CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

PDF papers
References

Hits 1 to 20 of 210

_id a6f1
authors Bridges, A.H.
year 1986
title Any Progress in Systematic Design?
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 5-15
summary In order to discuss this question it is necessary to reflect awhile on design methods in general. The usual categorization discusses 'generations' of design methods, but Levy (1981) proposes an alternative approach. He identifies five paradigm shifts during the course of the twentieth century which have influenced design methods debate. The first paradigm shift was achieved by 1920, when concern with industrial arts could be seen to have replaced concern with craftsmanship. The second shift, occurring in the early 1930s, resulted in the conception of a design profession. The third happened in the 1950s, when the design methods debate emerged; the fourth took place around 1970 and saw the establishment of 'design research'. Now, in the 1980s, we are going through the fifth paradigm shift, associated with the adoption of a holistic approach to design theory and with the emergence of the concept of design ideology. A major point in Levy's paper was the observation that most of these paradigm shifts were associated with radical social reforms or political upheavals. For instance, we may associate concern about public participation with the 1970s shift and the possible use (or misuse) of knowledge, information and power with the 1980s shift. What has emerged, however, from the work of colleagues engaged since the 1970s in attempting to underpin the practice of design with a coherent body of design theory is increasing evidence of the fundamental nature of a person's engagement with the design activity. This includes evidence of the existence of two distinctive modes of thought, one of which can be described as cognitive modelling and the other which can be described as rational thinking. Cognitive modelling is imagining, seeing in the mind's eye. Rational thinking is linguistic thinking, engaging in a form of internal debate. Cognitive modelling is externalized through action, and through the construction of external representations, especially drawings. Rational thinking is externalized through verbal language and, more formally, through mathematical and scientific notations. Cognitive modelling is analogic, presentational, holistic, integrative and based upon pattern recognition and pattern manipulation. Rational thinking is digital, sequential, analytical, explicatory and based upon categorization and logical inference. There is some relationship between the evidence for two distinctive modes of thought and the evidence of specialization in cerebral hemispheres (Cross, 1984). Design methods have tended to focus upon the rational aspects of design and have, therefore, neglected the cognitive aspects. By recognizing that there are peculiar 'designerly' ways of thinking combining both types of thought process used to perceive, construct and comprehend design representations mentally and then transform them into an external manifestation current work in design theory is promising at last to have some relevance to design practice.
series CAAD Futures
email a.h.bridges@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id caadria2009_053
id caadria2009_053
authors Hu, Hui-Jiun; Jen Yen
year 2009
title Conceptual Model for Design Team toward Website Construction
source Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Yunlin (Taiwan) 22-25 April 2009, pp. 503-510
summary Since mid 1990s internet has been developing rapidly to become the most booming and emerging media in late history and play an important role in living. Therefore, how to design an interface of easy to use has become an important issue pertaining to Human Computer Interaction. Norman (1986) proposed in the human computer interaction, there is a design model in the mind of designer. In turn, the designer will follow design model and to design a set of system image that is functional, learnable, and usable. Therefore, we want to understand the critical factor of influencing toward website construction, we should find out the mental model that web design team at first. In this paper, we using the Interactive Qualitative Analysis (IQA) approach. The data collection method of the participant of the focus group’s silent brainstorming is adopted. Further analyze web design team’s the conceptual model on website construction through inductive coding and axial coding. The result shows the affinities of 9 web design team is thus produced. And, Business Decision, Team Performance, Self-Fulfillment and Entrepreneur Communication are main influence factor. These factors can lead trend and goal of a website.
keywords website construction; web design team; conceptual model; Interactive Qualitative Analysis (IQA)
series CAADRIA
email momo@tit.edu.tw
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id c7e9
authors Maver, T.W.
