CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 678e
authors Aish, Robert
year 1986
title Three-dimensional Input and Visualization
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 68-84
summary The aim of this chapter is to investigate techniques by which man-computer interaction could be improved, specifically in the context of architectural applications of CAD. In this application the object being designed is often an assembly of defined components. Even if the building is not actually fabricated from such components, it is usually conceptualized in these terms. In a conventional graphics- based CAD system these components are usually represented by graphical icons which are displayed on the graphics screen and arranged by the user. The system described here consists of three- dimensional modelling elements which the user physically assembles to form his design. Unlike conventional architectural models which are static (i.e. cannot be changed by the users) and passive (i.e. cannot be read by a CAD system), this model is both 'user generated' and 'machine readable'. The user can create, edit and view the model by simple, natural modelling activities and without the need to learn complex operating commands often associated with CAD systems. In particular, the user can view the model, altering his viewpoint and focus of attention in a completely natural way. Conventional computer graphics within an associated CAD system are used to represent the detailed geometry which the different three-dimensional icons may represent. In addition, computer graphics are also used to present the output of the performance attributes of the objects being modelled. In the architectural application described in this chapter an energy- balance evaluation is displayed for a building designed using the modelling device. While this system is not intended to offer a completely free-form input facility it can be considered to be a specialist man-machine interface of particular relevance to architects or engineers.
series CAAD Futures
email Robert.Aish@bentley.com
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id a35a
authors Arponen, Matti
year 2002
title From 2D Base Map To 3D City Model
source UMDS '02 Proceedings, Prague (Czech Republic) 2-4 October 2002, I.17-I.28
summary Since 1997 Helsinki City Survey Division has proceeded in experimenting and in developing the methods for converting and supplementing current digital 2D base maps in the scale 1:500 to a 3D city model. Actually since 1986 project areas have been produced in 3D for city planning and construction projects, but working with the whole map database started in 1997 because of customer demands and competitive 3D projects. 3D map database needs new data modelling and structures, map update processes need new working orders and the draftsmen need to learn a new profession; the 3D modeller. Laser-scanning and digital photogrammetry have been used in collecting 3D information on the map objects. During the years 1999-2000 laser-scanning experiments covering 45 km2 have been carried out utilizing the Swedish TopEye system. Simultaneous digital photography produces material for orto photo mosaics. These have been applied in mapping out dated map features and in vectorizing 3D buildings manually, semi automatically and automatically. In modelling we use TerraScan, TerraPhoto and TerraModeler sw, which are developed in Finland. The 3D city model project is at the same time partially a software development project. An accuracy and feasibility study was also completed and will be shortly presented. The three scales of 3D models are also presented in this paper. Some new 3D products and some usage of 3D city models in practice will be demonstrated in the actual presentation.
keywords 3D City modeling
series other
email matti.arponen@hel.fi
more www.udms.net
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 644f
authors Bijl, Aart
year 1986
title Designing with Words and Pictures in a Logic Modelling Environment
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 128-145
summary At EdCAAD we are interested in design as something people do. Designed artefacts, the products of designing, are interesting only in so far as they tell us something about design. An extreme expression of this position is to say that the world of design is the thoughts in the heads of designers, plus the skills of designers in externalizing their thoughts; design artifacts, once perceived and accepted in the worlds of other people, are no longer part of the world of design. We can describe design, briefly, as a process of synthesis. Design has to achieve a fusion between parts to create new parts, so that the products are recognized, as having a right and proper place in the world of people. Parts should be understood as referring to anything - physical objects, abstract ideas, aspirations. These parts occur in some design environment from which parts are extracted, designed upon and results replaced; in the example of buildings, the environment is people and results have to be judged by reference to that environment. It is characteristic of design that both the process and the product are not subject to explicit and complete criteria. This view of design differs sharply from the more orthodox understanding of scientific and technological endeavours which rely predominantly on a process of analysis. In the latter case, the approach is to decompose a problem into parts until individual parts are recognized as being amenable to known operations and results are reassembled into a solution. This process has a peripheral role in design when evaluating selected aspects of tentative design proposals, but the absence of well-defined and widely recognized criteria for design excludes it from the main stream of analytical developments.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id c5af
authors Bobrow, Daniel G. and Stefik, Mark J.
