System for the Design of Building Layouts
source 17 p. : ill. Pittsburgh: Engineering Design Research Center, Carnegie Mellon University, September, 1986
summary ROOS1 is a generative expert system for the design of building layouts. The system is intended to complement human designers' performance through (a) its ability to systematically search for alternative solutions with promising trade-offs; and (b) its ability to take a broad range of design concerns into account. Work on the system provides insights into the applicability of Artificial Intelligence techniques to space planning and building design in general. The system is based on a general generate-and-test paradigm. Its main components are a generator, a tester and a control strategy (which is to be expanded later into a genuine planner). The generator is restricted to the allocation of rectangles. The spatial relations above, below, to the left and the right are defined for pairs of objects in a layout and serve as basic design variables which define differences between solutions and govern the enumeration of alternatives. Within the class of layouts it is able to produce, the generator is completely general and able to generate all realizable sets of spatial relations for a given number of objects. In contrast, the tester is domain-specific and incorporates knowledge about the quality of layouts in a specific domain. The system can be applied to various domains by running it with the appropriate tester and, possibly, the appropriate control strategy. The control strategy itself mediates between planner and tester and, when expanded into a planner, is able to streamline the search for alternatives. The system will go through a sequence of versions with increasing complexity. Each version will have a conceptually clean and clear architecture, and it is the authors' intention to evaluate each architecture explicitly in terms of its promises and limitations with respect to various domains. The first of these versions is described in the present paper
keywords enumeration, combinatorics, layout, floor plans, design, methods, architecture, expert systems, planning
series CADline
email ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id 8db7
authors Gero, John S., Radford, Antony D. and Rosenman, Michael A. (et al)
year 1986
title Knowledge-based Building Design
source CIB 86, Advanced Building Technology, Proceedings. 1986. vol. 1: pp. 93-102
summary CADLINE has abstract only. The use of the right knowledge depends not only on its availability but also on the designer recognizing that it is needed. The great majority of failures in building design and construction come from the non-application of existing, recorded knowledge; the designer either could not find the right information, or never recognized that the existing basis for making design decisions was inadequate in a new context. This paper describes some work towards the development of knowledge-based computer-aided design tools in which the knowledge is explicit, explained and open to modification. The philosophy behind the work is that design is almost always better if it is based on better knowledge, and that knowledge should be linked as closely as possible to the design activity. Rather than rely on a theoretical discussion, the authors make some brief statements about the nature of such knowledge-based systems and then give some working examples from the Architectural Computing Unit in the University of Sydney
keywords building, knowledge base, design, architecture, CAD
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id a833
authors Jong, M. de
year 1986
title A Spatial Relational Reference Model (3RM)
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 85-91
summary In this chapter we hope to provide the reader with an impression of the objective, framework and possibilities of 3RM in the construction industry. In Dutch, 3RM stands for 'Ruimtelijk Relationeel Referentie Model' (Spatial Relational Reference Model). The model could begin to be used as an information-bearer in the building industry within which the specific trade information for each of the building participants could be interrelated, including drafting symbolism, building costs, physical qualities and building regulations. In this way, the model can be used as a means to a more efficient running of the building process and enabling the integration of information, at project level, provided by various building participants. The project should be defined in the same way as is a typical architectural project, whereby the actual development as well as the project management is carried out by architects. For the time being, development is limited to integral use at the design stage, but it also offers sufficient expansion possibilities to be able to function as a new communications model throughout the complete building process. We shall first provide information as to the origin, the objective and the execution of the project. Thereafter, we shall attempt to state the theoretical information problem within the building industry and the solution to this offered through 3RM. Finally, we shall report upon the results of the first phase of the 3RM project.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id e26f
authors Kalay, Y. (ed.)
