CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 204

_id caadria2006_601
id caadria2006_601
authors BINSU CHIANG, MAO-LIN CHIU
year 2006
title PRIVATE/UN-PRIVATE SPACE: Scenario-based Digital Design for Enhancing User Awareness
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 601-603
summary Context awareness is important for human senses of places as well as human computer interaction. The aim of this research paper is focusing on controlling the user's privacy in a smart space which is adaptive to different users for enhancing the user's awareness in his diary life. In Environmental Psychology, the definition of privacy is that an individual has the control of deciding what information of himself is released to others, and under how he interact with others. (Westin 1970) And privacy is categorized as the linguistic privacy and visual privacy. (Sundstorm 1986). Solutions for privacy control: Plan Layout, Vision Boundary, Access Control and Architecture Metaphor - the transmission of information is not ascertainable for every single user. Although information are shown in public, but information is implied by cues and symbols. Only a certain user or a group of users have access to the full context of information. The methodology is to form an analytic framework to study the relationship between information, user and activities by using the computational supports derived from KitchenSense, ConceptNet, Python, 3d Studio Max and Flash; and to record patterns built up by users' behaviour and actions. Furthermore, the scenario-based simulation can envision the real world conditions by adding interfaces for enhancing user awareness.
series CAADRIA
email n7693103@mail.ncku.edu.twmc2p@mail.ncku.edu.tw
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

_id 4361
authors Bishop, G. and Weimer, D.M.
year 1986
title Fast Phong Shading
source Computer Graphics (20) 4 pp. 103-106
summary Computer image generation systems often represent curved surfaces as a mesh of polygons that are shaded to restore a smooth appearance. Phong shading is a well known algorithm for producing a realistic shading but it has not been used by real-time systems because of the 3 additions, 1 division and 1 square root required per pixel for its evaluation. We describe a new formulation for Phong shading that reduces the amount of computation per pixel to only 2 additions for simple Lambertian reflection and 5 additions and 1 memory reference for Phong's complete reflection model. We also show how to extend our method to compute the specular component with the eye at a finite distance from the scene rather than at infinity as is usually assumed. The method can be implemented in hardware for real-time applications or in software to speed image generation for almost any system.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 8e02
authors Brown, A.G.P. and Coenen, F.P.
year 2000
title Spatial reasoning: improving computational efficiency
source Automation in Construction 9 (4) (2000) pp. 361-367
summary When spatial data is analysed the result is often very computer intensive: even by the standards of contemporary technologies, the machine power needed is great and the processing times significant. This is particularly so in 3-D and 4-D scenarios. What we describe here is a technique, which tackles this and associated problems. The technique is founded in the idea of quad-tesseral addressing; a technique, which was originally applied to the analysis of atomic structures. It is based on ideas concerning Hierarchical clustering developed in the 1960s and 1970s to improve data access time [G.M. Morton, A computer oriented geodetic database and a new technique on file sequencing, IBM Canada, 1996.], and on atomic isohedral (same shape) tiling strategies developed in the 1970s and 1980s concerned with group theory [B. Grunbaum, G.C. Shephard, Tilings and Patterns, Freeman, New York, 1987.]. The technique was first suggested as a suitable representation for GIS in the early 1980s when the two strands were brought together and a tesseral arithmetic applied [F.C. Holdroyd, The Geometry of Tiling Hierarchies, Ars Combanitoria 16B (1983) 211–244.; S.B.M. Bell, B.M. Diaz, F.C. Holroyd, M.J.J. Jackson, Spatially referenced methods of processing raster and vector data, Image and Vision Computing 1 (4) (1983) 211–220.; Diaz, S.B.M. Bell, Spatial Data Processing Using Tesseral Methods, Natural Environment Research Council, Swindon, 1986.]. Here, we describe how that technique can equally be applied to the analysis of environmental interaction with built forms. The way in which the technique deals with the problems described is first to linearise the three-dimensional (3-D) space being investigated. Then, the reasoning applied to that space is applied within the same environment as the definition of the problem data. We show, with an illustrative example, how the technique can be applied. The problem then remains of how to visualise the results of the analysis so undertaken. We show how this has been accomplished so that the 3-D space and the results are represented in a way which facilitates rapid interpretation of the analysis, which has been carried out.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id a9b1
authors Cohen, M.F., Greenberg, D.P. and Immel, D.S. (et al)
year 1986
title An Efficient Radiosity Approach for Realistic Image Synthesis
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications March, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 26-35 : col. ill. includes bibliography.
