CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 173

_id 0a9c
authors Ozel, Filiz
year 1987
title The Computer Model "BGRAF": A Cognitive Approach to Emergency Egress Simulation
source University of Michigan
summary During the past decade, fire safety researchers have come to the understanding that human factors in fires play an important role in controlling the spread of fire; and in decreasing the number of fire casualties in buildings. With the current developments in computer technology, computer modeling of human behavior in fires emerged as an effective method of research. Such computer modeling techniques offered the advantage of being able to experiment with hypothetical fires in buildings without Note endangering human life. Consequently, a study to develop a computer model that will simulate the emergency egress behavior of people in fires was undertaken. Changes in the information processing capacity of the individual as a result of time pressure and stress was considered as part of the emergency egress decision process. Theories from environmental psychology identified a range of cognitive factors, such as visual access in buildings, architectural differentiation, signage and plan configuration that affect way finding and route selection in buildings. These factors needed to be incorporated into emergency egress models. The model was based on the integrated building data base of the CAD system developed at the University of Michigan, Architecture and Planning Lab., which provided a comprehensive building definition, and allowed both graphic and tabular output. Two actual fire incidences were simulated as part of the validation study. These studies have stressed the importance of the cognitive aspects of the physical environment as a factor in emergency egress. A goal structure that represented the total decision process during fires was incorporated into the model. This structure allowed the inputting and testing of a variety of goal structures by using actions as model blocks. The objectives of the model developed in this study can best be summarized as to study and eventually to predict the route selection and exiting behavior in fires, with the purpose of using such information in making building design and code development decisions, and in suggesting action sequences that will best support the safety of the occupants of a building under different emergency conditions.
series thesis:PhD
email ozel@asu.edu
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id a1a1
authors Cornick, T. and Bull, S.
year 1988
title Expert Systems for Detail Design in Building
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 117-126
summary Computer-Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) requires detailed knowledge of the construction of building elements to be effective as a complete design aid. Knowledge-based systems provide the tools for both encapsulating the "rules" of construction - i.e. the knowledge of good construction practice gained from experience - and relating those rules to geometric representation of building spaces and elements. The "rules" of construction are based upon the production and performance implications of building elements and how these satisfy various functional criteria. These building elements in turn may be related to construction materials, components and component assemblies. This paper presents two prototype knowledge-based systems, one dealing with the external envelope and the other with the internal space division of buildings. Each is "component specific" and is based upon its own model of the overall construction. This paper argues that "CAAD requires component specific knowledge bases and that integration of these knowledge bases into a knowledge-based design system for complete buildings can only occur if every knowledge base relates to a single coordinated construction model".
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id eb5f
authors Al-Sallal, Khaled A. and Degelman, Larry 0.
year 1994
title A Hypermedia Model for Supporting Energy Design in Buildings
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 39-49
summary Several studies have discussed the limitations of the available CAAD tools and have proposed solutions [Brown and Novitski 1987, Brown 1990, Degelman and Kim 1988, Schuman et al 1988]. The lack of integration between the different tasks that these programs address and the design process is a major problem. Schuman et al [1988] argued that in architectural design many issues must be considered simultaneously before the synthesis of a final product can take place. Studies by Brown and Novitski [1987] and Brown [1990] discussed the difficulties involved with integrating technical considerations in the creative architectural process. One aspect of the problem is the neglect of technical factors during the initial phase of the design that, as the authors argued, results from changing the work environment and the laborious nature of the design process. Many of the current programs require the user to input a great deal of numerical values that are needed for the energy analysis. Although there are some programs that attempt to assist the user by setting default values, these programs distract the user with their extensive arrays of data. The appropriate design tool is the one that helps the user to easily view the principal components of the building design and specify their behaviors and interactions. Data abstraction and information parsimony are the key concepts in developing a successful design tool. Three different approaches for developing an appropriate CAAD tool were found in the literature. Although there are several similarities among them, each is unique in solving certain aspects of the problem. Brown and Novitski [1987] emphasize the learning factor of the tool as well as its highly graphical user interface. Degelman and Kim [1988] emphasize knowledge acquisition and the provision of simulation modules. The Windows and Daylighting Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) emphasizes the dynamic structuring of information, the intelligent linking of data, the integrity of the different issues of design and the design process, and the extensive use of images [Schuman et al 19881, these attributes incidentally define the word hypermedia. The LBL model, which uses hypermedia, seems to be the more promising direction for this type of research. However, there is still a need to establish a new model that integrates all aspects of the problem. The areas in which the present research departs from the LBL model can be listed as follows: it acknowledges the necessity of regarding the user as the center of the CAAD tool design, it develops a model that is based on one of the high level theories of human-computer interaction, and it develops a prototype tool that conforms to the model.

