CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 211

_id 4512
authors Flemming, Ulrich
year 1986
title On the Representation and Generation of Loosely-Packed Arrangements of Rectangles
source 33 p. : ill Pittsburgh: Engineering Design Research Center, CMU, September, 1986. includes bibliography.
summary Several computer programs that enumerate rectangular dissections as solutions to certain layout problems have established a distinct paradigm for dealing with the crucial theoretical issues involved. The present paper suggests an extension of the paradigm to include `loosely-packed arrangements of rectangles,' which are of wider applicability in an architectural context. The paper introduces orthogonal structures to represent these arrangements and establishes the conditions of well-formedness for these structures. It presents a grammar to enumerate orthogonal structures and suggests that best use is made of the grammar if it is incorporated into a generative expert system, able to serve as a vehicle to discover, encode and utilize a broad range of constraints and criteria in the generation of layout alternatives
keywords expert systems, architecture, space allocation, floor plans, rectangles, shape grammars, layout
series CADline
email ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2003/02/26 16:24

_id 0354
authors Goodman, Gary and Reddy, Raj D.
year 1978
title Alternative Control Structures for Speech Understanding Systems
source 1978 ? [13] p. : ill. includes bibliography Control structures are an essential part of any speech recognition system. They are the devices by which passive knowledge about the task and language is transformed into active and effective processes. In the chapter, three areas of control structures are defined and discussed: knowledge source interaction, knowledge source activation, and knowledge source focusing. Discussion relates the concepts presented to systems developed during the five-year ARPA speech understanding project. speech recognition / systems / control / structures / AI. 64. Goodman, Tim and Keith Unsworth. 'Manipulating Shape and Producing Geometric Continuity in B-spline Curves.' IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. February, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 50-56 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary This article examines some of the desirable features of B- splines that make them particularly suitable for computer- aided design. First, a theoretical analysis is presented regarding the effects upon the shape of a design curve when the bias and tension parameters are allowed to vary in certain ways. Second, the concept of geometric continuity is discussed, and conditions are derived upon the control vertices to ensure that the design curve has second-order geometric continuity. Illustrations of B-spline curves are presented to support the theoretical conclusions
keywords computational geometry, B-splines, curves, CAD
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 2b40
authors Hanson, N.L.R. and Radford, Antony D.
year 1986
title Living on the Edge : A Grammar For Some Country Houses by Glenn Murcutt
source Architecture Australia. 1986. vol. 75: pp. 66-73
summary Glenn Murcutt is an award-winning Australian architect whose work displays a consistent pattern of development in its response to the environment and brief. A set of syntactic and abductive rules is developed that models the generation of a subset of his work. The model and the architect's response to its operation is described
keywords architecture, shape grammars, applications
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id sigradi2008_175
id sigradi2008_175
authors Knight, Terry; Larry Sass, Kenfield Griffith, Ayodh Vasant Kamath
year 2008
title Visual-Physical Grammars
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary This paper introduces new visual-physical design grammars for the design and manufacture of building assembly systems that provide visually rich, culturally resonant design variations for housing. The building systems are intended to be tailored for particular cultures and communities by incorporating vernacular, decorative design into the assembly design. Two complementary areas of computational design research are brought together in this work: shape grammars and digital fabrication. The visual or graphic aspects of the research are explored through shape grammars. The physical design and manufacturing aspects are explored through advanced digital design and fabrication technologies and, in particular, build on recent work on mono-material assemblies with interlocking components that can be fabricated with CNC machines and assembled easily by hand on-site (Sass, 2007). This paper describes the initial, proof-of-concept stage of this work: the development of an automated, visual-physical grammar for an assembly system based on a vernacular language of Greek meander designs. A shape grammar for the two-dimensional Greek meander language (Knight, 1986) was translated into a three-dimensional assembly system. The components of the system are uniquely designed, concrete “meander bricks” (Figure 1). The components have integrated alignment features so that they can be easily fitted and locked together manually without binding materials. Components interlock horizontally to form courses, and courses interlock vertically in different ways to produce a visual variety of meander walls. The assembly components were prototyped at desktop scale with a layered manufacturing machine to test their appearance after assembly and their potential for design variations (Figure 2). Components were then evaluated as full-scale concrete objects for satisfaction