CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 696c
authors Beheshti, M. and Monroy, M.
year 1988
title Requirements for Developing an Information System for Architecture
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 149-170
summary This paper discusses possibilities of developing new tools for architectural design. It argues that architects should meet the challenge of information technology and computer-based design techniques. One such attempt has been the first phase of the development of an architectural design information system (ADIS), also an architectural design decision support system. The system should benefit from the developments of the artificial intelligence to enable the architect to have access to information required to carry out design work. In other words: the system functions as a huge on-line electronic library of architecture, containing up-to-date architectural design information, literature, documents, etc. At the same time, the system offers necessary design aids such as computer programs for design process, drawing programs, evaluation programs, cost calculation programs, etc. The system also provides data communication between the architect and members of the design coalition team. This is found to be of vital importance in the architectural design process, because it can enable the architect to fit in changes, brought about in the project by different parties. Furthermore, they will be able, to oversee promptly the consequences of changes or decisions in a comprehensive manner. The system will offer advantages over the more commonly applied microcomputer based CAAD and IGDM (integrated graphics database management) systems, or even larger systems available to an architect. Computer programs as well as hardware change rapidly and become obsolete. Therefore, unrelenting investment pressure to up-date both software and hardware exists. The financial burden of this is heavy, in particular for smaller architectural practices (for instance an architect working for himself or herself and usually with few or no permanent staff). ADIS, as an on-line architectural design aid, is constantly up-dated by its own organisation. This task will be co-ordinated by the ADIS data- base administrator (DBA). The processing possibilities of the system are faster, therefore more complex processing tasks can be handled. Complicated large graphic data files, can be easily retrieved and manipulated by ADIS, a large system. In addition, the cost of an on-line system will be much less than any other system. The system is based on one model of the architectural design process, but will eventually contain a variety of design models, as it develops. The development of the system will be an evolutionary process, making use of its users' feed-back system. ADIS is seen as a step towards full automation of architectural design practices. Apart from being an architectural design support system, ADIS will assist the architect in his/her administrative and organisational activities.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 9999
authors Coxe, W., Hartung, N.F., Hochberg, H.H., Lewis, B.J., Maister, D.H., Mattox, R.F. and Piven, P.A.
year 1987
title Success Strategies for Design Professionals
source New York, McGraw-Hill
summary As consultants with the opportunity to analyze literally hundreds of professional design firms, we have found the search for ideal management methods challenging. Each time we've observed a format that appears to work well for some or many firms, an exception has soon appeared, contradicting what looked like a good rule to follow. For example, some firms do outstanding work organized as project teams, others are very successful with a departmentalized project structure, and still others get good results with a studio format. One of the major puzzles for observers has been finding a relation between the project delivery system used by firms (that is, "how we do our work") and how the organization itself is operated (that is, "how we structure and run the firm"). After years of study and trial and error, a model has begun to emerge that holds promise for creating some order among these issues. At the heart of this model is the recognition that although no one strategy fits all firms, there is a family of understandable principles from which almost any firm of design professionals can devise its own best strategy. We call these the SuperPositioning principles. This book sets forth the theory, a set of master strategies derived from it, and some thoughts on how to put the principles to use. We look forward to further learning in the years ahead from the experience of professionals who apply the principles in their own firms.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 4910
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Watson, Bruce R.
year 1987
title A Knowledge-Based Approach to Engineering Information Retrieval and Management
source London, UK: Chapman and Hall Ltd., 1987. pp. 267-295
summary Building design, construction, operation, maintenance, and control are all processes that have achieved various levels of computer use. Although the degree of computerization varies significantly, one common aspect of the computing needs of each process is an abundance of data in the form of tables, standards, project definition information, catalogs, etc. In most cases this data is stored in files which are independently used for input to stand-alone single-process application programs, such as a structural analysis application. The utility of these independent files is therefore limited to a single application. As concepts of integration of engineering applications evolved, the use of databases and database management systems (DBMS) increased. A number of issues of significant concern emerged. First, there is a need to retrieve data from many independent, possibly widely distributed databases. Second, there is a need for a uniform means of doing so. Third, such databases routinely undergo dynamic change. Changes in a database schema commonly result from the evolution of a design, from changes in the design process itself, and from changes in other subsequent downstream processes. Such continuing changes must be reflected in the database schemas and they subsequently require that application programs be updated and that online users be educated on a continuing basis. This chapter describes a knowledge-based expert system that provides access to and integration of the many underlying databases needed to support the building design/construction process. The unique aspect of the expert system presented in this chapter is its capture of the knowledge that an experienced human user incorporates in his search for data in a database, i.e., it seeks to identify and use the generic knowledge needed to operate a DBMS to retrieve data. This knowledge is used by the interface to enable both the online users and the application programs to request data without knowing the data's location or precisely how to ask for it. Further, the interface makes use of mechanisms that allow the user to request data without knowing the exact name by which it is stored in the database. In doing so it formalizes the levels of complexity of that knowledge and points out the multidisciplinary applications of the research results
keywords civil engineering, knowledge base, database, expert systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 8e25
authors Smeltzer, Geert T.A.