series ACADIA
email l-degelman@neo.tamu.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id d007
authors Day, Christopher
year 1987
title BUILDING AS A HEALING PROCESS
source Proceedings of the 1st European Full-Scale Workshop Conference / ISBN 87-88373-20-7 / Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-16 January 1987, pp. 37-43
summary The work process is predominantly one-sided, involving little more than the intellect for the managerial - and often the architectural-side, and physical strength and manual skills on the building workers' side. Characteristically the buildings that result are sterile. The whole process is one of materialisation of ideas - often too fast and too far. Too fast - because the idea often becomes concrete and inflexible before -it has met, and conversed with the requirements of the surroundings, and people. The buildings that typically result are imposed on and damaging to the environment and social fabric. Too far - because decisions become dominated by monetary considerations. So do relationships - indeed conventional relationships in the, building industry are governed by the principle of gain. There is a tendency therefore to try to get the best bargain out of any situation, to get as much out of it as possible - in other words, relationships are exploitive. Nobody likes being exploited, and it does no one any good. If we wish to develop a healing building process it must start with a recognition that a healthy human being must be meaningful, whole, and nourished.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 13:08

_id c95f
authors Petrovic, Ivan and Svetel, Igor
year 1994
title Conversation on Design Action: By Men or by Machines?
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 15-23
summary A design studio of the future shall be based on dislocated, distributed design services, and feature the ‘design by collaboration’ enabled by the computer transmitted information. However, in a collaborative design process, computer may take an additional role, i.e., as an “ultimately structured dynamic communication medium ... based on the notion of commitment and interpretation” (Winograd and Flores 1987). Various models of ‘intelligent’ design systems based on the ideas of ‘open, distributed, artificial intelligence systems’ have shown that the computer-based design agents which act on the object-to-be-designed model could be involved in a “conversation for action” (Winograd and Flores, Ibid.). The aim of the paper is to illustrate a computer-based design system that enables ‘a-kind-of’ conversations by the design agents before the design decisions were made. After the description of a design experiment and the conversation that went on between the design agents, the traits of the applied ‘design design system’ are discussed.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 07:15

_id 831d
authors Seebohm, Thomas
year 1992
title Discoursing on Urban History Through Structured Typologies
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 157-175
summary How can urban history be studied with the aid of three-dimensional computer modeling? One way is to model known cities at various times in history, using historical records as sources of data. While such studies greatly enhance the understanding of the form and structure of specific cities at specific points in time, it is questionable whether such studies actually provide a true understanding of history. It can be argued that they do not because such studies only show a record of one of many possible courses of action at various moments in time. To gain a true understanding of urban history one has to place oneself back in historical time to consider all of the possible courses of action which were open in the light of the then current situation of the city, to act upon a possible course of action and to view the consequences in the physical form of the city. Only such an understanding of urban history can transcend the memory of the actual and hence the behavior of the possible. Moreover, only such an understanding can overcome the limitations of historical relativism, which contends that historical fact is of value only in historical context, with the realization, due to Benedetto Croce and echoed by Rudolf Bultmann, that the horizon of "'deeper understanding" lies in "'the actuality of decision"' (Seebohm and van Pelt 1990).

One cannot conduct such studies on real cities except, perhaps, as a point of departure at some specific point in time to provide an initial layout for a city knowing that future forms derived by the studies will diverge from that recorded in history. An entirely imaginary city is therefore chosen. Although the components of this city at the level of individual buildings are taken from known cities in history, this choice does not preclude alternative forms of the city. To some degree, building types are invariants and, as argued in the Appendix, so are the urban typologies into which they may be grouped. In this imaginary city students of urban history play the role of citizens or groups of citizens. As they defend their interests and make concessions, while interacting with each other in their respective roles, they determine the nature of the city as it evolves through the major periods of Western urban history in the form of threedimensional computer models.