of physical constraints related to concrete forming and component strength. The automated grammar (computer program) for this system generates assembly design variations with complete CAD/CAM data for fabrication of components formed from layered, CNC cut molds. Using the grammar, a full-scale mockup of a corner wall section was constructed to assess the structural, material, and aesthetic feasibility of the system, as well as ease of assembly. The results of this study demonstrate clearly the potentials for embedding visual properties in structural systems. They provide the foundations for further work on assembly systems for complete houses and other small-scale structures, and grammars to generate them. In the long-term, this research will lead to new solutions for economical, easily manufactured housing which is especially critical in developing countries and for post-disaster environments. These new housing solutions will not only provide shelter but will also support important cultural values through the integration of familiar visual design features. The use of inexpensive, portable digital design and fabrication technologies will allow local communities to be active, cooperative participants in the design and construction of their homes. Beyond the specific context of housing, visual-physical grammars have the potential to positively impact design and manufacture of designed artifacts at many scales, and in many domains, particularly for artifacts where visual aesthetics need to be considered jointly with physical or material requirements and design customization or variation is important.
keywords Shape grammar, digital fabrication, building assembly, mass customization, housing
series SIGRADI
email tknight@mit.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:54

_id 5509
authors Koutamanis, Alexandros
year 1990
title Development of a computerized handbook of architectural plans
source Delft University of Technology
summary The dissertation investigates an approach to the development of visual / spatial computer representations for architectural purposes through the development of the computerized handbook of architectural plans (chap), a knowledge-based computer system capable of recognizing the metric properties of architectural plans. This investigation can be summarized as an introduction of computer vision to the computerization of architectural representations: chap represents an attempt to automate recognition of the most essential among conventional architectural drawings, floor plans. The system accepts as input digitized images of architectural plans and recognizes their spatial primitives (locations) and their spatial articulation on a variety of abstraction levels. The final output of chap is a description of the plan in terms of the grouping formations detected in its spatial articulation. The overall structure of the description is based on an analysis of its conformity to the formal rules of its “stylistic” context (which in the initial version of chap is classical architecture). Chapter 1 suggests that the poor performance of computerized architectural drawing and design systems is among others evidence of the necessity to computerize visual / spatial architectural representations. A recognition system such as chap offers comprehensive means for the investigation of a methodology for the development and use of such representations. Chapter 2 describes a fundamental task of chap: recognition of the position and shape of locations, the atomic parts of the description of an architectural plan in chap. This operation represents the final and most significant part of the first stage in processing an image input in machine environment. Chapter 3 moves to the next significant problem, recognition of the spatial arrangement of locations in an architectural plan, that is, recognition of grouping relationships that determine the subdivision of a plan into parts. In the absence of systematic and exhaustive typologic studies of classical architecture that would allow us to define a repertory of the location group types possible in classical architectural plans, Chapter 3 follows a bottom-up approach based on grouping relationships derived from elementary architectural knowledge and formalized with assistance from Gestalt theory and its antecedents. The grouping process described in Chapter 3 corresponds both in purpose and in structure to the derivation of a description of an image in computer vision [Marr 1982]. Chapter 4 investigates the well-formedness of the description of a classical architectural plan in an analytical manner: each relevant level (or sublevel) of the classical canon according to Tzonis & Lefaivre [1986] is transformed into a single group of criteria of well-formedness which is investigated independently. The hierarchical structure of the classical canon determines the coordination of these criteria into a sequence of cognitive filters which progressively analyses the correspondence of the descriptions derived as in Chapter 3 to the constraints of the canon. The methodology and techniques presented in the dissertation are primarily considered with respect to chap, a specific recognition system. The resulting specification of chap gives a measure of the use of such a system within the context of a computerized collection of architectural precedents and also presents several extensions to other areas of architecture. Although these extensions are not considered as verifiable claims, Chapter 5 describes some of their implications, including on the role of architectural drawing in computerized design systems, on architectural typologies, and on the nature and structure of generative systems in architecture.