year 1987
title Implications of Expert Systems, Data Management and Data Communication for Architectural Education
source Architectural Education and the Information Explosion [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Zurich (Switzerland) 5-7 September 1987.
summary The availability of computersystems for processing, managing and communicating data and expertise, does not mean that the results of these processes, will improve automatically. It also shows to much optimism if you expect that the use of process management and communication tools will enlarge the possibilities of the processes themselves. First of all we will have to face the limitations and we will have to accept them, at the cost of the traditional or ordinary architectural education. Mainly we will have to settle for less and worse design results in the beginning of the use of the new tools. In later stages, however, we will have to be able to deal with higher design quality for more aspects at the same time, in stead of the average quality, for mainly only the visual aspect. To meet the limitations of tools like computersystems, we will have to limit and structure the data and expertise, until we will have reached an absolute minimum quantity and a maximum quality of data and expertise. In fact we should strive, at first, for an “implosion” of data and expertise. Then, by adding more and more expertise and necessary data of the same quality, we can control an information explosion.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/05/16 19:36

_id 7767
authors Danahy, John W.
year 1987
title Sophisticated Image Rendering in Environmental Design Review Graphics Systems
source Proceedings of ACM CHI+GI'87 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems and Graphics Interface 1987 p.211-217
summary The Landscape Architecture Programme and the Computer Systems Research Institute at the University of Toronto undertook two studies using advanced rendering tools pioneered in the areas of computer animation and graphic art. Through two professional landscape architectural design studies we explored the potential role and impact of computer simulation in the initial, more creative phases of the design work. Advanced image rendering hardware and software were used to produce high quality computer drawings of design concepts. The techniques employed in this study are unique in their application to environmental design where they dramatically improve the designer's opportunities to simulate realistic images of proposed design alternatives and to consider the visual and spatial implications of such alternatives. The case studies represented in the paper were undertaken for the National Capital Commission in Ottawa, Canada. The first project is an urban design massing study called the "Parliamentary Precinct Study" and the second project is a detailed design of the "Ceremonial Routes" in Ottawa.
keywords Image Rendering; Design Review; System Specification
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id 8385
authors Holtz, Neal M. and Rasdorf, William J.
year 1988
title An Evaluation of Programming Languages and Language Features for Engineering Software Development
source International Journal of Engineering with Computers. Springer-Verlag, 1988. vol. 3: pp. 183-199
summary Also published as 'Procedural Programming Languages for the Development of CAD and CAE Systems Software,' in the proceedings of ASME International Conference on Computers in Engineering (1987 : New York, NY). The scope of engineering software has increased dramatically in the past decade. In its early years, most engineering applications were concerned solely with solving difficult numerical problems, and little attention was paid to man- machine interaction, to data management, or to integrated software systems. Now computers solve a much wider variety of problems, including those in which numerical computations are less predominant. In addition, completely new areas of engineering applications such as artificial intelligence have recently emerged. It is well recognized that the particular programming language used to develop an engineering application can dramatically affect the development cost, operating cost. reliability, and usability of the resulting software. With the increase in the variety, functionality, and complexity of engineering software, with its more widespread use, and with its increasing importance, more attention must be paid to programming language suitability so that rational decisions regarding language selection may be made. It is important that professional engineers be aware of the issues addressed in this paper, for it is they who must design, acquire, and use applications software, as well as occasionally develop or manage its development. This paper addresses the need for engineers to possess a working knowledge of the fundamentals of computer programming languages. In pursuit of this, the paper briefly reviews the history of four well known programming languages. It then attempts to identify and to look critically at the attributes of programming languages that significantly affect the production of engineering software. The four procedural programming languages chosen for review are those intended for scientific and general purpose programming, FORTRAN 77, C, Pascal, and Modula-2. These languages are compared and some general observations are made. As it is felt important that professional engineers should be able to make informed decisions about programming language selection, the emphasis throughout this paper is on a methodology of evaluation of programming languages. Choosing an appropriate language can be a complex task and many factors must be considered. Consequently, fundamentals are stressed
keywords programming, engineering, languages, software, management, evaluation, FORTRAN, C, PASCAL, MODULA-2, CAD, CAE
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id acadia12_239
id acadia12_239
authors Jackson, Jesse ; Stern, Luke
year 2012
title Fabricating Sustainable Concrete Elements: A Physical Instantiation of the Marching Cubes Algorithm
source ACADIA 12: Synthetic Digital Ecologies [Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-1-62407-267-3] San Francisco 18-21 October, 2012), pp. 239-247