My colleague R.J. van Pelt and I presented this approach to the study of urban history previously at ACADIA (Seebohm and van Pelt 1990). Yet we did not pay sufficient attention to the manner in which such urban models should be structured and how the efforts of the participants should be coordinated. In the following sections I therefore review what the requirements are for three-dimensional modeling to support studies in urban history as outlined both from the viewpoint of file structure of the models and other viewpoints which have bearing on this structure. Three alternative software schemes of progressively increasing complexity are then discussed with regard to their ability to satisfy these requirements. This comparative study of software alternatives and their corresponding file structures justifies the present choice of structure in relation to the simpler and better known generic alternatives which do not have the necessary flexibility for structuring the urban model. Such flexibility means, of course, that in the first instance the modeling software is more timeconsuming to learn than a simple point and click package in accord with the now established axiom that ease of learning software tools is inversely related to the functional power of the tools. (Smith 1987).

series ACADIA
email tseebohm@fes.uwaterloo.ca
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id c659
authors Van Ingen, Wim
year 1987
title NOTES ON THE ECOLOGY OF HABITAT, RESTORATION OF AN IMPORTANT DIALOG
source Proceedings of the 1st European Full-Scale Workshop Conference / ISBN 87-88373-20-7 / Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-16 January 1987, pp. 19-25
summary The Ecology of Habitat or shortly "dwelling ecology", belongs internationally to the, so called "man-environment" sciences. Studied, here is the interrelationship between man and his built environment, especially that environment in which he lives. These man-environment sciences are proceeded from the development of the social sciences in the last thirty years, like sociology and psychology in which a rising interest was growing for architecture generally and more specific in dwelling-architecture because of the relation of man with the physical space in which he lives. Also there. is a growing interest of architects in the results of sociological and psychological research in human behaviour and human meanings in the built environment as far this information is of importance for the influence people have on the environment. Dwelling ecology is a part of the Household Sciences. Not only because she is taught within the School of Household Sciences in our university, but because all sciences in this School share the same basic philosophy that is, to start all scientific work form the point of view of the consumer. Translated into the terminology of the -dwelling-ecology the consumer is the dweller.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 13:09

_id ecaade2011_149
id ecaade2011_149
authors Popov, Nikolay
year 2011
title Generative sub-division morphogenesis with Cellular Automata and Agent-Based Modelling
source RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia) 21-24 September 2011, pp.166-174
summary This paper reports on some recent research carried out to develop computational generative urban design system that can be used as an alternative approach to master planning. The focus of the investigation is an 11 ha site located in the South-East edge of Auckland, New Zealand. The urban (or sub-urban) morphology is modelled as cellular automaton based on Hillier’s (1984) x-y syntax in order to resemble the morphology of the existing village. An agent based system based on Reynolds’ (1987) flocking algorithm evolves synchronously with the automaton and tests its ecological fitness. The emergent pattern of development therefore results from the mutual co-adaption of the cellular automaton and the agent based model. The outcomes are variety of spatial morphologies that connects well with adjacent existing village and at the same time take into account landscape and ecological peculiarities of the site.
wos WOS:000335665500019
keywords Generative urban design; structural coupling; cellular automata; agent based modelling
series eCAADe
email npopov@unitec.ac.nz
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id 4d3b
authors Archea, John
year 1987
title Puzzle-Making : What Architects Do When No One is Looking
source New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1987. pp. 37-52. includes bibliography