year 2002
title Predicting the Past, Remembering the Future
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 2-3
summary Charlas Magistrales 2There never has been such an exciting moment in time in the extraordinary 30 year history of our subject area, as NOW,when the philosophical theoretical and practical issues of virtuality are taking centre stage.The PastThere have, of course, been other defining moments during these exciting 30 years:• the first algorithms for generating building layouts (circa 1965).• the first use of Computer graphics for building appraisal (circa 1966).• the first integrated package for building performance appraisal (circa 1972).• the first computer generated perspective drawings (circa 1973).• the first robust drafting systems (circa 1975).• the first dynamic energy models (circa 1982).• the first photorealistic colour imaging (circa 1986).• the first animations (circa 1988)• the first multimedia systems (circa 1995), and• the first convincing demonstrations of virtual reality (circa 1996).Whereas the CAAD community has been hugely inventive in the development of ICT applications to building design, it hasbeen woefully remiss in its attempts to evaluate the contribution of those developments to the quality of the built environmentor to the efficiency of the design process. In the absence of any real evidence, one can only conjecture regarding the realbenefits which fall, it is suggested, under the following headings:• Verisimilitude: The extraordinary quality of still and animated images of the formal qualities of the interiors and exteriorsof individual buildings and of whole neighborhoods must surely give great comfort to practitioners and their clients thatwhat is intended, formally, is what will be delivered, i.e. WYSIWYG - what you see is what you get.• Sustainability: The power of «first-principle» models of the dynamic energetic behaviour of buildings in response tochanging diurnal and seasonal conditions has the potential to save millions of dollars and dramatically to reduce thedamaging environmental pollution created by badly designed and managed buildings.• Productivity: CAD is now a multi-billion dollar business which offers design decision support systems which operate,effectively, across continents, time-zones, professions and companies.• Communication: Multi-media technology - cheap to deliver but high in value - is changing the way in which we canexplain and understand the past and, envisage and anticipate the future; virtual past and virtual future!MacromyopiaThe late John Lansdown offered the view, in his wonderfully prophetic way, that ...”the future will be just like the past, onlymore so...”So what can we expect the extraordinary trajectory of our subject area to be?To have any chance of being accurate we have to have an understanding of the phenomenon of macromyopia: thephenomenon exhibitted by society of greatly exaggerating the immediate short-term impact of new technologies (particularlythe information technologies) but, more importantly, seriously underestimating their sustained long-term impacts - socially,economically and intellectually . Examples of flawed predictions regarding the the future application of information technologiesinclude:• The British Government in 1880 declined to support the idea of a national telephonic system, backed by the argumentthat there were sufficient small boys in the countryside to run with messages.• Alexander Bell was modest enough to say that: «I am not boasting or exaggerating but I believe, one day, there will bea telephone in every American city».• Tom Watson, in 1943 said: «I think there is a world market for about 5 computers».• In 1977, Ken Olssop of Digital said: «There is no reason for any individuals to have a computer in their home».The FutureJust as the ascent of woman/man-kind can be attributed to her/his capacity to discover amplifiers of the modest humancapability, so we shall discover how best to exploit our most important amplifier - that of the intellect. The more we know themore we can figure; the more we can figure the more we understand; the more we understand the more we can appraise;the more we can appraise the more we can decide; the more we can decide the more we can act; the more we can act themore we can shape; and the more we can shape, the better the chance that we can leave for future generations a trulysustainable built environment which is fit-for-purpose, cost-beneficial, environmentally friendly and culturally significactCentral to this aspiration will be our understanding of the relationship between real and virtual worlds and how to moveeffortlessly between them. We need to be able to design, from within the virtual world, environments which may be real ormay remain virtual or, perhaps, be part real and part virtual.What is certain is that the next 30 years will be every bit as exciting and challenging as the first 30 years.
series SIGRADI
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id 6105
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Fenves, Stephen J.