summary This paper explores how an algorithm designed to represent form can be made physical, and how this physical instantiation can be made to respond to a set of design imperatives. Specifically, the paper demonstrates how Marching Cubes (Lorensen and Cline 1987), an algorithm that extracts a polygonal mesh from a scalar field, can be used to initiate the design for a system of modular concrete armature elements that permit a large degree of variability using a small number of discrete parts. The design of these elements was developed in response to a close examination of Frank Lloyd Wright's Usonian Automatic system, an architecturally pertinent historical precedent. The fabricated results positively satisfy contemporary design criteria, including maximal formal freedom, optimal environmental performance, and minimal life-cycle costs.
keywords Form-finding Algorithms , Digital Fabrication , Sustainability , Frank Lloyd Wright , Concrete , Tectonic Elements
series ACADIA
type panel paper
last changed 2013/01/09 10:06

_id ceb3
authors Lehtonen, Hilkka
year 1987
title Visualization Needs and Tool Kits
source Architectural Education and the Information Explosion [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Zurich (Switzerland) 5-7 September 1987.
summary A well-known Finnish novel characterizes the agrarian way of life by the following words: In the beginning there was a marsh, a hoe and John. John turned the marsh into a fertile corn field by means of the Finnish "sisu" or perseverance. We may draw a parallel to architectural design and say that in the beginning there was the idea of the architect only after that came various tools. Nevertheless, the method of visualization - image in its many forms - is something quintessential in architectural planning and design: it plays a central role as a tool for the designer's own thinking and evaluation, in general communication of planning, and in the communication between the designer and other parties of the planning process. Different sketches give directly visual interpretations to different consequences. The needs for the communication of planning in itself have grown along with the manifold development of public communication. Accordingly, the communication of planning has to compete with the highly-developed commercial communication.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/18 07:04

_id 651b
authors Maver, Tom and Wagter, Harry (eds.)
year 1988
title CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings]
source Second International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 0-444-42916-6 / Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, 261 p.
summary The building Industry is Europe's largest single industry employing directly or indirectly 1 in 8 of the working population; yet it is fragmented, ill-organised and unprogressive. Part at least of the cause can be attributed to a failure by the architectural profession to adopt advances in Information Technology - notably Computer Aided Design. The purpose of the series of conferences on CAAD Futures is to chart a route towards a future in which the outcome of current and continuing research and development results in design tools which are acceptable to practioners and which substantially improve the quality of design decision-making and management. The papers which are printed in these proceedings make a significant contribution to our view of the future. Together they cover the range of issues which are the legitimate concern of researchers, developers, vendors, and users of CAAD software; as might be expected, they raise as many questions as they answer and they pose problems as well as reporting progress.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 0a9c
authors Ozel, Filiz
year 1987
title The Computer Model "BGRAF": A Cognitive Approach to Emergency Egress Simulation
source University of Michigan
summary During the past decade, fire safety researchers have come to the understanding that human factors in fires play an important role in controlling the spread of fire; and in decreasing the number of fire casualties in buildings. With the current developments in computer technology, computer modeling of human behavior in fires emerged as an effective method of research. Such computer modeling techniques offered the advantage of being able to experiment with hypothetical fires in buildings without Note endangering human life. Consequently, a study to develop a computer model that will simulate the emergency egress behavior of people in fires was undertaken. Changes in the information processing capacity of the individual as a result of time pressure and stress was considered as part of the emergency egress decision process. Theories from environmental psychology identified a range of cognitive factors, such as visual access in buildings, architectural differentiation, signage and plan configuration that affect way finding and route selection in buildings. These factors needed to be incorporated into emergency egress models. The model was based on the integrated building data base of the CAD system developed at the University of Michigan, Architecture and Planning Lab., which provided a comprehensive building definition, and allowed both graphic and tabular output. Two actual fire incidences were simulated as part of the validation study. These studies have stressed the importance of the cognitive aspects of the physical environment as a factor in emergency egress. A goal structure that represented the total decision process during fires was incorporated into the model. This structure allowed the inputting and testing of a variety of goal structures by using actions as model blocks. The objectives of the model developed in this study can best be summarized as to study and eventually to predict the route selection and exiting behavior in fires, with the purpose of using such information in making building design and code development decisions, and in suggesting action sequences that will best support the safety of the occupants of a building under different emergency conditions.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id ea5c
authors Purcell, P.