series thesis:PhD
email a.koutamanis@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id a48f
authors Krishnan, D. and Patnaik, L.M.
year 1986
title GEODERM : Geometric Shape Design System Using an Entity-Relationship Model
source Computer Aided Design. May, 1986. vol. 18: pp. 207-218 : ill. includes bibliography and 7 appendixes
summary GEODERM, a microcomputer-based solid modeler which incorporates the parametric object model, is discussed. The entity-relationship model, which is used to describe the conceptual schema of the geometric database, is also presented. Three of the four modules of GEODERM, which have been implemented are described in some detail. They are the Solid Definition Language (SDL), the Solid Manipulation Language (SML) and the User-System Interface
keywords CAD, solid modeling, relational database, geometric modeling,parametrization
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c7e9
authors Maver, T.W.
year 2002
title Predicting the Past, Remembering the Future
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 2-3
summary Charlas Magistrales 2There never has been such an exciting moment in time in the extraordinary 30 year history of our subject area, as NOW,when the philosophical theoretical and practical issues of virtuality are taking centre stage.The PastThere have, of course, been other defining moments during these exciting 30 years:• the first algorithms for generating building layouts (circa 1965).• the first use of Computer graphics for building appraisal (circa 1966).• the first integrated package for building performance appraisal (circa 1972).• the first computer generated perspective drawings (circa 1973).• the first robust drafting systems (circa 1975).• the first dynamic energy models (circa 1982).• the first photorealistic colour imaging (circa 1986).• the first animations (circa 1988)• the first multimedia systems (circa 1995), and• the first convincing demonstrations of virtual reality (circa 1996).Whereas the CAAD community has been hugely inventive in the development of ICT applications to building design, it hasbeen woefully remiss in its attempts to evaluate the contribution of those developments to the quality of the built environmentor to the efficiency of the design process. In the absence of any real evidence, one can only conjecture regarding the realbenefits which fall, it is suggested, under the following headings:• Verisimilitude: The extraordinary quality of still and animated images of the formal qualities of the interiors and exteriorsof individual buildings and of whole neighborhoods must surely give great comfort to practitioners and their clients thatwhat is intended, formally, is what will be delivered, i.e. WYSIWYG - what you see is what you get.• Sustainability: The power of «first-principle» models of the dynamic energetic behaviour of buildings in response tochanging diurnal and seasonal conditions has the potential to save millions of dollars and dramatically to reduce thedamaging environmental pollution created by badly designed and managed buildings.• Productivity: CAD is now a multi-billion dollar business which offers design decision support systems which operate,effectively, across continents, time-zones, professions and companies.• Communication: Multi-media technology - cheap to deliver but high in value - is changing the way in which we canexplain and understand the past and, envisage and anticipate the future; virtual past and virtual future!MacromyopiaThe late John Lansdown offered the view, in his wonderfully prophetic way, that ...”the future will be just like the past, onlymore so...”So what can we expect the extraordinary trajectory of our subject area to be?To have any chance of being accurate we have to have an understanding of the phenomenon of macromyopia: thephenomenon exhibitted by society of greatly exaggerating the immediate short-term impact of new technologies (particularlythe information technologies) but, more importantly, seriously underestimating their sustained long-term impacts - socially,economically and intellectually . Examples of flawed predictions regarding the the future application of information technologiesinclude:• The British Government in 1880 declined to support the idea of a national telephonic system, backed by the argumentthat there were sufficient small boys in the countryside to run with messages.• Alexander Bell was modest enough to say that: «I am not boasting or exaggerating but I believe, one day, there will bea telephone in every American city».• Tom Watson, in 1943 said: «I think there is a world market for about 5 computers».• In 1977, Ken Olssop of Digital said: «There is no reason for any individuals to have a computer in their home».The FutureJust as the ascent of woman/man-kind can be attributed to her/his capacity to discover amplifiers of the modest humancapability, so we shall discover how best to exploit our most important amplifier - that of the intellect. The more we know themore we can figure; the more we can figure the more we understand; the more we understand the more we can appraise;the more we can appraise the more we can decide; the more we can decide the more we can act; the more we can act themore we can shape; and the more we can shape, the better the chance that we can leave for future generations a trulysustainable built environment which is fit-for-purpose, cost-beneficial, environmentally friendly and culturally significactCentral to this aspiration will be our understanding of the relationship between real and virtual worlds and how to moveeffortlessly between them. We need to be able to design, from within the virtual world, environments which may be real ormay remain virtual or, perhaps, be part real and part virtual.What is certain is that the next 30 years will be every bit as exciting and challenging as the first 30 years.