summary The radiosity method models the interaction of light between diffusely reflecting surfaces and accurately predicts the global illumination effects. Procedures are now available to simulate complex environments including occluded and textured surfaces. For accurate rendering, the environment must be discretized into a fine mesh, particularly in areas of high intensity gradients. The interdependence between surfaces implies solution techniques which are computationally intractable. This article describes new procedures to predict the global illumination function without excessive computational expense. Statistics indicate the enormous potential of this approach for realistic image synthesis, particularly for dynamic images of static environments
keywords computer graphics, radiosity, rendering, algorithms
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:42

_id 68aa
authors Greenberg, Donald P.
year 1986
title Computer Graphics and Visualization
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 63-67
summary The field of computer graphics has made enormous progress during the past decade. It is rapidly approaching the time when we will be able to create images of such realism that it will be possible to 'walk through' nonexistent spaces and to evaluate their aesthetic quality based on the simulations. In this chapter we wish to document the historical development of computer graphics image creation and describe some techniques which are currently being developed. We will try to explain some pilot projects that we are just beginning to undertake at the Program of Computer Graphics and the Center for Theory and Simulation in Science and Engineering at Cornell University.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id e65f
authors Haines, Eric A. and Greenberg, Donald P.
year 1986
title The Light Buffer: A Shadow-Testing Accelerator
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. September, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 6-16 : col. ill. includes bibliography
summary In one area of computer graphics, realistic image synthesis, the ultimate goal is to produce a picture indistinguishable from a photograph of a real environment. A particularly powerful technique for simulating light reflection - an important element in creating this realism - is called ray tracing. This method produces images of excellent quality, but suffers from lengthy computation time that limits its practical use. This article presents a new method to reduce shadow testing time during ray tracing. The technique involves generating light buffers, each of which partitions the environment with respect to an individual light source. These partition descriptions are then used during shadow testing to quickly determine a small subset of objects that may have to be tested for intersection. The results of timing tests illustrate the beneficial performance of these techniques. The tests compare the standard ray-tracing algorithm to light buffers of varying resolution
keywords realism, synthesis, ray tracing, algorithms, computer graphics, shadowing
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 0ac3
authors Heckbert, Paul S.
year 1986
title Survey of Texture Mapping
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. November, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 56-67 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Texture mapping is one of the most successful new techniques in high-quality image synthesis. It can enhance the visual richness of raster-scan images immensely while entailing only a relatively small increase in computation. The technique has been applied to a number of surface attributes: surface color, surface normal, specularity, transparency, illumination, and surface displacement, to name a few. Although the list is potentially endless, the techniques of texture mapping are essentially the same in all cases. This article surveys the fundamentals of texture mapping, which can be split into two topics: the geometric mapping that warps a texture onto a surface, and the filtering necessary to avoid aliasing. An extensive bibliography is included
keywords texture mapping, representation, filtering, computer graphics, visualization
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id caadria2009_053
id caadria2009_053
authors Hu, Hui-Jiun; Jen Yen
year 2009
title Conceptual Model for Design Team toward Website Construction
source Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Yunlin (Taiwan) 22-25 April 2009, pp. 503-510
summary Since mid 1990s internet has been developing rapidly to become the most booming and emerging media in late history and play an important role in living. Therefore, how to design an interface of easy to use has become an important issue pertaining to Human Computer Interaction. Norman (1986) proposed in the human computer interaction, there is a design model in the mind of designer. In turn, the designer will follow design model and to design a set of system image that is functional, learnable, and usable. Therefore, we want to understand the critical factor of influencing toward website construction, we should find out the mental model that web design team at first. In this paper, we using the Interactive Qualitative Analysis (IQA) approach. The data collection method of the participant of the focus group’s silent brainstorming is adopted. Further analyze web design team’s the conceptual model on website construction through inductive coding and axial coding. The result shows the affinities of 9 web design team is thus produced. And, Business Decision, Team Performance, Self-Fulfillment and Entrepreneur Communication are main influence factor. These factors can lead trend and goal of a website.