summary The thesis of this paper is that architects work in a manner that is antithetical to problem-solving because they cannot explicate desired effects prior to their realization through the design process. In an attempt to clarify architecture's uncommon mode of action the author suggests that instead of specifying what they are trying to accomplish prior to their attempts to accomplish it as problem-solver do, architects treat design as a search for the most appropriate effects that can be attained in a unique context. They seek sets of combinatorial rules that will result in an internally consistent fit between a kit of parts and the effects that are achieved when those parts are assembled in a certain way
keywords puzzle making, problem solving, architecture, design process
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id e820
authors Armstrong, W.W., Green, M. and Lake, R.
year 1987
title Near- Real-Time Control of Human Figure Models
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. June, 1987. vol. 7: pp. 52-60 : ill
summary Includes bibliography. Animating human figures is one of the major problems in computer animation. A recent approach is the use of dynamic analysis to compute the movement of a human figure, given the forces and torques operating within and upon the body. One of the problems with this technique is computing the forces and torques required for particular motions: this has been called the control problem of dynamic analysis. To develop a better understanding of this problem, an interactive interface to a dynamics package has been produced. This interface, along with a collection of low-level motion processes, can be used to control the motion of a human figure model. This article describes both the user interface and the motion processes, along with experiences with this approach
keywords computer graphics, animation, user interface
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id 016a
authors Balachandran, M. B. and Gero, John S.
year 1987
title A Knowledge-based Approach to Mathematical Design Modeling and Optimization
source engineering Optimization. 1987. vol. 12: pp. 91-115
summary Optimization is a well understood process in design domains. Designers formulate their design problems as single criterion or multicriteria optimization problems and then select an appropriate optimization algorithm to search for the optimal values for the design variables. The formulation and algorithm selection procedures have been considered to be activities which relied on substantive human knowledge. This paper describes a computer system, OPTIMA, which formulates design optimization problems from a pseudo-English description into canonical algebraic expressions. It then recognizes the formulation and selects appropriate algorithm(s) for its solution. Finally, it runs the selected algorithm(s) and sends the results back to the original descriptions. Areas of expert knowledge involved in carrying out the above tasks are identified. Such knowledge is explicitly encoded in the system. The basic philosophy and key features of the system are described and are illustrated with examples
keywords structures, algorithms, knowledge base, systems, optimization, engineering
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id b9d1
authors Barlas, Adnan
year 1987
title STAGED BUILDING IN HIGH RISE HOUSING
source Proceedings of the 1st European Full-Scale Workshop Conference / ISBN 87-88373-20-7 / Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-16 January 1987, pp. 53-56
summary Since 1950s Turkey is experiencing a high rate of urbanization as a result of the inflow of Iarge number of rural immigrants to the urban areas, in addition to the natural urban population growth. This high level of urbanization gave rise to various burdens and problems within the urban areas. One of these problems.and the most important,is seen in the housing sector. The increasing level of housing need of the urban society could not be met by, the available urban housing a stock. Thus, there emerged a different type of production at the fringes of the urban areas, which is called as "squatter"; being completely unauthorized. In addition to the rapid urbanization -he general deficiencies in the Turkish economy have also effected the urban case. The rents and the prices of the dwelling units in the authorized stock increased to such level that, a great portion of the urban households with low and lower middle incomes could not afford to buy or rent a dwelling unit from the authorized stock. The situation is still the same now.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 13:07