year 1986
title Constraint Enforcement in a Structural Design Database
source Journal of the Structural Division. American Society of Civil Engineers, December, 1986. vol. 112: pp. 2565-2577
summary During the design of a commercial structure, large amounts of information pertaining to all aspects of the design must be stored, accessed, and operated upon. A database management system (DBMS), composed of a central repository of data and the associated software for controlling accesses to it, provides one way to generate, represent, manage, and use this information. However, DBMSs are not presently structured in such a way that they can flexibly represent complex engineering constraint relationships, including those defined by codes, standards, and specifications. This paper examines structural design constraints and addresses the question of how they can be incorporated into DBMSs. It presents four representations of engineering constraints: the text of a design specification, the equations extracted from the specification, the dependency network among the constrained data items, and a relational DBMS model. The database model was implemented using a commercially available DBMS and the limitations of the implementation are explored. What is new in this DBMS model is that a constraint dependency subnetwork is associated directly with the stored data that it constrains. The implemented result is a new abstraction, consisting of a relation and a set of computations and checks, that enforces the relationships embodied in the dependency network. The database user need only initially define a set of rules and computed attributes. These are then used by the DBMS to automatically perform the appropriate checks and assignments. The database user is, to a significant degree, free of constraint checking concerns because the system itself knows what to do
keywords constraints management, civil engineering, database, DBMS
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 81ae
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Parks, Linda M.
year 1986
title Expert Systems and Engineering Design Knowledge
source Electronic Computation Conference Proceedings (9th : 1986 : Birmingham, AL) American Society of Civil Engineers, pp. 28-42. CADLINE has abstract only.
summary Of all the contributions of artificial intelligence (AI), expert systems show some of the most significant promise for engineering applications. An expert system provides a framework for acquiring, representing, and using knowledge about a particular application's domain. The role of knowledge in engineering design merits closer attention so that AI-oriented computer-aided engineering (CAE) systems can be developed and maintained systematically. Because 'knowledge' in engineering applications is loosely defined, it is necessary to identify knowledge types and the correlations between them before widespread engineering design applications can be achieved. The types of domain knowledge; facts, procedures, judgments, and control; differ from the classes of that knowledge; creative, innovative, and routine. Feasible engineering tasks for expert systems can be determined based on these types and classes of knowledge. Prototype expert systems have been developed for civil engineering applications to assist with interpretation, design, planning, diagnosis, control, and other engineering system functions. A number of these are described herein. Interpretive tasks require reasoning about a task in light of the knowledge available, while generative tasks create potential solutions to be tested against constraints. Only after classifying the domain by type and level can the engineer select an appropriate knowledge-engineering tool for the domain being considered. The critical features to be weighed after problem classification are knowledge representation techniques, control strategies, interface requirements, compatibility with traditional systems, and economic considerations. After considering all of these factors in the selection of the expert system took, the engineer can then proceed with the acquisition of knowledge and the construction and use of the expert system
keywords design, knowledge, civil engineering, expert systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8312
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Wang, TsoJen E.
year 1986
title CDIS: An Engineering Constraint Definition and Integrity Enforcement System for Relational Databases
source Computers in Engineering International Conference Proceedings. 1986. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, vol. 2: pp. 273-280. CADLINE has abstract only
summary Database management systems (DBMS) are an essential component of the computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) environment. A database management system provides a powerful functionality for the storage, management, and use of engineering data. It is lacking, however, in its ability to deal with engineering constraints. In the past, constraint checking was performed by application programs. More recently DBMS's have been incorporating into their structure specifications for enforcing a limited set of integrity constraints and the mechanisms for invoking them automatically. To ensure the correctness of engineering data, an effective constraint management capability must be incorporated into any proposed engineering DBMS. This paper demonstrates how this can be done, proposes a systematic way to classify constraints so that integrity can be maintained efficiently, and discusses a prototype called CDIS which implements the concepts. This paper uses the relational database model to represent both engineering data and engineering constraints. Data integrity is defined and its enforcement through the use of engineering constraints is described. Existing methods for handling constraints are discussed. A new model that enables the engineer to associate design constraints with a relational database is presented and an example is given that demonstrates the model. Extensions to a DBMS to implement the concepts presented are described. No currently available DBMS provides the much needed capabilities proposed here
keywords civil engineering, relational database, constraints management
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id cc5a
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Wang, TsoJen E.