year 1988
title The Role of Media Technology in the Design Studio
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 179-187
summary This paper refers to a program of work, which aims to integrate a range of computer-based multi-media technologies which has the overall goal of enhancing the processes of education in the design studio. The individual projects describe the development of visual information systems and intelligent design systems. The framework of support for much of the work is Project Athena, a campus wide initiative to apply new technology towards enhancing the educational process project.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 8331
authors Rasdorf, William J., Ulberg, Karen J. and Baugh, John W. Jr.
year 1987
title A Structure-Based Model of Semantic Integrity Constraints for Relational Databases
source International Journal of Engineering with Computers. Springer-Verlag, Spring, 1987. vol. 2: pp. 31- 39
summary Database management systems (DBMSs) are in widespread use because of the ease and flexibility with which they enable users to access large volumes of data. The use of DBMSs has spread from its origin in business applications to scientific and engineering applications as well. As engineers rely more and more on the computer for data storage, our ability to manually keep track of relationships between data and to ensure data accuracy is severely limited. The inherent fluctuations in engineering design data as well as its large volume, increase the difficulty of doing so. Ensuring data accuracy through the use of integrity constraints which limit or constrain the values of the data is a central aspect of DBMS use. Enforcing constraints (to the extend possible) is a job for the DBMS. This alleviates some of the burden placed on the user and database administrator to maintain the integrity of the database. In addition, it enables integrity constraints to be conceptually centralized and made available for inspection and modification instead of being scattered among application programs. Despite their importance, however, capabilities for handling integrity constraints in commercial DBMSs are limited and they lack adequate integrity maintenance support. In addition, a comprehensive theoretical basis for such support-the role of a constraint classification, representation, invocation, and use methodology-has yet to be developed. This paper presents a formalism that classifies semantic integrity constraints based on the structure of the relational database model. Integrity constraints are characterized by the portion of the database structure they access, whether one or more relations, attributes, or tuples. Thus, the model is completely general, allowing the identification, definition, and arbitrary specification of any constraint on a relational database. It also provides a basis for the implementation of a database integrity subsystem. Examples of each type of constraint are illustrated using a small engineering database, and various implementation issues are discussed
keywords civil engineering, relational database, constraints management
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ee8f
authors Rasdorf, William J.