_id cf2011_p170
id cf2011_p170
authors Barros, Mário; Duarte José, Chaparro Bruno
year 2011
title Thonet Chairs Design Grammar: a Step Towards the Mass Customization of Furniture
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 181-200.
summary The paper presents the first phase of research currently under development that is focused on encoding Thonet design style into a generative design system using a shape grammar. The ultimate goal of the work is the design and production of customizable chairs using computer assisted tools, establishing a feasible practical model of the paradigm of mass customization (Davis, 1987). The current research step encompasses the following three steps: (1) codification of the rules describing Thonet design style into a shape grammar; (2) implementing the grammar into a computer tool as parametric design; and (3) rapid prototyping of customized chair designs within the style. Future phases will address the transformation of the Thonet’s grammar to create a new style and the production of real chair designs in this style using computer aided manufacturing. Beginning in the 1830’s, Austrian furniture designer Michael Thonet began experimenting with forming steam beech, in order to produce lighter furniture using fewer components, when compared with the standards of the time. Using the same construction principles and standardized elements, Thonet produced different chairs designs with a strong formal resemblance, creating his own design language. The kit assembly principle, the reduced number of elements, industrial efficiency, and the modular approach to furniture design as a system of interchangeable elements that may be used to assemble different objects enable him to become a pioneer of mass production (Noblet, 1993). The most paradigmatic example of the described vision of furniture design is the chair No. 14 produced in 1858, composed of six structural elements. Due to its simplicity, lightness, ability to be stored in flat and cubic packaging for individual of collective transportation, respectively, No. 14 became one of the most sold chairs worldwide, and it is still in production nowadays. Iconic examples of mass production are formally studied to provide insights to mass customization studies. The study of the shape grammar for the generation of Thonet chairs aimed to ensure rules that would make possible the reproduction of the selected corpus, as well as allow for the generation of new chairs within the developed grammar. Due to the wide variety of Thonet chairs, six chairs were randomly chosen to infer the grammar and then this was fine tuned by checking whether it could account for the generation of other designs not in the original corpus. Shape grammars (Stiny and Gips, 1972) have been used with sucesss both in the analysis as in the synthesis of designs at different scales, from product design to building and urban design. In particular, the use of shape grammars has been efficient in the characterization of objects’ styles and in the generation of new designs within the analyzed style, and it makes design rules amenable to computers implementation (Duarte, 2005). The literature includes one other example of a grammar for chair design by Knight (1980). In the second step of the current research phase, the outlined shape grammar was implemented into a computer program, to assist the designer in conceiving and producing customized chairs using a digital design process. This implementation was developed in Catia by converting the grammar into an equivalent parametric design model. In the third phase, physical models of existing and new chair designs were produced using rapid prototyping. The paper describes the grammar, its computer implementation as a parametric model, and the rapid prototyping of physical models. The generative potential of the proposed digital process is discussed in the context of enabling the mass customization of furniture. The role of the furniture designer in the new paradigm and ideas for further work also are discussed.
keywords Thonet; furniture design; chair; digital design process; parametric design; shape grammar
series CAAD Futures
email m.barros@ipt.pt
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id 696c
authors Beheshti, M. and Monroy, M.
year 1988
title Requirements for Developing an Information System for Architecture
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 149-170
summary This paper discusses possibilities of developing new tools for architectural design. It argues that architects should meet the challenge of information technology and computer-based design techniques. One such attempt has been the first phase of the development of an architectural design information system (ADIS), also an architectural design decision support system. The system should benefit from the developments of the artificial intelligence to enable the architect to have access to information required to carry out design work. In other words: the system functions as a huge on-line electronic library of architecture, containing up-to-date architectural design information, literature, documents, etc. At the same time, the system offers necessary design aids such as computer programs for design process, drawing programs, evaluation programs, cost calculation programs, etc. The system also provides data communication between the architect and members of the design coalition team. This is found to be of vital importance in the architectural design process, because it can enable the architect to fit in changes, brought about in the project by different parties. Furthermore, they will be able, to oversee promptly the consequences of changes or decisions in a comprehensive manner. The system will offer advantages over the more commonly applied microcomputer based CAAD and IGDM (integrated graphics database management) systems, or even larger systems available to an architect. Computer programs as well as hardware change rapidly and become obsolete. Therefore, unrelenting investment pressure to up-date both software and hardware exists. The financial burden of this is heavy, in particular for smaller architectural practices (for instance an architect working for himself or herself and usually with few or no permanent staff). ADIS, as an on-line architectural design aid, is constantly up-dated by its own organisation. This task will be co-ordinated by the ADIS data- base administrator (DBA). The processing possibilities of the system are faster, therefore more complex processing tasks can be handled. Complicated large graphic data files, can be easily retrieved and manipulated by ADIS, a large system. In addition, the cost of an on-line system will be much less than any other system. The system is based on one model of the architectural design process, but will eventually contain a variety of design models, as it develops. The development of the system will be an evolutionary process, making use of its users' feed-back system. ADIS is seen as a step towards full automation of architectural design practices. Apart from being an architectural design support system, ADIS will assist the architect in his/her administrative and organisational activities.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id a820
authors Bjerg, Kresten
year 1987
title FULL-SCALE IN ANOTHER SENSE
source Proceedings of the 1st European Full-Scale Workshop Conference / ISBN 87-88373-20-7 / Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-16 January 1987, pp. 31-35
summary My point of departure is a long standing interest in close human communication. I have been much interested in the multiplicities of communicative levels between persons sharing daily life, e.g. spouses in a household. In the mid-sixties I was working with the first videotapings of marital dyads in a laboratory setting. The "interplay- analysis" which I developed at that time, however, was hampered by the lack of contextual naturalism in the setting. Since - working in the field of "altered states of consciousness" - I came to question the adequacy of studies of extra-ordinary states, in view of the lacking methodology for dealing even with the ranges of the variable ordinary states of mind over the 24-hour cycle in everyday life, and their potential relation to the micro-structure of the habitual ongoing activities of members of a household.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 13:08