year 1986
title Expert System Integrity Maintenance for the Use of Engineering Data
source Computing in Civil Engineering Conference Proceedings (4th : 1986 : Boston, MA). American Society of Civil Engineers, pp. 654-668. CADLINE has abstract only
summary This paper describes a mechanism that enables one to automatically monitor and evaluate the use of engineering design data. The framework, associated with a relational database management system, combines a database with a set of constraints on the use of engineering data. This requires a database that stores all of the data normally associated with engineering design as well as all of the domain-dependent constraints imposed upon the use of the design data. Such a framework has been successfully constructed and is described in this paper. An example, based on constraints extracted from the AISC Specification, is presented and the performance of the framework is discussed. The proposed framework resides between a DBMS and its users and serves as an experienced expert consultant to the users. It embodies the knowledge of the specific domain of interest; in this case, allowable stresses in steel members. Whenever a user retrieves data from the database, the mechanism is activated. It interprets data request, applies the appropriate constraints, and provides the correct data. Its understanding of the semantics of both the data request and its own constraints insures the validity of data it selects to return to the user. All previous database integrity research concentrated on maintaining the integrity of the stored data, i.e., on guaranteeing the integrity of any static state of the database. This paper advocates a mechanism for checking data being retrieved from the database as well as for checking data being inserted into the database. It deals, therefore, with the correctness of data being selected for use
keywords information, civil engineering, expert systems, relational database
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c3ca
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Watson, Bruce R.
year 1986
title ADI : An Adaptive Database Interface for Dynamic Databases
source ASME Symposium Proceedings on Knowledge based Expert Systems for Manufacturing. Anaheim, CA: American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Production Engineering Division, December, 1986. pp. 119-130. CADLINE has abstract only
summary The operation of a manufacturing organization often depends on its underlying design and manufacturing databases. In a manufacturing environment, many users, both individuals and application programs, must have access to one or more of the organization's databases to provide, use, or modify data, to control information flow, and to facilitate information management. Such databases routinely undergo dynamic changes in both their content and their structure. These changes commonly result from the design of new products, the introduction of new materials, and the introduction of new machines and processes on the shop floor. Such continuing changes must be reflected in the database schemas and subsequently require that application programs be updated and that online users be educated on a continuous basis. The problem addressed in this paper is that it is difficult for users and application programs to get the information that they need, when they need it, from the multiple heterogeneous database management system (DBMS) environments that have evolved in design and manufacturing organizations. The solution proposed here is to build a general, extendable interface between database users and the many sources of data available to them. This in itself is not a new suggestion; a number of researchers have addressed portions of this problem. In general, the interfaces that they have developed to date are best suited to environments where the structure of the database is static and does not change over time. One of the things that this paper proposes that is different from existing work is an interface which handles the dynamic restructuring nature of manufacturing databases, enabling a user to obtain the most accurate and up to date information as the structure and content of the underlying databases change. Another unique aspect of the DBMS interface proposed herein is that the interface attempts to capture the knowledge that an experienced human user incorporates in his search for data in a database, i.e., it seeks to identify and use the generic knowledge needed to operate a DBMS. This knowledge is used by the interface to enable both the online users and the application programs to request data without knowing the data's location or precisely how to ask for it. Further, the interface makes use of mechanisms that allow the user to request data without knowing the exact identity of the required entities that are stored in the database
keywords engineering, database, manufacturing, user interface
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 6686
authors Straub, K.
year 1986
title Problems in CAD Practice
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 232-234
summary CAD's greatest promise is as a creative, interactive tool, and planning and construction will be more complex as the need to expand information grows. Our tools not only shape our products, they shape our lives. Technology can influence everyday life and also affect the structure of our society. Architecture is an information-intensive profession, and throughout the world information-intensive activities are being changed by technology. The use of computer-aided information processing in planning and construction brings about a period of dramatic change, and the dimensions of technological change will be breathtaking. In the years to come, CAD will be an expanding field in the architectural office, but how long will it be before architecture is routinely produced on a CAD system? There appear to be three issues: (1) cost; (2) time; (3) quality.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 69c7
authors Woodbury, Robert F.