keywords website construction; web design team; conceptual model; Interactive Qualitative Analysis (IQA)
series CAADRIA
email momo@tit.edu.tw
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id 5509
authors Koutamanis, Alexandros
year 1990
title Development of a computerized handbook of architectural plans
source Delft University of Technology
summary The dissertation investigates an approach to the development of visual / spatial computer representations for architectural purposes through the development of the computerized handbook of architectural plans (chap), a knowledge-based computer system capable of recognizing the metric properties of architectural plans. This investigation can be summarized as an introduction of computer vision to the computerization of architectural representations: chap represents an attempt to automate recognition of the most essential among conventional architectural drawings, floor plans. The system accepts as input digitized images of architectural plans and recognizes their spatial primitives (locations) and their spatial articulation on a variety of abstraction levels. The final output of chap is a description of the plan in terms of the grouping formations detected in its spatial articulation. The overall structure of the description is based on an analysis of its conformity to the formal rules of its “stylistic” context (which in the initial version of chap is classical architecture). Chapter 1 suggests that the poor performance of computerized architectural drawing and design systems is among others evidence of the necessity to computerize visual / spatial architectural representations. A recognition system such as chap offers comprehensive means for the investigation of a methodology for the development and use of such representations. Chapter 2 describes a fundamental task of chap: recognition of the position and shape of locations, the atomic parts of the description of an architectural plan in chap. This operation represents the final and most significant part of the first stage in processing an image input in machine environment. Chapter 3 moves to the next significant problem, recognition of the spatial arrangement of locations in an architectural plan, that is, recognition of grouping relationships that determine the subdivision of a plan into parts. In the absence of systematic and exhaustive typologic studies of classical architecture that would allow us to define a repertory of the location group types possible in classical architectural plans, Chapter 3 follows a bottom-up approach based on grouping relationships derived from elementary architectural knowledge and formalized with assistance from Gestalt theory and its antecedents. The grouping process described in Chapter 3 corresponds both in purpose and in structure to the derivation of a description of an image in computer vision [Marr 1982]. Chapter 4 investigates the well-formedness of the description of a classical architectural plan in an analytical manner: each relevant level (or sublevel) of the classical canon according to Tzonis & Lefaivre [1986] is transformed into a single group of criteria of well-formedness which is investigated independently. The hierarchical structure of the classical canon determines the coordination of these criteria into a sequence of cognitive filters which progressively analyses the correspondence of the descriptions derived as in Chapter 3 to the constraints of the canon. The methodology and techniques presented in the dissertation are primarily considered with respect to chap, a specific recognition system. The resulting specification of chap gives a measure of the use of such a system within the context of a computerized collection of architectural precedents and also presents several extensions to other areas of architecture. Although these extensions are not considered as verifiable claims, Chapter 5 describes some of their implications, including on the role of architectural drawing in computerized design systems, on architectural typologies, and on the nature and structure of generative systems in architecture.
series thesis:PhD
email a.koutamanis@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id a91c
authors Meyer, G., Rushmeier, H., Cohen, M., Greenberg, D. and Torrace, K.
year 1986
title An Experimental Evaluation of Computer Graphics Imagery
source ACM Transactions on Graphics, 5, No. 1
summary Accurate simulation of light propagation within an environment and perceptually based imaging techniques are necessary for the creation of realistic images. A physical experiment that verifies the simulation of reflected light intensities for diffuse environments was conducted. Measurements of radiant energy flux densities are compared with predictions using the radiosity method for those physical environments. By using color science procedures the results of the light model simulation are then transformed to produce a color television image. The final image compares favorably with the original physical model. The experiment indicates that, when the physical model and the simulation were viewed through a view camera, subjects could not distinguish between them. The results and comparison of both test procedures are presented within this paper.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id d790
authors Nakamae, E., Harada, K. and Ishizaki, T.