year 1986
title Perspective on Artificial Intelligence Programming
source Science. February, 1986. vol. 231: pp. 951-956
summary Programming systems for artificial intelligence application use specialized languages, environments, and knowledge-based tools to reduce the complexity of the programming task. Language style based on procedure, objects logic rules, and constraints reflect different models for organizing programs and facilitate program evaluation and understandability. To make programming easier, multiple styles can be integrated as sublanguages in programming environment. Programming environments provide tools that analyze programs and create informative displays of their structure. Programs can be modified by direct interaction with these displays. These tools and languages are helping computer scientists to regain a sense of control over systems that have become increasingly complex
keywords programming, AI
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 2b3c
authors Carrara, G. and Novembri, G.
year 1986
title KAAD - Knowledge-based Assistance for Architectural Design
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 202-212
summary The research being conducted at the CABD LAB at the Department of Building and Environmental Control Technologies is geared to the production of an Expert System for architectural design, which is able to perform interactive design tasks and help to provide accurate and complete description of the buildings in question. The Expert System will control the design process, continually ensuring consistency between the definitions of the designer and a given set of constraints. Accordingly, the System will be able to determine the effects of of definition, performing the choices taken at different stages necessary calculations and checks. The System is based on a general representation of the building objects, from individual components to the whole building defined in terms of a number of hierarchical, topological and functional relational structures resulting from earlier research conducted into the automatic management of architectural design since 1975.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:14

_id 6643
authors Carrara, Gianfranco and Novembri, Gabriele
year 1986
title Expert System for Building Design
source Congress of the International Council for Building Research, Studies and Documentation (10th : 1986 : Washington). vol. 2: pp. 651-658. includes bibliography. -- abstract also in French
summary At the CABD LAB at the University of Rome, an interactive expert system for architecture is being implemented to supervise building design at every stage of development. The system operates by checking the consistency of design choices against given sets of constraints, and by automatically checking the design process. It is therefore an innovation with respect to current architectural software developed as specific design aids. The system is based on a general representation of building objects (from components to the whole building) by means of semantic nets and a set of inferential procedures. The general representation is developed by making explicit the relational structures according to which architects organize their knowledge about building objects. To do this, the `Frame' formalism is used: this is a knowledge representation technique used in the field of artificial intelligence. It is then shown that such an expert CAAD system is a general purpose tool for architectural design, enabling architects to assess any constraint and/or building attribute by means of a declarative method, which in no way affects their own specific design methodologies
keywords semantic networks, representation, constraints, expert systems, CAD, building, design process, knowledge, frames
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 63d0
authors Carrara, Gianfranco and Novembri, Gabriele
year 1986
title Constraint-bounded design search
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 146-157
summary The design process requires continual checking of the consistency of design choices against given sets of goals that have been fulfilled. Such a check is generally performed by comparing abstract representations of design goals with these of the sought real building objects (RBO) resulting from complex intellectual activities closely related to the designer's culture and to the environment in which he operates. In this chapter we define a possible formalization of such representations concerning the goals and the RBO that are usually considered in the architectural design process by our culture in our environment. The representation of design goals is performed by expressing their objective aspects (requirements) and by defining their allowable values (performance specifications). The resulting system of requirements defines the set of allowable solutions and infers an abstract representation of the sought building objects (BO) that consists of the set of characteristics (attributes and relations) which are considered relevant to represent the particular kind of RBO with respect to the consistency check with design goals. The values related to such characteristics define the performances of the RBO while their set establishes its behaviour. Generally speaking, there is no single real object corresponding to an abstract representation but the whole class of the RBO that are equivalent with respect to the