series SIGRADI
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id 6686
authors Straub, K.
year 1986
title Problems in CAD Practice
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 232-234
summary CAD's greatest promise is as a creative, interactive tool, and planning and construction will be more complex as the need to expand information grows. Our tools not only shape our products, they shape our lives. Technology can influence everyday life and also affect the structure of our society. Architecture is an information-intensive profession, and throughout the world information-intensive activities are being changed by technology. The use of computer-aided information processing in planning and construction brings about a period of dramatic change, and the dimensions of technological change will be breathtaking. In the years to come, CAD will be an expanding field in the architectural office, but how long will it be before architecture is routinely produced on a CAD system? There appear to be three issues: (1) cost; (2) time; (3) quality.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 47c5
authors Weiler, Kevin J.
year 1986
title Topological Structures for Geometric Modeling
source Computer and Systems Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
summary Geometric modeling technology for representing three-dimensional objects has progressed from early wireframe representations, through surface representations, to the most recent representation, solid modeling. Each of these forms has many possible representations. The boundary representation technique, where the surfaces, edges, and vertices of objects are represented explicitly, has found particularly wide application. Many of the more sophisticated versions of boundary representations explicitly store topological information about the positional relationships among surfaces, edges, and vertices. This thesis places emphasis on the use of topological information about the shape being modeled to provide a framework for geometric modeling boundary representations and their implementations, while placing little constraint on the actual geometric surface representations used. The major thrusts of the thesis fall into two areas of geometric modeling. First, a theoretical basis for two-manifold solid modeling boundary topology representation is developed. The minimum theoretical and minimum practical topological adjacency information required for the unambiguous topological representation of manifold solid objects is determined. This provides a basis for checking the correctness of existing and proposed representations. The correctness of the winged edge structure is also explored, and several new representations which have advantages over existing techniques are described and their sufficiency verified. Second, a non-two-manifold boundary geometric modeling topology representation is developed which allows the unified and simultaneous representation of wireframe, surface, and solid modeling forms, while featuring a representable range beyond what is achievable in any of the previous modeling forms. In addition to exterior surface features, interior features can be modeled, and non-manifold features can be represented directly. A new data structure, the Radial Edge structure, which provides access to all topological adjacencies in a non-manifold boundary representation, is described and its completeness is verified. A general set of non-manifold topology manipulation operators is also described which is independent of a specific data structure and is useful for insulating higher levels of geometric modeling functionality from the specifics and complexities of underlying data structures. The coordination of geometric and topological information in a geometric modeling system is also discussed.
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id caadria2009_053
id caadria2009_053
authors Hu, Hui-Jiun; Jen Yen
year 2009
title Conceptual Model for Design Team toward Website Construction
source Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Yunlin (Taiwan) 22-25 April 2009, pp. 503-510
summary Since mid 1990s internet has been developing rapidly to become the most booming and emerging media in late history and play an important role in living. Therefore, how to design an interface of easy to use has become an important issue pertaining to Human Computer Interaction. Norman (1986) proposed in the human computer interaction, there is a design model in the mind of designer. In turn, the designer will follow design model and to design a set of system image that is functional, learnable, and usable. Therefore, we want to understand the critical factor of influencing toward website construction, we should find out the mental model that web design team at first. In this paper, we using the Interactive Qualitative Analysis (IQA) approach. The data collection method of the participant of the focus group’s silent brainstorming is adopted. Further analyze web design team’s the conceptual model on website construction through inductive coding and axial coding. The result shows the affinities of 9 web design team is thus produced. And, Business Decision, Team Performance, Self-Fulfillment and Entrepreneur Communication are main influence factor. These factors can lead trend and goal of a website.