year 1986
title A montage method: the overlaying of the computer generated images onto a background phograph
source Computer Graphics, no. 4:207-214
summary A system of computer programs has been established to generate high quality montage image of considerable usefulness in architectural simulation which combine computer-generated images and photographed background pictures. Traditionally, there are two methods of creating architectural montages: (I) an artist paints new buildings onto a background scene usually generated photographically, and (2) a three-dlmensional scale model is created to simulate the whole landscape, and this model is then photographed. The montage method described here combines aspects of both traditional montage methods with significant improvement in accuracy and reduction of time and cost of preparation. Specifically, a digitized photograph is used as a background scene onto which is superimposed a 3D computer-generated image of a new building. The outstanding points of the new method are: (i) The shading and shadows of each computer generated image are calculated with higher accuracy, (ii) the fog effect is taken into account, and (iii) a new anti-aliasing technique improves the quality of the final montage image.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id a6cd
authors Salvemini, Mauro
year 1986
title Automatic Methods of Data Presentation for Planning Analysis and Urbanistic Applications
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 275-284
summary Urbanistics and land analysis on different scales both have a basic need: processing an ever increasing amount of data and numerical information. This might seem extremely easy to handle especially where we have computer at our disposal, but unfortunately that is not true. The great wealth of data and information now available means that on one hand an unarrestable process is set in motion whereby more and more data are required but the analysis and consultation of this data becomes longer, more complex and laborious as the amount of data increases. There is also the danger that data produces more data and gives way to a process which can be endless. The planner must also make quick decisions on what is happening and use several target analyses based on a vast quantity of data which he must process with the automatic system available. There must always be strict compatibility between the available data processing system and the quantity of data. The representation of data in image form is an important aid in carrying out correct analyses as well as in decision making .Basically it is a question of making synthetic, decisional use of information contained in raw data. Systems which can process data visually are practically indispensable in urbanistics.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:19

_id e981
authors Scott, David S. and Iyengar, S. Sitharama
year 1986
title TID - A Translation Invariant Data Structure for Storing Images
source Communications of the ACM. May, 1986. vol. 29: pp. 418-429 : some ill. includes bibliography
summary There are a number of techniques for representing pictorial information, among them are borders, arrays, and skeletons. Quadtrees are often used to store black and white picture information. A variety of techniques have been suggested for improving quadtrees, including linear quadtrees, QMAT's (quadtree medial axis transform), forests of quadtrees, etc. The major purpose of these improvements is to reduce the storage required without greatly increasing the processing costs. All of these methods suffer from the fact that the structure of the underlying quadtree can be very sensitive to the placement of the origin. This paper discusses a translation invariant data structure (which is named TID) for storing and processing images based on the medial axis transform of the image that consists of all the maximal black squares contained in the image. Also discussed is the performance of TID with other existing structures such as QMATs, forests of quadtrees, and normalized quadtrees. Some discussion on the union and intersection of images using TID is included
keywords data structures, representation, image processing, quadtree
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id avocaad_2001_20
id avocaad_2001_20
authors Shen-Kai Tang
year 2001
title Toward a procedure of computer simulation in the restoration of historical architecture
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the field of architectural design, “visualization¨ generally refers to some media, communicating and representing the idea of designers, such as ordinary drafts, maps, perspectives, photos and physical models, etc. (Rahman, 1992; Susan, 2000). The main reason why we adopt visualization is that it enables us to understand clearly and to control complicated procedures (Gombrich, 1990). Secondly, the way we get design knowledge is more from the published visualized images and less from personal experiences (Evans, 1989). Thus the importance of the representation of visualization is manifested.Due to the developments of computer technology in recent years, various computer aided design system are invented and used in a great amount, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and collaboration, etc. (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The conventional media are greatly replaced by computer media, and the visualization is further brought into the computerized stage. The procedure of visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA), addressed by Rahman (1992), is renewed and amended for the intervention of computer (Liu, 2000). Based on the procedures above, a great amount of applied researches are proceeded. Therefore it is evident that the computer visualization is helpful to the discussion and evaluation during the design process (Hall, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998; Liu, 