values assumed by the considered characteristics. The more we increase the number of these, as well as their specifications, the smaller the class becomes until it coincides with a single real object - given that the assessed specifications be fully consistent. On the other hand, the corresponding representation evolves to the total prefiguration of the RBO. It is not therefore possible to completely define a BO representation in advance since this is inferred by the considered goals and is itself a result of the design process. What can only be established in advance is that any set of characteristics assumed to represent any RBO consists of hierarchic, topological, geometrical and functional relations among the parts of the object at any level of aggregation (from components to space units, to building units, to the whole building) that we define representation structure (RS). Consequently the RS may be thought as the elementary structures that, by superposition and interaction, set up the abstract representation that best fit with design goals.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 295a
authors De Grassi, Mario
year 1986
title Rational Data Model: An Approach for Building Design and Planning
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 231-242
summary A model of the building object utilizing the typical formal structures of the relational data model is presented, which allows interactive design procedures to be foreseen and at the same time the use of the model for a data base containing information on building objects, to be used for normative planning and for building design.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:15

_id c27d
authors Flemming, U., Coyne, R.F. and Glavin, T.J. (et al)
year 1986
title ROOS1 -- Version One of a Generative Expert System for the Design of Building Layouts
source 17 p. : ill. Pittsburgh: Engineering Design Research Center, Carnegie Mellon University, September, 1986
summary ROOS1 is a generative expert system for the design of building layouts. The system is intended to complement human designers' performance through (a) its ability to systematically search for alternative solutions with promising trade-offs; and (b) its ability to take a broad range of design concerns into account. Work on the system provides insights into the applicability of Artificial Intelligence techniques to space planning and building design in general. The system is based on a general generate-and-test paradigm. Its main components are a generator, a tester and a control strategy (which is to be expanded later into a genuine planner). The generator is restricted to the allocation of rectangles. The spatial relations above, below, to the left and the right are defined for pairs of objects in a layout and serve as basic design variables which define differences between solutions and govern the enumeration of alternatives. Within the class of layouts it is able to produce, the generator is completely general and able to generate all realizable sets of spatial relations for a given number of objects. In contrast, the tester is domain-specific and incorporates knowledge about the quality of layouts in a specific domain. The system can be applied to various domains by running it with the appropriate tester and, possibly, the appropriate control strategy. The control strategy itself mediates between planner and tester and, when expanded into a planner, is able to streamline the search for alternatives. The system will go through a sequence of versions with increasing complexity. Each version will have a conceptually clean and clear architecture, and it is the authors' intention to evaluate each architecture explicitly in terms of its promises and limitations with respect to various domains. The first of these versions is described in the present paper
keywords enumeration, combinatorics, layout, floor plans, design, methods, architecture, expert systems, planning
series CADline
email ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id 4418
authors Franklin, Randolph, Wu, Peter, Y. F. and Samaddar, Sumitro (et al)
year 1986
title Prolog and Geometry Projects
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. November, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 46-55 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Prolog is a useful tool for geometry and graphics implementations because its primitives, such as unification, match the requirements of many geometric algorithms. During the last two years, programs have been implemented to solve several problems in Prolog, including a subset of the Graphical Kernel System, convex-hull calculation, planar graph traversal, recognition of groupings of objects, Boolean combinations of polygons using multiple precision rational numbers, and cartographic map overlay. Certain paradigms or standard forms of geometric programming in Prolog are becoming evident. They include applying a function to every element of a set, executing a procedure so long as a certain geometric pattern exists, and using unification to propagate a transitive function. This article describes the experiences, including paradigms of programming that seem useful, and finally lists those considered as the advantages and disadvantages of Prolog
keywords geometric modeling, computer graphics, PROLOG, programming
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 6916
authors Gasparski, W.