_id 0b9f
authors Carini, Alessandra
year 1987
title THE ITALIAN FULL-SCALE MODELS LABORATORY
source Proceedings of the 1st European Full-Scale Workshop Conference / ISBN 87-88373-20-7 / Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-16 January 1987, pp. 27-30
summary The Housing Research Center OIKOS has its offices in Bologna and is runned by a non-profit association of public and private Bodies. Among the members of the Association there are the University of Bologna, the Polytechnic of Turin, the Municipalities of Bologna, Turin, Venice and Brescia, the Emilia Romagna District, the National Builders Association, The Building and Housing Cooperatives, the Public Housing Association of Bologna, several building industries and so on. A few years ago OIKOS proposed a research to the National Housing Committee of the Ministry of Works. The object was to create in Italy a full-scale models laboratory, as well as a few European Countries had done before. We visited the Laboratories of Lausanne, Lund and Amsterdam. The National Housing Committee acknowledged the opportunity of this kind of Laboratory, which is an important tool to experiment and control in advance technical, architectural and use features of housing spaces.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 13:08

_id 9999
authors Coxe, W., Hartung, N.F., Hochberg, H.H., Lewis, B.J., Maister, D.H., Mattox, R.F. and Piven, P.A.
year 1987
title Success Strategies for Design Professionals
source New York, McGraw-Hill
summary As consultants with the opportunity to analyze literally hundreds of professional design firms, we have found the search for ideal management methods challenging. Each time we've observed a format that appears to work well for some or many firms, an exception has soon appeared, contradicting what looked like a good rule to follow. For example, some firms do outstanding work organized as project teams, others are very successful with a departmentalized project structure, and still others get good results with a studio format. One of the major puzzles for observers has been finding a relation between the project delivery system used by firms (that is, "how we do our work") and how the organization itself is operated (that is, "how we structure and run the firm"). After years of study and trial and error, a model has begun to emerge that holds promise for creating some order among these issues. At the heart of this model is the recognition that although no one strategy fits all firms, there is a family of understandable principles from which almost any firm of design professionals can devise its own best strategy. We call these the SuperPositioning principles. This book sets forth the theory, a set of master strategies derived from it, and some thoughts on how to put the principles to use. We look forward to further learning in the years ahead from the experience of professionals who apply the principles in their own firms.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 0748
authors Coyne, R.D., Rosenman, M.A. and Radford, A.D. (et.al.)
year 1987
title Innovation and Creativity in Knowledge-based CAD
source Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1987. pp. 435-465
summary The authors examine the creativity of knowledge-based design systems from a narrow information processing perspective. As a property of the design process innovation and creativity can be identified by observing both the quality of the product, and also the characteristics of the process itself. The key theme running through the discussion is the acquisition of knowledge as the key to understanding creativity. This involves not only the ability of a system to acquire knowledge, but also its ability to control its own processes and change its own structure. In order to discuss this view a model of design systems is put forward in which a distinction between interpretative and syntactic subsystems for innovation and creativity is made
keywords design process, knowledge base, systems, creativity, knowledge acquisition, representation
series CADline
email Richard.Coyne@ed.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/17 08:13

_id 0faa
authors Duelund Mortensen, Peder
year 1991
title THE FULL-SCALE MODEL WORKSHOP
source Proceedings of the 3rd European Full-Scale Modelling Conference / ISBN 91-7740044-5 / Lund (Sweden) 13-16 September 1990, pp. 10-11
summary The workshop is an institution, available for use by the public and established at the Laboratory of Housing in the Art Academy's school of Architecture for a 3 year trial period beginning April 1985. This resumé contains brief descriptions of a variety of representative model projects and an overview of all projects carried out so far, including the pilot projects from 1983 and planned projects to and including January 1987. The Full Scale Model Workshop builds full size models of buildings, rooms and parts of buildings. The purpose of the Full Scale Model Workshop is to promote communication among building's users. The workshop is a tool in an attempt to build bridges between theory and practice in research, experimentation and communication of research results. New ideas and experiments of various sorts can be tried out cheaply, quickly and efficiently through the building of full scale models. Changes can be done on the spot as a planned part of the project and on the basis of ideas and experiments achieved through the model work itself. Buildings and their space can thus be communicated directly to all involved persons, regardless of technical background or training in evaluation of building projects.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 13:23

_id 84ca
authors Dupagne, A.
year 1987
title Teaching Machines. A Creative Revival of Architectural Education or a Pernicious Restoration of Technical Dominance?
source Architectural Education and the Information Explosion [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Zurich (Switzerland) 5-7 September 1987.
summary Architectural design is not a science nor a technology. Architectural design is a praxis of both. It embodies knowledge coming from a large range of varied domains, like policy, culture, economy, environmental science, psychology, ..., but it must be clearly distinguished from Bach. It has little to do with the knowledge development or with a better understanding of physical phenomena. Architectural design is a creative activity generating products that intend to achieve: (-) the fulfilment of individual and social needs; (-) serve certain purposes; (-) in order to change the world. // It is a purposeful activity intervening directly on the built environment in order to intentionally modify it. Therefore, teaching architectural design can reasonably be organized as a training for action and, by contrast, the knowledge attainment becomes a relatively secondary objective.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/18 06:58

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