1997; Sasada, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1993, 1997, 1998). In addition to the process of architectural design, the computer visualization is also applied to the subject of construction, which is repeatedly amended and corrected by the images of computer simulation (Liu, 2000). Potier (2000) probes into the contextual research and restoration of historical architecture by the technology of computer simulation before the practical restoration is constructed. In this way he established a communicative mode among archeologists, architects via computer media.In the research of restoration and preservation of historical architecture in Taiwan, many scholars have been devoted into the studies of historical contextual criticism (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000). Clues that accompany the historical contextual criticism (such as oral information, writings, photographs, pictures, etc.) help to explore the construction and the procedure of restoration (Hung, 1995), and serve as an aid to the studies of the usage and durability of the materials in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998). Many clues are lost, because historical architecture is often age-old (Hung, 1995). Under the circumstance, restoration of historical architecture can only be proceeded by restricted pictures, written data and oral information (Shi, 1989). Therefore, computer simulation is employed by scholars to simulate the condition of historical architecture with restricted information after restoration (Potier, 2000). Yet this is only the early stage of computer-aid restoration. The focus of the paper aims at exploring that whether visual simulation of computer can help to investigate the practice of restoration and the estimation and evaluation after restoration.By exploring the restoration of historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example), this study aims to establish a complete work on computer visualization, including the concept of restoration, the practice of restoration, and the estimation and evaluation of restoration.This research is to simulate the process of restoration by computer simulation based on visualized media (restricted pictures, restricted written data and restricted oral information) and the specialized experience of historical architects (Potier, 2000). During the process of practicing, communicates with craftsmen repeatedly with some simulated alternatives, and makes the result as the foundation of evaluating and adjusting the simulating process and outcome. In this way we address a suitable and complete process of computer visualization for historical architecture.The significance of this paper is that we are able to control every detail more exactly, and then prevent possible problems during the process of restoration of historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
email tsk.aa88g@nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 4c79
authors Aguilar, Lorenzo
year 1986
title A Format for a Graphical Communications Protocol
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications vol. 6.no. 3 (March, 1986): pp. 52-62
summary This article describes the requirements for a graphical format on which a graphical on-line communications protocol can be based. It is argued that on-line graphical communications is similar to graphical session capture, and thus the author proposes an interactive graphical communications format using the GKSM session metafile. The discussion includes items that complement the GKSM metafile such as a format for on-line interactive exchange. One key application area of such a format is multimedia on-line conferencing. Therefore, a conferencing software architecture for processing the proposed format is presented. This format specification is made available to those planning multimedia conferencing systems
keywords user interface, communication, computer graphics, multimedia, standards
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 678e
authors Aish, Robert
year 1986
title Three-dimensional Input and Visualization
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 68-84
summary The aim of this chapter is to investigate techniques by which man-computer interaction could be improved, specifically in the context of architectural applications of CAD. In this application the object being designed is often an assembly of defined components. Even if the building is not actually fabricated from such components, it is usually conceptualized in these terms. In a conventional graphics- based CAD system these components are usually represented by graphical icons which are displayed on the graphics screen and arranged by the user. The system described here consists of three- dimensional modelling elements which the user physically assembles to form his design. Unlike conventional architectural models which are static (i.e. cannot be changed by the users) and passive (i.e. cannot be read by a CAD system), this model is both 'user generated' and 'machine readable'. The user can create, edit and view the model by simple, natural modelling activities and without the need to learn complex operating commands often associated with CAD systems. In particular, the user can view the model, altering his viewpoint and focus of attention in a completely natural way. Conventional computer graphics within an associated CAD system are used to represent the detailed geometry which the different three-dimensional icons may represent. In addition, computer graphics are also used to present the output of the performance attributes of the objects being modelled. In the architectural application described in this chapter an energy- balance evaluation is displayed for a building designed using the modelling device. While this system is not intended to offer a completely free-form input facility it can be considered to be a specialist man-machine interface of particular relevance to architects or engineers.
