CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 101 to 120 of 163

_id ddss9846
id ddss9846
authors Rigatti, Decio
year 1998
title Rubem Berta Housing Estate: Order and Structure, Designand Use
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary The main goal of this paper is to investigate, through some space configurational based tools, a quite common phenomenon found in many different locations in Brazil, concerning the process of urban changes individually introduced by dwellers of public housing estates. A significant number of housing estates, particularly those designed according to rationalist concepts, seem to be unable to support space related social requirements and are then widely transformed when compared to the original layouts. Beyond the quantitative features, the morphological changes that take place in those housing estates mean a fundamental new approach to understand how completely new urban structures can arisefrom the space produced by a comprehensive urban design, took as a starting point for the transformations made by the dwellers of those settlements. As a case study is analysed the Rubem Berta Housing Estate which was built in Porto Alegre/RS, Brazil, for 20,000 people in the late 70s. Since the begining of its occupation in 1986 and the invasion that took place in 1987, the urban transformations there have never stopped. Its possible to realize that the dwellers individually use some constant physical rules to define the new settlement which are very similar within the estate itself and, at the same time, very similar to those found in other transformed housing estates of this sort. The physical rules introduced change the features of the entire settlement in two different levels: a) locally, through the transformations introduced in order to solve individual needs; b) globally, the local rules of physical transformations produce a new overall structure for the whole urban complex. The knowledge of this process makes it possible to bring to the surface of architectural theory some generic configurational codes that can be used as a tool for designing public housing estates in Brazil.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 844e
authors Robert E. Johnson and Yasser Mansour
year 1987
title Aspects of Rules and Language in Design Decisions
source Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Raleigh (North Carolina / USA) 1987, pp. 183-194
summary This paper is a report of a doctoral research seminar conducted during the Winter term, 1987. The interdisciplinary seminar investigated both theoretical and practical aspects of how design decisions are made. Participants in the seminar represented diverse interests ranging from human science to computer-aided design. The paper focuses on two of several decision making issues that emerged from this seminar: design rules and design languages. These issues are explored from a theoretical context and illustrated through design experiments and discussions that were conducted as part of the seminar. The paper concludes with several suggestions for the development of computer-aided design software.

series ACADIA
last changed 1999/01/01 18:14

_id e01a
authors Rosenman, M.A., Coyne, R.D. and Gero, J.S.
year 1987
title Expert Systems for Design Applications
source pp. 74-91
summary Reprinted in J.R. Quinlan (ed.) Applications of Expert Systems. Sydney, Addison-Wesley, (1987) pp. 66-84. The suitability of expert systems to design is demonstrated through three classes of design applications. These are the interpretation of design codes, the interpretation of design specifications to produce designs and, thirdly, a method for conflict resolution applicable to more general classes of design
keywords design, knowledge, expert systems
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/17 08:17

_id aef1
authors Rosenman, M.A., Gero, J.S. and Coyne, R.D. (et al)
year 1987
title SOLAREXPERT : A Prototype Expert System for Passive Solar Energy Design in Housing
source Canberra: Aust NZ Solar Energy Society, 1987. vol.II: pp. 361-370. Also published in People and Technology - Sun, Climate and Building, edited by V. Szokolay, Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, 1988
summary Passive solar energy design is not an exact science in which a set of analytical procedures can be followed to produce results. Rather it depends heavily on subjective parameters and experience collected over time which is heuristic by nature. At present this knowledge is available in books but while this knowledge is comprehensive, it is unstructured and not always easy to make use of. A computer-based system allows for flexible interactive dialogue and for the incorporation of analytical procedures which may be required. This paper describes work on SOLAREXPERT, a prototype expert system to aid designers in passive solar energy design for single dwellings. The system operates at a strategic level to provide basic advice on the form of construction and types of passive solar systems and at a spatial zone level to provide more detailed advice on sizes and materials. It allows for modification of the information entered so that users may explore several possibilities
keywords applications, experience, housing, expert systems, energy, design, architecture
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/17 08:17

_id 2622
authors Schmitt, G.
year 1988
title Expert Systems and Interactive Fractal Generators in Design and Evaluation
source CAAD futures 87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 91-106
summary Microcomputer based interactive programmable drafting programs and analysis packages are setting new standards for design support, systems in architectural offices. These programs allow the representation and performance simulation of design proposals with one tool, but they lack the ability to represent knowledge concerning relations between design and artifact. While they can expediate the traditional design and analysis process, they do not fundamentally improve it. We shall describe three computationally related approaches which could be a step towards a necessary paradigm change in developing design software. These approaches deal with expert design generators and evaluators, function oriented programming, and fractal design machines.
series CAAD Futures
email gerhard.schmitt@sl.ethz.ch
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 2fac
authors Schmitt, Gerhard
year 1987
title ARCHPLAN - An Architectural Planning Front End to Engineering Design Expert Systems
source ii, 22 p. : ill
summary Engineering Design Research Center, CMU, 1987. EDRC-48-04-87. ARCHPLAN is a knowledge-based ARCHitectural PLANning front end to a set of vertically integrated engineering expert systems. ARCHPLAN is part of a larger project to explore the principles of parallel operation of expert systems in an Integrated Building Design Environment. It is designed to h)0*0*0* Ԍ operate in conjunction with HIRISE, a structural design expert system; with CORE and SPACER, two expert systems for the spatial layout of buildings; and with other knowledge based systems dealing with construction planning, specification, and foundation design. ARCHPLAN operates either in connection with these expert systems or as a stand- alone program. It consists of three major parts: the application, the user interface, and the graphics package
keywords The application offers a knowledge based approach towards the
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id 8dbf
authors Schmitt, Gerhard
year 1987
title The Perceived Impact of Computers on the Teaching of Design Goals and Reality
source Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Raleigh (North Carolina / USA) 1987, pp. 135-152
summary The actual and potential impact of computers on design education is an issue of growing concern for students, faculty, and practitioners. The assessment ranges from very positive to negative. (On first sight, the complexity of reasons for and against computers in design seems overwhelming. This paper attempts to isolate reasons for the various attitudes and find a method to judge the impact of computers on design education rationally by identifying goals and comparing them to reality.