year 1986
title VEGA : A Geometric Modelling System
source 11 p. : ill. Engineering Design Research Center, CMU, April 1986. DRC-48-03-87. includes bibliography
summary VEGA is a program which models rigid solid objects in three dimensions. Specifically, its domain is assemblies of planar faced polyhedra. VEGA supports a variety of operations to create, modify, query and delete these assemblies. VEGA is intended to serve two purposes: that of a new medium of representation for the design process; and of a programming package to support geometric applications in a wide variety of domains. Here the author addresses primarily the first of these purposes, that of a new medium for design. Designers of physical objects use an external medium, traditionally paper or physical models, not only to record their work, but to provide information which assists in the understanding of implications of design decisions. Designers proceed by performing operations, which reflect internal design decisions, on this external medium. The operations used in design are generally reflective of these physical media. For example, models built of clay tend to be formed by a subtractive processes, whereas models built of wood tend to be additive in nature. Designers who use drawings as their medium still tend to use operations which reflect operations on physical models. Computers provide the fascinating potential to provide a much wider variety of operations at a much greater speed than is available with the traditional means of representation. In addition, a computer based representation can provide quantitative information not easily accessible from traditional forms. This opens the potential for the inclusion of formal means of evaluation in the design process; something which is generally almost absent in traditional design teaching. A computer program which effectively and 'naturally' models physical objects and operations on them would be a valuable assistance to both the teaching and practice design. VEGA has been designed with these objectives in mind. VEGA represents physical objects with a scheme known as boundary representation and provides a wide variety of operations on these objects. VEGA also provides means to associate other, non-geometric, information with the objects it represents. VEGA is implemented under the ANDREW system. It communicates to ANDREW through a graphics package, also developed by the author's group. VEGA is intended to serve as a medium for future studio courses in the Architecture, Industrial Design and Arts education
keywords geometric modeling, solid modeling, CAD, education, assemblies, B-rep, systems
series CADline
email rob_woodbury@sfu.ca
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id a70f
authors Yessios, Chris
year 1986
title What has yet to be CAD
source ACADIA Workshop ‘86 Proceedings - Houston (Texas - USA) 24-26 October 1986, pp. 29-36
summary The theme of this Acadia Conference was to a large extent addressed by Mitchell in his article "'What was Computer-aided design?"', published about two years ago. While one has to agree with most of his points, I find his predictions gloomy enough to wish I could disagree. Luckily, Mitchell has chosen to address what the majority of the profession (and many architectural schools) currently consider to be CAD. It turns out that this CAD is not what CAD is supposed to be. I have, therefore, purposely chosen a title which appears to echo an opposite view. My intention is not to express disagreement but rather to project the other face of CAD, in my own mind, the only CAD which deserves the name. Whether the current CAD should or will be called CAD in the future is of non-essential significance. As teachers of architectural design we need to be concerned that architectural CAD remains, to date, a very immature field. It is CAD only by name, since a true CAD system has yet to be 'discovered". This presentation consists of three major sections. The first reviews why the currently available CAD systems do not have the ingredients which may justify them as design oriented machines. This discussion leads to the identification of architectural modeling and knowledge systems as the two main areas which need to be researched so that they may offer the basis for the development of truly design oriented machines. Each is discussed under a separate section, but the point is also made that the two should work hand-in-hand and should be integrated into a completely unified system.