year 1986
title Design Methodology: How I Understand and Develop it
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 16-27
summary The term 'methodology' is sometimes given two diametrically opposed meanings, well characterized by Mark Blaug in the preface of a very informative book devoted to the methodology of economics. This is also the case with the methodology of design. One can find studies in which 'the methodology of design' is simply a method or methods of design, given a fancy name to make it or them appear more scientific. Authors of such studies should not confuse their readers by taking methodological studies to mean technicalities of design or demanding that their interpretation and assessment of so-called 'practical applicability' should follow this criterion. The methodology of design - as we understand it has parallels in the methodology of Blaug's economics, the philosophy of practical science, the applied sciences or the sciences of artificial objects or artefacts. Understood this way, the methodology of design is neither the method of practising design nor an instruction for its use but a theoretical reflection - in the meaning given to methodology by the philosophy of science - of design. In this connection a study of the methodology of design should be provided with the subtitle, 'How researchers of practical sciences and designers understand the concept of changes'.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id c898
authors Gero, John S.
year 1986
title An Overview of Knowledge Engineering and its Relevance to CAAD
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 107-119
summary Computer-aided architectural design (CAAD) has come to mean a number of often disparate activities. These can be placed into one of two categories: using the computer as a drafting and, to a lesser extent, modelling system; and using it as a design medium. The distinction between the two categories is often blurred. Using the computer as a drafting and modelling tool relies on computing notions concerned with representing objects and structures numerically and with ideas of computer programs as procedural algorithms. Similar notions underly the use of computers as a design medium. We shall return to these later. Clearly, all computer programs contain knowledge, whether methodological knowledge about processes or knowledge about structural relationships in models or databases. However, this knowledge is so intertwined with the procedural representation within the program that it can no longer be seen or found. Architecture is concerned with much more than numerical descriptions of buildings. It is concerned with concepts, ideas, judgement and experience. All these appear to be outside the realm of traditional computing. Yet architects discoursing use models of buildings largely unrelated to either numerical descriptions or procedural representations. They make use of knowledge - about objects, events and processes - and make nonprocedural (declarative) statements that can only be described symbolically. The limits of traditional computing are the limits of traditional computer-aided design systems, namely, that it is unable directly to represent and manipulate declarative, nonalgorithmic, knowledge or to perform symbolic reasoning. Developments in artificial intelligence have opened up ways of increasing the applicability of computers by acquiring and representing knowledge in computable forms. These approaches supplement rather than supplant existing uses of computers. They begin to allow the explicit representations of human knowledge. The remainder of this chapter provides a brief introduction to this field and describes, through applications, its relevance to computer- aided architectural design.
series CAAD Futures
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id e65f
authors Haines, Eric A. and Greenberg, Donald P.
year 1986
title The Light Buffer: A Shadow-Testing Accelerator
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. September, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 6-16 : col. ill. includes bibliography
summary In one area of computer graphics, realistic image synthesis, the ultimate goal is to produce a picture indistinguishable from a photograph of a real environment. A particularly powerful technique for simulating light reflection - an important element in creating this realism - is called ray tracing. This method produces images of excellent quality, but suffers from lengthy computation time that limits its practical use. This article presents a new method to reduce shadow testing time during ray tracing. The technique involves generating light buffers, each of which partitions the environment with respect to an individual light source. These partition descriptions are then used during shadow testing to quickly determine a small subset of objects that may have to be tested for intersection. The results of timing tests illustrate the beneficial performance of these techniques. The tests compare the standard ray-tracing algorithm to light buffers of varying resolution
keywords realism, synthesis, ray tracing, algorithms, computer graphics, shadowing
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id d37c
authors Haines, Eric A. and Greenberg, Donald P.
year 1986
title The Light Buffer: A Ray Tracer Shadow Testing Accelerator
source Comput. Graph. and App., vol. 6, no. 9, pp. 6-16, IEEE, Sept. 1986
summary The basic ideas presented are classifying objects from the light's viewpoint, and caching shadowing objects. The classification scheme uses a modified z-buffer to create lists of objects in sorted order for each "pixel" the light sees and determining depths beyond which no light passes. The other technique presented is caching the object that was last intersected by a shadow ray and immediately testing this object for the next shadow ray for the same light at the same location in the ray tree. Shadow caching is simple and applicable to almost any ray tracer. Dieter Bayer implemented the light buffer for POV-Ray.