year 1987
title Computability of Design
source New York: Wiley & Sons
summary Computer-aided design (CAD) has promised to transform the art and science of architectural design. Yet, despite some significant achievements in the past 3 decades, it has so far failed to do so. This stimulating volume, derived from a symposium held at SUNY, Buffalo in December 1986, explores the reasons why design is so difficult to support by computational means, and what can be done to alleviate this difficulty. Written by an interdisciplinary panel of experts, it presents a varied and comprehensive view of the ways creative design processes can be modelled. The contributors do not all reach the same conclusions, which makes this book lively reading. Topics are arranged into four parts: constructing models of the design process, the computational representation of design knowledge (including spatial information and implicit design intent), methods for computing the design process as a whole (including mathematical programming, expert systems, and shape grammars), and the integration of CAD with traditional design practices.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 682d
authors Kim, Uk
year 1986
title Model for an Integrated Design Evaluation System using Knowledge Bases
source ACADIA Workshop ‘86 Proceedings - Houston (Texas - USA) 24-26 October 1986, pp. 204-215
summary Computer-aided architectural design (CAAD) systems need to be integrated so that one unified system can generate and do various analysis and evaluation of building models. A data system can not solve this problem because all design concepts can not be stored in the database before the design is completed. As design stage proceeds, design concept and necessary information for analysis and evaluation become complex and detailed. In order to accommodate increasing entities and new relationships between them, knowledge-based systems are integrated into the database of building models. frame structure and production rules are adopted to represent knowledge about the database, and to represent evaluation rules respectively. The system is implemented in Prolog on an Apollo workstation.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/10/10 12:26

_id 0e5e
authors Kociolek, A.
year 1986
title CAD in Polish Building
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 235-245
summary There is little CAAD in Polish architectural design offices, and only recently have practising architects discovered the computer. On the other hand, CAAD has been used for some time in research and development based at universities or in large design organizations. This chapter gives a broad picture of the computerization of building design in Poland, a complex process which concerns planning and financing, hardware, software, CAD practice, standardization, training, education, etc. Here architectural applications are treated on an equal basis, together with other applications representing design disciplines involved in design, such as structural and mechanical engineering. The underlying philosophy of this chapter is a belief that proper and well-balanced computerization of design in building which leaves creative work to human beings should result in better design and eventually in improvements in the built environment. Therefore integration of the design process in building seems more important for design practice than attempts to replace an architect by a computer, although the intellectual attraction of this problem is recognized.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 6ab7
authors Korson, Tim and McGregor, John D.
year 1990
title Understanding Object- Oriented : A Unifying Paradigm
source Communications of the ACM September, 1990. vol. 33: pp. 40-60. includes bibliography.
summary The purpose of this paper is to introduce terminology, concepts and basic techniques surrounding the object-oriented paradigm. software / OOPS / programming. 63. Koskela, Lauri, Raija Hynynen and Martti Kallavuo, et al. 'Expert Systems in Construction - Initial Experiences.' CAD and Robotics in Architecture and Construction, Proceedings of the International Joint Conference = CAO et Robotique en Architecture et B.T.P. Actes des Journees Internationales. June, 1986. Paris: Hermes, pp. 167-176. includes bibliography and abstracts in French and English. This paper describes development of expert systems for construction applications in the Laboratory of Building Economics of the Technical Research Centre of Finland. Five small expert systems are described. Experiences gained in the development work are evaluated. The future significance of expert systems for the construction industry is discussed, and an approach towards expert systems to be adopted by organizations in the construction industry is suggested
keywords construction, applications, economics, expert systems, knowledge, evaluation, analysis
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 5509
authors Koutamanis, Alexandros
year 1990
title Development of a computerized handbook of architectural plans
source Delft University of Technology