series ACADIA
email cyessios@formz.com
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 4c79
authors Aguilar, Lorenzo
year 1986
title A Format for a Graphical Communications Protocol
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications vol. 6.no. 3 (March, 1986): pp. 52-62
summary This article describes the requirements for a graphical format on which a graphical on-line communications protocol can be based. It is argued that on-line graphical communications is similar to graphical session capture, and thus the author proposes an interactive graphical communications format using the GKSM session metafile. The discussion includes items that complement the GKSM metafile such as a format for on-line interactive exchange. One key application area of such a format is multimedia on-line conferencing. Therefore, a conferencing software architecture for processing the proposed format is presented. This format specification is made available to those planning multimedia conferencing systems
keywords user interface, communication, computer graphics, multimedia, standards
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 678e
authors Aish, Robert
year 1986
title Three-dimensional Input and Visualization
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 68-84
summary The aim of this chapter is to investigate techniques by which man-computer interaction could be improved, specifically in the context of architectural applications of CAD. In this application the object being designed is often an assembly of defined components. Even if the building is not actually fabricated from such components, it is usually conceptualized in these terms. In a conventional graphics- based CAD system these components are usually represented by graphical icons which are displayed on the graphics screen and arranged by the user. The system described here consists of three- dimensional modelling elements which the user physically assembles to form his design. Unlike conventional architectural models which are static (i.e. cannot be changed by the users) and passive (i.e. cannot be read by a CAD system), this model is both 'user generated' and 'machine readable'. The user can create, edit and view the model by simple, natural modelling activities and without the need to learn complex operating commands often associated with CAD systems. In particular, the user can view the model, altering his viewpoint and focus of attention in a completely natural way. Conventional computer graphics within an associated CAD system are used to represent the detailed geometry which the different three-dimensional icons may represent. In addition, computer graphics are also used to present the output of the performance attributes of the objects being modelled. In the architectural application described in this chapter an energy- balance evaluation is displayed for a building designed using the modelling device. While this system is not intended to offer a completely free-form input facility it can be considered to be a specialist man-machine interface of particular relevance to architects or engineers.
series CAAD Futures
email Robert.Aish@bentley.com
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 2ec8
authors Arditi, Aries and Gillman, Arthur E.
year 1986
title Computing for the Blind User
source BYTE Publication Inc. March, 1986. pp. 199-208. includes some reference notes
summary In this article the authors present some of the human-factors issues specific to non visual personal computing. The authors' concern is with the accuracy, speed, and generality of the blind-user interface, to make computers more accessible and efficient for blind and visually impaired persons
keywords user interface, disabilities
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id a35a
authors Arponen, Matti
year 2002
title From 2D Base Map To 3D City Model
source UMDS '02 Proceedings, Prague (Czech Republic) 2-4 October 2002, I.17-I.28
summary Since 1997 Helsinki City Survey Division has proceeded in experimenting and in developing the methods for converting and supplementing current digital 2D base maps in the scale 1:500 to a 3D city model. Actually since 1986 project areas have been produced in 3D for city planning and construction projects, but working with the whole map database started in 1997 because of customer demands and competitive 3D projects. 3D map database needs new data modelling and structures, map update processes need new working orders and the draftsmen need to learn a new profession; the 3D modeller. Laser-scanning and digital photogrammetry have been used in collecting 3D information on the map objects. During the years 1999-2000 laser-scanning experiments covering 45 km2 have been carried out utilizing the Swedish TopEye system. Simultaneous digital photography produces material for orto photo mosaics. These have been applied in mapping out dated map features and in vectorizing 3D buildings manually, semi automatically and automatically. In modelling we use TerraScan, TerraPhoto and TerraModeler sw, which are developed in Finland. The 3D city model project is at the same time partially a software development project. An accuracy and feasibility study was also completed and will be shortly presented. The three scales of 3D models are also presented in this paper. Some new 3D products and some usage of 3D city models in practice will be demonstrated in the actual presentation.
keywords 3D City modeling
series other
email matti.arponen@hel.fi
more www.udms.net
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 242d
authors Atkin, Brian L. and Gill, E. Moira
year 1986
title CAD and Management of Construction Projects
source Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Vol. 112, December, pp. 557-565
summary The increasing interest in computer-aided design (CAD) has prompted research that is aimed at identifying the opportunities for construction managers and building contractors. It has been found that the use of CAD systems in the U.K. is mainly confined to the production of detailed drawings. Indeed, most of the systems used are 2-D drafting tools and incapable of supporting the integration of even modest amounts of nongraphical (construction) data. On the other hand, many 3-D modeling systems have the potential to integrate construction data, although they appear to be almostignored. The use of 3-D modeling systems is considered to be the most suitable vehicle for successfully integrating these data. However, this is likely to necessitate the introduction of separate databases, preferably of the relational type. The use of 3-D modeling systems in assessing the construction implications of outline designs also presents interesting possibilities and is discussed.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 0f76
authors Balachandran, M. B. and Gero, John S.