series other
email erich@acm.org
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 7f64
authors Harfmann, A.C., Swerdloff, L.M. and Kalay, Y.E.
year 1986
title The Terminal Crit
source ACADIA Workshop ‘86 Proceedings - Houston (Texas - USA) 24-26 October 1986, pp. 79-87
summary Numerous attempts have been made to develop formal design methods with -the purpose of increasing the predictability, consistency and dissemination of the design process and improving the quality of the objects produced. The ill- structured nature of design, and the perception of design activities as intuitive and experience dependent have frustrated many of the efforts to structure these process. The growing complexity of the built environment and advances in technology have led to a more rigorous effort to understand and externalize creative activities. Computer aided design tools have recently been playing an important role in the evolution of the design process as a rationally defined activity. The use of- computers for drafting, analysis, and 2 or 3 dimensional modeling is rapidly becoming an accepted method in many design schools and practitioners. A next logical step in the externalization of the design process is to endow the computer with the ability to manipulate and critique parts of the design. Under this scenario, the "terminal crit" is redefined to mean critiques that are carried out by both the designer and the computer. The paper presents the rationalization of the design process as a continuum into which CAD has been introduced. The effects of computers on the design process are studied through a specific incorporation of CAD tools into a conventional design studio, and a research project intended to advance the role of CAD in design.
series ACADIA
email HARFMAAC@UCMAIL.UC.EDU
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 67d2
authors Kajiya, J.T. and Kay, T.L.
year 1986
title Ray tracing complex scenes
source Computer Graphics, 20 4, 269-78
summary A new algorithm for speeding up ray-object intersection calculations is presented. Objects are bounded by a new type of extent, which can be made to fit convex hulls arbitrarily tightly. The objects are placed into a hierarchy. A new hierarchy traversal algorithm is presented which is efficient in the sense that objects along the ray are queried in ancient order. Furthermore , we demonstrate that it is currently possible to raytrace scenes containing hundreds of thousands of objects.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 8e43
authors Katz, R., Chang, E. and Bhateja, R.
year 1986
title Version Modeling concepts for Computer-Aided Design Databases
source ACM SIGMOD Intl. Conf On Management of Data
summary We describe a semantic object-oriented data model for representing how a complex design database evolves over time. Structural relationships, introduced by the data management system, are imposed on the objects created by existing CAD tools. The relationships supported by the model are (1) version histories, (2) time-varying configurations, and (3) equivalences among objects of different types. We describe mechanisms for (1) identifying current versions, (2) supporting dynamic configuration binding, and (3) verifying equivalence relationships. The data model is being implemented in a Version Server, under development at the University of California, Berkeley.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id sigradi2008_175
id sigradi2008_175
authors Knight, Terry; Larry Sass, Kenfield Griffith, Ayodh Vasant Kamath
year 2008
title Visual-Physical Grammars
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary This paper introduces new visual-physical design grammars for the design and manufacture of building assembly systems that provide visually rich, culturally resonant design variations for housing. The building systems are intended to be tailored for particular cultures and communities by incorporating vernacular, decorative design into the assembly design. Two complementary areas of computational design research are brought together in this work: shape grammars and digital fabrication. The visual or graphic aspects of the research are explored through shape grammars. The physical design and manufacturing aspects are explored through advanced digital design and fabrication technologies and, in particular, build on recent work on mono-material assemblies with interlocking components that can be fabricated with CNC machines and assembled easily by hand on-site (Sass, 2007). This paper describes the initial, proof-of-concept stage of this work: the development of an automated, visual-physical grammar for an assembly system based on a vernacular language of Greek meander designs. A shape grammar for the two-dimensional Greek meander language (Knight, 1986) was translated into a three-dimensional assembly system. The components of the system are uniquely designed, concrete “meander bricks” (Figure 1). The components have integrated alignment features so that they can be easily fitted and locked together manually without binding materials. Components interlock horizontally to form courses, and courses interlock vertically in different ways to produce a visual variety