keywords website construction; web design team; conceptual model; Interactive Qualitative Analysis (IQA)
series CAADRIA
email momo@tit.edu.tw
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id avocaad_2001_20
id avocaad_2001_20
authors Shen-Kai Tang
year 2001
title Toward a procedure of computer simulation in the restoration of historical architecture
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the field of architectural design, “visualization¨ generally refers to some media, communicating and representing the idea of designers, such as ordinary drafts, maps, perspectives, photos and physical models, etc. (Rahman, 1992; Susan, 2000). The main reason why we adopt visualization is that it enables us to understand clearly and to control complicated procedures (Gombrich, 1990). Secondly, the way we get design knowledge is more from the published visualized images and less from personal experiences (Evans, 1989). Thus the importance of the representation of visualization is manifested.Due to the developments of computer technology in recent years, various computer aided design system are invented and used in a great amount, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and collaboration, etc. (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The conventional media are greatly replaced by computer media, and the visualization is further brought into the computerized stage. The procedure of visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA), addressed by Rahman (1992), is renewed and amended for the intervention of computer (Liu, 2000). Based on the procedures above, a great amount of applied researches are proceeded. Therefore it is evident that the computer visualization is helpful to the discussion and evaluation during the design process (Hall, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998; Liu, 1997; Sasada, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1993, 1997, 1998). In addition to the process of architectural design, the computer visualization is also applied to the subject of construction, which is repeatedly amended and corrected by the images of computer simulation (Liu, 2000). Potier (2000) probes into the contextual research and restoration of historical architecture by the technology of computer simulation before the practical restoration is constructed. In this way he established a communicative mode among archeologists, architects via computer media.In the research of restoration and preservation of historical architecture in Taiwan, many scholars have been devoted into the studies of historical contextual criticism (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000). Clues that accompany the historical contextual criticism (such as oral information, writings, photographs, pictures, etc.) help to explore the construction and the procedure of restoration (Hung, 1995), and serve as an aid to the studies of the usage and durability of the materials in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998). Many clues are lost, because historical architecture is often age-old (Hung, 1995). Under the circumstance, restoration of historical architecture can only be proceeded by restricted pictures, written data and oral information (Shi, 1989). Therefore, computer simulation is employed by scholars to simulate the condition of historical architecture with restricted information after restoration (Potier, 2000). Yet this is only the early stage of computer-aid restoration. The focus of the paper aims at exploring that whether visual simulation of computer can help to investigate the practice of restoration and the estimation and evaluation after restoration.By exploring the restoration of historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example), this study aims to establish a complete work on computer visualization, including the concept of restoration, the practice of restoration, and the estimation and evaluation of restoration.This research is to simulate the process of restoration by computer simulation based on visualized media (restricted pictures, restricted written data and restricted oral information) and the specialized experience of historical architects (Potier, 2000). During the process of practicing, communicates with craftsmen repeatedly with some simulated alternatives, and makes the result as the foundation of evaluating and adjusting the simulating process and outcome. In this way we address a suitable and complete process of computer visualization for historical architecture.The significance of this paper is that we are able to control every detail more exactly, and then prevent possible problems during the process of restoration of historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
email tsk.aa88g@nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 4361
authors Bishop, G. and Weimer, D.M.