summary The dissertation investigates an approach to the development of visual / spatial computer representations for architectural purposes through the development of the computerized handbook of architectural plans (chap), a knowledge-based computer system capable of recognizing the metric properties of architectural plans. This investigation can be summarized as an introduction of computer vision to the computerization of architectural representations: chap represents an attempt to automate recognition of the most essential among conventional architectural drawings, floor plans. The system accepts as input digitized images of architectural plans and recognizes their spatial primitives (locations) and their spatial articulation on a variety of abstraction levels. The final output of chap is a description of the plan in terms of the grouping formations detected in its spatial articulation. The overall structure of the description is based on an analysis of its conformity to the formal rules of its “stylistic” context (which in the initial version of chap is classical architecture). Chapter 1 suggests that the poor performance of computerized architectural drawing and design systems is among others evidence of the necessity to computerize visual / spatial architectural representations. A recognition system such as chap offers comprehensive means for the investigation of a methodology for the development and use of such representations. Chapter 2 describes a fundamental task of chap: recognition of the position and shape of locations, the atomic parts of the description of an architectural plan in chap. This operation represents the final and most significant part of the first stage in processing an image input in machine environment. Chapter 3 moves to the next significant problem, recognition of the spatial arrangement of locations in an architectural plan, that is, recognition of grouping relationships that determine the subdivision of a plan into parts. In the absence of systematic and exhaustive typologic studies of classical architecture that would allow us to define a repertory of the location group types possible in classical architectural plans, Chapter 3 follows a bottom-up approach based on grouping relationships derived from elementary architectural knowledge and formalized with assistance from Gestalt theory and its antecedents. The grouping process described in Chapter 3 corresponds both in purpose and in structure to the derivation of a description of an image in computer vision [Marr 1982]. Chapter 4 investigates the well-formedness of the description of a classical architectural plan in an analytical manner: each relevant level (or sublevel) of the classical canon according to Tzonis & Lefaivre [1986] is transformed into a single group of criteria of well-formedness which is investigated independently. The hierarchical structure of the classical canon determines the coordination of these criteria into a sequence of cognitive filters which progressively analyses the correspondence of the descriptions derived as in Chapter 3 to the constraints of the canon. The methodology and techniques presented in the dissertation are primarily considered with respect to chap, a specific recognition system. The resulting specification of chap gives a measure of the use of such a system within the context of a computerized collection of architectural precedents and also presents several extensions to other areas of architecture. Although these extensions are not considered as verifiable claims, Chapter 5 describes some of their implications, including on the role of architectural drawing in computerized design systems, on architectural typologies, and on the nature and structure of generative systems in architecture.
series thesis:PhD
email a.koutamanis@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 8190
authors Lawson, B.
year 1986
title Teaching CAAD at Sheffield University
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 78-87
summary The University of Sheffield Department of Architecture has been using Computer Aided Architectural Design in its teaching now for over ten years. During that time there has also been a major research unit in CAAD working in the department and most of the software used in our teaching programme has originated in our own research unit. Our students have now got access to a wide range of CAAD programs including 2D draughting, 3D colour visualisation, environmental analysis, structural design and cost estimating. We have generated our own specialised systems of terrain modelling and intelligent building modelling which link to both the visualisation and environmental appraisal software. Students also have access to data base and word processing software. CAAD has been used in all five years of our course and we also have students working .with CAAD during their professional experience years. Over this ten year period we have gradually altered and refined our approach to the educational use of CAAD and this paper will describe this approach and present some of the lessons we have learnt. I want to organise the paper into two main sections; firstly what are we trying to achieve by teaching CAAD on our course, and secondly, how do we fit this into the curriculum and what effect does it have.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:03

_id 2611
authors Lenart, Mihaly
year 1986
title Construction problems as Tiling Puzzles
source 1986? [21] p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary The design of building construction parts often means design synthesis: complex parts will be generated gradually by smaller subparts or elements. Since construction parts are three dimensional geometrical objects and many of them are built from mutually connected elements, one can find analogies between building puzzles and construction design. Tiling puzzles are a special kind of building puzzles whose elements pave the plane or space or a certain part of these. This paper is concerned with the connection between tiling problems and the design of construction parts of prefabricated building systems. Most of these problems are of combinatorial nature; many of them can be tackled only by computers
keywords tiling, design, methods, building, synthesis, construction, combinatorics, search
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id c7e9
authors Maver, T.W.