series CAAD Futures
email Robert.Aish@bentley.com
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 2ec8
authors Arditi, Aries and Gillman, Arthur E.
year 1986
title Computing for the Blind User
source BYTE Publication Inc. March, 1986. pp. 199-208. includes some reference notes
summary In this article the authors present some of the human-factors issues specific to non visual personal computing. The authors' concern is with the accuracy, speed, and generality of the blind-user interface, to make computers more accessible and efficient for blind and visually impaired persons
keywords user interface, disabilities
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id a35a
authors Arponen, Matti
year 2002
title From 2D Base Map To 3D City Model
source UMDS '02 Proceedings, Prague (Czech Republic) 2-4 October 2002, I.17-I.28
summary Since 1997 Helsinki City Survey Division has proceeded in experimenting and in developing the methods for converting and supplementing current digital 2D base maps in the scale 1:500 to a 3D city model. Actually since 1986 project areas have been produced in 3D for city planning and construction projects, but working with the whole map database started in 1997 because of customer demands and competitive 3D projects. 3D map database needs new data modelling and structures, map update processes need new working orders and the draftsmen need to learn a new profession; the 3D modeller. Laser-scanning and digital photogrammetry have been used in collecting 3D information on the map objects. During the years 1999-2000 laser-scanning experiments covering 45 km2 have been carried out utilizing the Swedish TopEye system. Simultaneous digital photography produces material for orto photo mosaics. These have been applied in mapping out dated map features and in vectorizing 3D buildings manually, semi automatically and automatically. In modelling we use TerraScan, TerraPhoto and TerraModeler sw, which are developed in Finland. The 3D city model project is at the same time partially a software development project. An accuracy and feasibility study was also completed and will be shortly presented. The three scales of 3D models are also presented in this paper. Some new 3D products and some usage of 3D city models in practice will be demonstrated in the actual presentation.
keywords 3D City modeling
series other
email matti.arponen@hel.fi
more www.udms.net
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 242d
authors Atkin, Brian L. and Gill, E. Moira
year 1986
title CAD and Management of Construction Projects
source Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Vol. 112, December, pp. 557-565
summary The increasing interest in computer-aided design (CAD) has prompted research that is aimed at identifying the opportunities for construction managers and building contractors. It has been found that the use of CAD systems in the U.K. is mainly confined to the production of detailed drawings. Indeed, most of the systems used are 2-D drafting tools and incapable of supporting the integration of even modest amounts of nongraphical (construction) data. On the other hand, many 3-D modeling systems have the potential to integrate construction data, although they appear to be almostignored. The use of 3-D modeling systems is considered to be the most suitable vehicle for successfully integrating these data. However, this is likely to necessitate the introduction of separate databases, preferably of the relational type. The use of 3-D modeling systems in assessing the construction implications of outline designs also presents interesting possibilities and is discussed.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 0f76
authors Balachandran, M. B. and Gero, John S.
year 1986
title Knowledge-based Design Optimization
source IAAI'86 Conference. 1986. pp. i:4:1-14
summary CADLINE has abstract only. Optimization is a well understood process in design domains. A designer formulates the design problem as a single criterion or multicriteria optimization problem and then selects an appropriate optimization algorithm to search for the optimal values for the design variables. The formulation and algorithm selection procedures have been considered to be activities which relied on substantive human knowledge. This paper describes a computer system, OPTIMA, which formulates design optimization problems from a pseudo-English description into canonical algebraic expressions. It then recognizes the formulation and selects appropriate algorithm(s) for their solutions. Finally, it runs the selected algorithm(s) and sends the results to the original descriptions. Areas of expert knowledge involved in carrying out the above tasks are identified. Such knowledge is explicitly encoded in the systems. The basic philosophy and key features of the system are described and are illustrated by examples
keywords algorithms, expert systems, knowledge base, design, optimization, structures, engineering
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

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