year 1986
title Knowledge-based Design Optimization
source IAAI'86 Conference. 1986. pp. i:4:1-14
summary CADLINE has abstract only. Optimization is a well understood process in design domains. A designer formulates the design problem as a single criterion or multicriteria optimization problem and then selects an appropriate optimization algorithm to search for the optimal values for the design variables. The formulation and algorithm selection procedures have been considered to be activities which relied on substantive human knowledge. This paper describes a computer system, OPTIMA, which formulates design optimization problems from a pseudo-English description into canonical algebraic expressions. It then recognizes the formulation and selects appropriate algorithm(s) for their solutions. Finally, it runs the selected algorithm(s) and sends the results to the original descriptions. Areas of expert knowledge involved in carrying out the above tasks are identified. Such knowledge is explicitly encoded in the systems. The basic philosophy and key features of the system are described and are illustrated by examples
keywords algorithms, expert systems, knowledge base, design, optimization, structures, engineering
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id e220
authors Balachandran, M.B. and Gero, John S.
year 1986
title Formulating and Recognizing Engineering Optimization Problems
source Aus. Conf Mechs. Struct. and Mats (10th : 1986 : Adelaide) edited by G. Sved. pp. 223-228. CADLINE has abstract only.
summary In applying optimization methodology to engineering design, a considerable amount of knowledge is utilized to construct and solve mathematical design models. However, computer based systems to assist this process have concentrated mainly on the numeric computational aspects of the process. This paper outlines a computer system which uses a knowledge-based systems approach to formulate and recognize design optimization problems. Areas of expert knowledge involved in mathematical design modeling and optimization are identified. Such knowledge is encoded explicitly in the system. An example is presented
keywords knowledge base, systems, engineering, design, mathematics, modeling, structures
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 6c8e
authors Barbera, Salvatore and Correnti, Gabriele
year 1986
title Reticular and Linear Planning of Erecting Yards Aided by Personal Computer
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 157-166
summary This study has been carried out during the Course of Ergotecnica Edile hold at the Instituto Dipartimentale di Architettura e Urbanistica of Catania University, and it has been addressed to the students of the Faculty of Civil Engineering (manufacturing and direction of civil works). The present study aims at instructing the students as refers to planning, through computers, erecting yards. Work-planning is specifically important with reference both to the starting program and to the carrying on of the work. Within this context, workplanning is useful as regard the control and contingent correction of the work. In the latter case, divergencies between work-evolution and forecast are of primary value.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 6002
authors Barduzzi, Ondina and Pascolo, Carlo
year 1986
title CAD System (Computer Aided Design) for the Planning of the Territory, with Reference to the Automatical Estimate of Works of Urbanization
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 167-179
summary Any applied research, no matter what discipline is concerned, needs affined and suitable tools; as regards the studies in the field of architecture and planning, the use of automatic systems of analysis, data ordering and comparison is of particular interest. The quickness of operations by means of computers and the corresponding graphical representation gives new possibilities for scientific work, once impossible, not certainly because of conceptual limits, but practically, for the limits of available tools. It is the wideness of applications of computers to be pointed out, for although studied for scientific reasons, their practical usefulness is often enormous. This has been generally verified. It guilts in particular for the CAD System, proposed and explained in this paper. The practical utility this and other systems from the same field have for the public administration, contractors and consultants is well known and therefore not necessary to be described further. The use of such systems is particularly convenient in those sectors where the graphical representation is the basic part of the production process.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

For more results click below:

this is page 0show page 1show page 2show page 3show page 4show page 5... show page 10HOMELOGIN (you are user _anon_904565 from group guest) CUMINCAD Papers Powered by SciX Open Publishing Services 1.002