year 2002
title Predicting the Past, Remembering the Future
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 2-3
summary Charlas Magistrales 2There never has been such an exciting moment in time in the extraordinary 30 year history of our subject area, as NOW,when the philosophical theoretical and practical issues of virtuality are taking centre stage.The PastThere have, of course, been other defining moments during these exciting 30 years:• the first algorithms for generating building layouts (circa 1965).• the first use of Computer graphics for building appraisal (circa 1966).• the first integrated package for building performance appraisal (circa 1972).• the first computer generated perspective drawings (circa 1973).• the first robust drafting systems (circa 1975).• the first dynamic energy models (circa 1982).• the first photorealistic colour imaging (circa 1986).• the first animations (circa 1988)• the first multimedia systems (circa 1995), and• the first convincing demonstrations of virtual reality (circa 1996).Whereas the CAAD community has been hugely inventive in the development of ICT applications to building design, it hasbeen woefully remiss in its attempts to evaluate the contribution of those developments to the quality of the built environmentor to the efficiency of the design process. In the absence of any real evidence, one can only conjecture regarding the realbenefits which fall, it is suggested, under the following headings:• Verisimilitude: The extraordinary quality of still and animated images of the formal qualities of the interiors and exteriorsof individual buildings and of whole neighborhoods must surely give great comfort to practitioners and their clients thatwhat is intended, formally, is what will be delivered, i.e. WYSIWYG - what you see is what you get.• Sustainability: The power of «first-principle» models of the dynamic energetic behaviour of buildings in response tochanging diurnal and seasonal conditions has the potential to save millions of dollars and dramatically to reduce thedamaging environmental pollution created by badly designed and managed buildings.• Productivity: CAD is now a multi-billion dollar business which offers design decision support systems which operate,effectively, across continents, time-zones, professions and companies.• Communication: Multi-media technology - cheap to deliver but high in value - is changing the way in which we canexplain and understand the past and, envisage and anticipate the future; virtual past and virtual future!MacromyopiaThe late John Lansdown offered the view, in his wonderfully prophetic way, that ...”the future will be just like the past, onlymore so...”So what can we expect the extraordinary trajectory of our subject area to be?To have any chance of being accurate we have to have an understanding of the phenomenon of macromyopia: thephenomenon exhibitted by society of greatly exaggerating the immediate short-term impact of new technologies (particularlythe information technologies) but, more importantly, seriously underestimating their sustained long-term impacts - socially,economically and intellectually . Examples of flawed predictions regarding the the future application of information technologiesinclude:• The British Government in 1880 declined to support the idea of a national telephonic system, backed by the argumentthat there were sufficient small boys in the countryside to run with messages.• Alexander Bell was modest enough to say that: «I am not boasting or exaggerating but I believe, one day, there will bea telephone in every American city».• Tom Watson, in 1943 said: «I think there is a world market for about 5 computers».• In 1977, Ken Olssop of Digital said: «There is no reason for any individuals to have a computer in their home».The FutureJust as the ascent of woman/man-kind can be attributed to her/his capacity to discover amplifiers of the modest humancapability, so we shall discover how best to exploit our most important amplifier - that of the intellect. The more we know themore we can figure; the more we can figure the more we understand; the more we understand the more we can appraise;the more we can appraise the more we can decide; the more we can decide the more we can act; the more we can act themore we can shape; and the more we can shape, the better the chance that we can leave for future generations a trulysustainable built environment which is fit-for-purpose, cost-beneficial, environmentally friendly and culturally significactCentral to this aspiration will be our understanding of the relationship between real and virtual worlds and how to moveeffortlessly between them. We need to be able to design, from within the virtual world, environments which may be real ormay remain virtual or, perhaps, be part real and part virtual.What is certain is that the next 30 years will be every bit as exciting and challenging as the first 30 years.
series SIGRADI
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

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