year 1986
title Fast Phong Shading
source Computer Graphics (20) 4 pp. 103-106
summary Computer image generation systems often represent curved surfaces as a mesh of polygons that are shaded to restore a smooth appearance. Phong shading is a well known algorithm for producing a realistic shading but it has not been used by real-time systems because of the 3 additions, 1 division and 1 square root required per pixel for its evaluation. We describe a new formulation for Phong shading that reduces the amount of computation per pixel to only 2 additions for simple Lambertian reflection and 5 additions and 1 memory reference for Phong's complete reflection model. We also show how to extend our method to compute the specular component with the eye at a finite distance from the scene rather than at infinity as is usually assumed. The method can be implemented in hardware for real-time applications or in software to speed image generation for almost any system.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 8e02
authors Brown, A.G.P. and Coenen, F.P.
year 2000
title Spatial reasoning: improving computational efficiency
source Automation in Construction 9 (4) (2000) pp. 361-367
summary When spatial data is analysed the result is often very computer intensive: even by the standards of contemporary technologies, the machine power needed is great and the processing times significant. This is particularly so in 3-D and 4-D scenarios. What we describe here is a technique, which tackles this and associated problems. The technique is founded in the idea of quad-tesseral addressing; a technique, which was originally applied to the analysis of atomic structures. It is based on ideas concerning Hierarchical clustering developed in the 1960s and 1970s to improve data access time [G.M. Morton, A computer oriented geodetic database and a new technique on file sequencing, IBM Canada, 1996.], and on atomic isohedral (same shape) tiling strategies developed in the 1970s and 1980s concerned with group theory [B. Grunbaum, G.C. Shephard, Tilings and Patterns, Freeman, New York, 1987.]. The technique was first suggested as a suitable representation for GIS in the early 1980s when the two strands were brought together and a tesseral arithmetic applied [F.C. Holdroyd, The Geometry of Tiling Hierarchies, Ars Combanitoria 16B (1983) 211–244.; S.B.M. Bell, B.M. Diaz, F.C. Holroyd, M.J.J. Jackson, Spatially referenced methods of processing raster and vector data, Image and Vision Computing 1 (4) (1983) 211–220.; Diaz, S.B.M. Bell, Spatial Data Processing Using Tesseral Methods, Natural Environment Research Council, Swindon, 1986.]. Here, we describe how that technique can equally be applied to the analysis of environmental interaction with built forms. The way in which the technique deals with the problems described is first to linearise the three-dimensional (3-D) space being investigated. Then, the reasoning applied to that space is applied within the same environment as the definition of the problem data. We show, with an illustrative example, how the technique can be applied. The problem then remains of how to visualise the results of the analysis so undertaken. We show how this has been accomplished so that the 3-D space and the results are represented in a way which facilitates rapid interpretation of the analysis, which has been carried out.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 876b
authors Christiansson, Per
year 1986
title Structuring a Learning Building Design System
source Advancing Building Technology, CIB International Congress (10th : 1986 : Washington D. C.). 9 p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary It is now vital to aim at formulating computer system modules that possess a high ability to adapt their behavior to fundamental human values and a complex and unstandardized (not uniform) building process but at the same time put constraints on them so that we don't end up with a confusion of computerized routines hard to access, control and understand. In the paper formulations are made of basic artifact skeletons outgoing from the properties to give integrated CAD systems and to those rules by which the growth of the systems are governed. System learning domains including conceptual modelling tools are presented aiming at supporting professional skill, creativity and integration between process actors. The basis for system implementation is frames, descriptive language (PROLOG) and relational databases with regard taken to future possibilities to parallel processing
keywords modeling, learning, integration, database, AI, design, systems, frames
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 2d41
authors Flemming, Ulrich
year 1986
title The Role of Shape Grammars in the Analysis and Creation of Designs
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1986. pp. 213-244 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The paper gives an informal introduction to the shape grammar formalism. It presents results form a case study in which this formalism was applied to a realistic problem in order to convey the flavor of work with such grammars, to demonstrate its advantages and to show that our familiarity with this formalism has now progressed to a level were issues of architectural substance can be addressed. The paper concludes with the outline of a simple way to implement shape grammars by computer: it does not resolve the theoretical problems that exist for such implementations, but makes non-trivial applications like the case study possible
keywords shape grammars, design, architecture
series CADline
email ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2003/02/26 16:24

_id ecc2
authors Gero, John S. and Balachandran, M. B.