of meander walls. The assembly components were prototyped at desktop scale with a layered manufacturing machine to test their appearance after assembly and their potential for design variations (Figure 2). Components were then evaluated as full-scale concrete objects for satisfaction of physical constraints related to concrete forming and component strength. The automated grammar (computer program) for this system generates assembly design variations with complete CAD/CAM data for fabrication of components formed from layered, CNC cut molds. Using the grammar, a full-scale mockup of a corner wall section was constructed to assess the structural, material, and aesthetic feasibility of the system, as well as ease of assembly. The results of this study demonstrate clearly the potentials for embedding visual properties in structural systems. They provide the foundations for further work on assembly systems for complete houses and other small-scale structures, and grammars to generate them. In the long-term, this research will lead to new solutions for economical, easily manufactured housing which is especially critical in developing countries and for post-disaster environments. These new housing solutions will not only provide shelter but will also support important cultural values through the integration of familiar visual design features. The use of inexpensive, portable digital design and fabrication technologies will allow local communities to be active, cooperative participants in the design and construction of their homes. Beyond the specific context of housing, visual-physical grammars have the potential to positively impact design and manufacture of designed artifacts at many scales, and in many domains, particularly for artifacts where visual aesthetics need to be considered jointly with physical or material requirements and design customization or variation is important.
keywords Shape grammar, digital fabrication, building assembly, mass customization, housing
series SIGRADI
email tknight@mit.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:54

_id ae5f
authors Krishnamurti, Ramesh
year 1986
title Modelling Design Descriptions
source January, 1986. [5] p. : ill
summary This paper reports some of the principles that underlie a modelling environment being developed at EdCAAD. It describes research that is part of a larger programme directed at computer-based systems that can accommodate the idiosyncratic nature of design practice, without prescriptions to the form or content of designs. That is, towards developing systems to assist in the design process by enabling designers -via conversations with the machine - to make 'reasonable' statements about design objects; to ask 'reasonable' questions about these objects; and to perform 'reasonable' tasks on these objects. Implicit in the authors' approach is the view that designing is an activity dependent on designers' perceptions of design tasks and their resolution. In the context of computer-aided design, this view of design demands that the crucial element in any machine environment lies in the ability of the machine to accept (partial) descriptions of design objects. Moreover, these descriptions can be manipulated according to some (perhaps unanticipated) criteria that the designer may wish to apply. The authors present a model for intentional descriptions of objects. That is, a description that can be structures so that it can be used to recognize objects and can be compared with other descriptions. Such a description of an object should be organized around entities with associated descriptions, it must be able to represent partial knowledge about an object, and it must accommodate multiple descriptors which can describe the object from different viewpoints. Last, but not least, these descriptions should possess a quality of 'truth' in that they reflect the (factual or otherwise) beliefs held by the designer. One way to treat these descriptions is to regard them as statements that belong to some logical framework
keywords design process, representation, intentionallity
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id 2611
authors Lenart, Mihaly
year 1986
title Construction problems as Tiling Puzzles
source 1986? [21] p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary The design of building construction parts often means design synthesis: complex parts will be generated gradually by smaller subparts or elements. Since construction parts are three dimensional geometrical objects and many of them are built from mutually connected elements, one can find analogies between building puzzles and construction design. Tiling puzzles are a special kind of building puzzles whose elements pave the plane or space or a certain part of these. This paper is concerned with the connection between tiling problems and the design of construction parts of prefabricated building systems. Most of these problems are of combinatorial nature; many of them can be tackled only by computers
keywords tiling, design, methods, building, synthesis, construction, combinatorics, search
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

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