year 1987
title Extending Database Management Systems for Engineering Applications
source Computers in Mechanical Engineering (CIME). American Society of Mechanical Engineers, March, 1987. vol. 5: pp. 62-69
summary During the design of a manufactured component, large amounts of information pertaining to all aspects of the design must be stored, accessed, and operated upon. A database management system (DBMS), composed of a central repository of data and the associated software for controlling accesses to it and operations on it, provides one way to uniformly store, manage, and use this information. This paper presents a framework for an extension to relational database management systems that combines a set of engineering constraints with a database of engineering data items. The representation requires a database that is able to store all of the data normally associated with engineering design as well as the constraints imposed upon the engineering design process. A powerful and flexible constraint processing system is needed to adequately ensure that engineering data conforms to the limitations imposed upon it by the design process. Such a system must be capable of allowing constraints to be invoked at a variety of times, and provide numerous options for the user when violations are detected. This paper introduces a concept called structured constraints that integrates state- of-the-art advances in DBMSs and current research in engineering constraint processing to further enhance CAD system capabilities. It discusses the extensions to relational database theory that are needed to achieve such a constraint handling capability for mechanical engineering applications. The goal sought is a managed repository of data supporting interfaces to a wide variety of application programs and supporting processing capabilities for maintaining data integrity by incorporating engineering constraints. The Structured Constraint model is a general method for classifying semantic integrity constraints. It is based on the structure of the relational model and is therefore independent of any particular query language. In addition, it is a formalism that possesses conceptual clarity and generality which make it useful for representing and communicating arbitrary constraints. The key contribution of this formalism is its basis for a completely definable implementation of an engineering integrity system
keywords civil engineering, relational database, constraints management, management, DBMS
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id a820
authors Bjerg, Kresten
year 1987
source Proceedings of the 1st European Full-Scale Workshop Conference / ISBN 87-88373-20-7 / Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-16 January 1987, pp. 31-35
summary My point of departure is a long standing interest in close human communication. I have been much interested in the multiplicities of communicative levels between persons sharing daily life, e.g. spouses in a household. In the mid-sixties I was working with the first videotapings of marital dyads in a laboratory setting. The "interplay- analysis" which I developed at that time, however, was hampered by the lack of contextual naturalism in the setting. Since - working in the field of "altered states of consciousness" - I came to question the adequacy of studies of extra-ordinary states, in view of the lacking methodology for dealing even with the ranges of the variable ordinary states of mind over the 24-hour cycle in everyday life, and their potential relation to the micro-structure of the habitual ongoing activities of members of a household.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2004/05/04 13:08

_id 8cff
authors Fridqvist, Sverker
year 1989
title Computers as a Creative Tool in Architecture
source CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4] Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989, pp. 9.6.1-9.6.4
summary The School of Architecture at Lund Institute of Technology was augmented by the establishment of the Computer Studio in 1987. As a result the school now has a device for teaching and research in the architects' use of computers. We are now conducting several research projects as well as courses and an education project. The third and fourth years of the education at the school of architecture are arranged as education projects instead of traditional lecturing. The students choose from projects that are organised by different departments at the School of Architecture. The issue is that the students will ask for instruction when felt needed, and that learning will therefore be more efficient. The Computer Studio has conducted such a project during the first half of 1989. We have tried to encourage the students to use our different computers and programs in new and creative ways. One of the issues of the computer project is to teach the students how computers are used at the architects offices today as well as expected future developments. The students shall be acquainted well enough with present and future possibilities to make good choices when deciding upon buying computers for architectural use. Another issue is to develop new ways of making and presenting architecture by using computers. As a group the teachers at the school of architecture have a very restrictive attitude towards the use of computers. We hope that our project will open their minds for the possibilities of computers, and to engage them in the development of new ways to use computers creatively in architecture. An interesting question is if the use of computers will yield different outcomes of he students' work than traditional methods. An object for research is whether the added possibilities of considering different aspects of he design by using a computer will make for higher quality of the results.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/24 10:13

_id 6f4d
authors Hall, Theodore W.
year 1987
title Space Stations, Computers and Architectural Design
source Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Raleigh (North Carolina / USA) 1987, pp. 7-18
summary In the winter semester of 1987, I had the opportunity to work with a group of aerospace engineering students on the design of an artificial-gravity rotating space habitat. This was an interesting project in its own right, but of particular relevance to ACADIA was the role of the computer in the design process. Because of its unusual nature, this project forced me to reconsider several issues. This paper addresses the following: (-) The computer as a medium for communication. (-) The need for special tools for special tasks. (-) The pros and cons of computer models vs. cardboard models. (-) The designer's reliance on technology and technocrats. (-) The role of the guru. // Since it was the experience with the space habitat design project that raised these issues, the discussion starts there. The paper then looks for similar experiences in other, more "typical" studio projects. The conclusions are personal opinions about software design, computer literacy, and the teaching of CAD skills to non-programmers.