year 1986
title Knowledge and Design Decision Processes
source Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1986. pp. 343- 352
summary This paper describes how knowledge engineering techniques can be employed within optimization design decision processes. It commences with a brief discussion about multicriteria design optimization prior to elaborating the use of knowledge within this decision process. Four areas are briefly described-- knowledge as a control mechanism in the generation of the Pareto optimal set, knowledge needed to select alternate generation processes, knowledge which can be induced from the Pareto optimal set, and knowledge needed to recognize optimization models. A system which implements these concepts is presented
keywords design process, knowledge, representation, optimization, decision making, multicriteria
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 0ebf
id 0ebf
authors Hanson, N.L.R. and Radford, Antony D.
year 1986
title On Modelling the Work of the Architect Glenn Murcutt
source Design Computing, pp. 189-203
summary A prototypical design grammar for a class of country houses by the Australian award-winning architect Glenn Murcutt is developed. The rules of the design grammar are executed to create a design for a country house on a real site with a real brief, in parallel with a design by Murcutt himself. Feedback from Murcutt and the differences between the designs and the reasons for them are discussed. Some conclusions are drawn on the role and assumptions of design grammars as rule- based expert systems and the qualities of design activity which cannot be modelled by such systems
keywords expert systems, architecture, design, shape grammars, applications
series CADline
email b.martens@tuwien.ac.at
last changed 2003/12/01 19:29

_id e26f
authors Kalay, Y. (ed.)
year 1987
title Computability of Design
source New York: Wiley & Sons
summary Computer-aided design (CAD) has promised to transform the art and science of architectural design. Yet, despite some significant achievements in the past 3 decades, it has so far failed to do so. This stimulating volume, derived from a symposium held at SUNY, Buffalo in December 1986, explores the reasons why design is so difficult to support by computational means, and what can be done to alleviate this difficulty. Written by an interdisciplinary panel of experts, it presents a varied and comprehensive view of the ways creative design processes can be modelled. The contributors do not all reach the same conclusions, which makes this book lively reading. Topics are arranged into four parts: constructing models of the design process, the computational representation of design knowledge (including spatial information and implicit design intent), methods for computing the design process as a whole (including mathematical programming, expert systems, and shape grammars), and the integration of CAD with traditional design practices.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ac18
authors Knight, Terry W.
year 1986
title Transformations of Languages of Designs
source University of California, Graduate School of Architecture and Urban PIanning, Los Angeles
summary Stylistic change and innovation is a central and traditional issue in art and architecture. In this study, a formal model is developed for representing stylistic change. Styles are defined in terms of rule-based systems called shape grammars that generate languages of designs. Changes in styles are represented as transformations of the shape grammars that define these styles. The model is first sketched informally and considered in relation to other, traditional approaches to style and change. It is then presented in detail and illustrated with numerous simple examples. Last, the model is applied to describe actual, historical examples of stylistic transformations: one in the decorative arts, one in the fine arts, and one in architecture.
series thesis:PhD
email tknight@mit.edu
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 2b3a
authors Olsen, Dan R. Jr.
year 1986
title MIKE : The Menu Interaction Kontrol Environment
source ACM Transactions on Graphics. October, 1986. vol. 5: pp. 318-344 : ill. includes bibliography
summary User Interface Management System (UIMS) called MIKE that does not use the syntactic specifications found in most UIMSs is described. Instead, MIKE provides a default syntax that is automatically generated from the definition of the semantic commands that the interaction is to support. The default syntax is refined using an interface editor that allows modification of the representation of the interface. It is shown how active pictures can be created by adding action expressions to the viewports of MIKE's windowing system. The implications of MIKE's command based dialogue description are discussed in terms of extensible interfaces, device and dialogue-style independence, and system support functions
keywords design, user interface, management, systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

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