series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id e290
authors Kalay, Yehuda E.
year 1987
title Worldview : An Integrated Geometric Modeling/Drafting System
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. February, 1987. vol. 7: pp. 36-46 : ill. (some col.). includes bibliography
summary Worldview is a computer-aided architectural and engineering design system that combines the power of geometric modeling utilities with the intuitive design and communication capabilities of drafting utilities. This article describes the basic design concepts and implementation of the system, achieved by representing the designed artifact nonredundantly in a three-dimensional 'world' and manipulating it through multiple two-dimensional 'views.' The world consists of a collection of shapes that store all the formative information pertinent to the designed artifact, while the views consist of images of selected shapes, generated through particular two-way mapping transforms. Several views that depict the same set of shapes through different transforms can be displayed simultaneously, using multiple, dynamic, user- defined windows, thereby enabling addressability of points in the 3D world. Views also include such design and communication aids as dimension lines, construction lines, annotations, and graphic symbols to enhance the visual content of the images without encumbering the representation of the shapes themselves. Modifications applied to the shapes through any view are immediately apparent in all other views in which the shapes are imaged. The shapes are represented by a data structure based on the Hybrid Edge data model, which facilitates the integration of points, lines, surfaces, and volumetric bodies into one formative hierarchy. The integration of drafting and modeling simplifies the use of powerful modeling utilities by designers, facilitates the communication of the designed artifact, and enhances the integrity of the design as a whole
keywords drafting, systems, geometric modeling, representation, user interface, computer graphics, CAD, architecture, engineering
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 0347
authors Maver, T.
year 1988
title Software Tools for the Technical Evaluation of Design Alternatives
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 47-58
summary Designing buildings which 'work' - economically, socially and technically - remains the central challenge for architects. This paper is concerned with the state of development of software tools for the evaluation of the technical issues which are relevant at the conceptual stages, as opposed to the detailed stages, of design decision-making. The technical efficiency of building is of enormous economic importance. The capital investment in building in Europe represents some 12% of the Gross Domestic Product; this capital investment is exceeded by an order of magnitude, however, by the operating costs of buildings over their life span. In turn, these operating costs are exceeded - again by an order of magnitude - by the costs associated with the (human) operations which go on within the building, and on which the design of the building has some impact.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2001/06/04 15:16

_id maver_108
id maver_108
authors Maver, T.W., Clarke, J.A., Stearn, D.d. and Kim, J.J.
year 1987
title Lighting Simulation in Building Performance Appraisal
source Proceedings of Electronic Imaging Conference, Boston
summary This paper describes an advanced, multi-chromatic lighting simulation model capable of representing complex geometries and randomly distributed luminaires. The model, known by the acronym DIM (Dynamic Illumination Model), is now operational as a research prototype and a follow-on project has now commenced which aims to transform this prototype into a polished design tool. DIM accepts a description of a zone's geometry, surface finishes, contents and natural and artificial light sources. A multi-chromatic ray tracking scheme is then employed to obtain the spectral surface luminance distribution corresponding to each light source. Output from the model are the usual contours of planar illuminance and coloured perspective images.
series other
last changed 2003/09/03 13:36

_id 404e
authors Oksala , T.
year 1988
title Logical Models for Rule-based CAAD
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 107-116
summary The aim of this paper is to present the basic results of a theoretic approach to represent architectural individual forms in CAD systems. From the point of view of design methodology and problem solving these descriptions might be conceived' as parts of possible environments satisfying the laws of some design theory in logical sense. This paper describes results in a series of logical studies towards rule and knowledge based systems for design automation. The effective use of programming languages and computers as design aids in architecture presupposes certain capabilities to articulate built environment logically. The use of graphic languages in the description of environmental items e.g. buildings might be theoretically mastered by formal production systems including linguistic, geometric, and spatio-material generation. The combination of the power of formal mechanisms and logical individual calculus offers suitable framework to generate arbitrary e.g. free spatial compositions as types or unique solutions. In this frame it is natural to represent in a coherent way very complex hierarchical parsing of buildings in explicit form as needed in computer implementations. In order to simulate real design work the individual configurations of possible built forms should be designed to satisfy known rules. In the preliminary stage partial solutions to design problems may be discussed in mathematical terms using frameworks like lattices, graphs, or group theoretical considerations of structural, functional, and visual organization of buildings. The capability to produce mathematically sophisticated geometric structures allows us to generalize the approach further. The theoretical design knowhow in architecture can be partly translated in to some logic and represented in a knowledge base. These rules are used as selection criteria for geometric design candidates in the sense of logical model theory and mathematical optimization. The economy of the system can be developed by using suitable conduct mechanisms familiar e.g. from logic programming. The semantics of logic offers a frame to consider computer assisted and formal generation in design. A number of semantic and pragmatic problems, however, remain to be solved. In any case conceptual analyses based on logic are applicable in order to rationally reconstruct architectural goals contributing to the quality of environmental design, which should be the main goal in the development of design systems in near future.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

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