Part One establishes facts: the human and financial investment that universities have made in CAD, based on results from publications and a national ACADIA survey, and the investment of architectural firms in CAD, based on recent national and regional in-depth studies.

Part Two examines goals of the use of CAD in the design studio. For better analysis, goals are divided into two extreme categories: tool independent and tool dependent. Tool independent goals are born out of the need to improve the existing design education, independent from technological development. Tool dependent goals are tailored to the alleged capabilities of new software and hardware and to pressure from the professional community. The actual definition of goals for design education will lie somewhere in between.

Part three examines the reality in the design studio. It tries to determine the place of the computer in the design process from a student's view, and an educator's view. The last section is dedicated to the testing of the developed theory against actual studios.

series ACADIA
email gerhard.schmitt@sl.ethz.ch
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 861a
authors Sedas, Sergio W. and Talukdar, Sarosh N.
year 1987
title A Disassembly Planner for Redesign
source The Winter Annual Meeting of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Symposium of Intelligent and Integrated Manufacturing Analysis and Synthesis. December, 1987. Pittsburgh, PA: Engineering Design Research Center, CMU, 1988. [6] p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary This paper describes an algorithm for generating plans for disassembling given objects. The plans are produced by a set of knowledge sources acting on a set of representations for the object. Both sets are arbitrarily expandable, so programs using the approach can grow continually in capability. Our present complement of knowledge sources and representations can tackle relatively difficult problems. Three examples are included. The first requires a good bit of geometric reasoning before appropriate subassemblies can be selected. The second and third require certain movable parts to be repositioned before disassembly can be achieved
keywords algorithms, representation, synthesis, assemblies, knowledge, reasoning, mechanical engineering
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id a158
authors Turner, James A.
year 1987
title Graphic Standards: IGES and PDES in an AEC Environment
source Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Raleigh (North Carolina / USA) 1987, pp. 195-
summary The idea made a lot of sense: many diverse CAD systems communicating a common project data-base through a neutral format translator. The "Initial Graphics Exchange Specification", kindly known as IGES (pronounced "I guess" by its proponents, and "I guess not" by its opponents) was the the initial effort, and is either loved or hated; there is no "neutral" ground. Has it succeeded? Has it failed? Is there a future in this neutral format business? Was CAD meant to be "design" or "drafting"? Does industry support it? What does it mean for architecture? Is a "one-to-many" translator a wonderful idea, but impossible to implement? Is a complete set of "one-to-one" translators a better idea?

This paper will give a short history of IGES, discuss its reason for being, list its strengths and weaknesses, examine its inner workings, and introduce the current effort of the IGES committee: a total "Product Design Exchange Specification", PDES (and internationally as STEP). It will also discuss the techniques used by the PDES application committees to model their various products, and give a case study of the effort of the AEC committee in modeling an architectural "product".

The paper will conclude with the opinions on the future of IGES by the author (a four year member of the IGES/PDES organization).

series ACADIA
email turner@umich.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 8c73
authors Van Wyk, C.G. Skip
year 1987
title CAAD Usage: Now and When At OSU
source Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Raleigh (North Carolina / USA) 1987, pp. 121-134
summary In February of this year the Department of Architecture at The Ohio State University began a study to determine existing and long-term needs and expectations regarding the use of computers in teaching, research, administration, and service. The results of the study are to aid in two broad planning objectives: (1) facility, hardware, and software acquisition; and (2) curriculum enhancement, faculty and staff development, and support services (i.e., consultants, lab monitors, etc.).

An interview technique was developed to address three main concerns: (1) how computers are and should be utilized in areas--i.e., research, course preparation, lecture delivery, computer-aided instruction, grading and monitoring, and student exercises; (2) what kinds of applications are and should be utilized--i.e., word processing, statistics, graphics, drafting, modeling, audio-visual, database, etc.; and (3) what problems or concerns stand in the way of achieving the desired levels of computer usage.

The twenty-three full-time faculty surveyed (96% participation) represent 65 curriculum courses varying in format from design studio and labs to lecture. This paper outlines the methods of the study and presents the findings via graphs of current and desired computer usage by both area and application along with a graphic summary of statistics and trends. Also presented are a summary of root problems and concerns noted during the interview process and conclusions and limitations of study.

series ACADIA
email vanwyk@swcp.com
last changed 2003/04/20 17:09

_id 2d0b
authors Wagter, H.
year 1988
title CAD-Techniques in Architecture and Building Design, a Realistic Overview
source CAAD futures 87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 7-14
summary Giving an overview on CAD-techniques in architecture and building design might seem a bit superfluous. Every mentioned subject will be worked out in this conference in much more detail than is possible in the context of this very first paper. Nevertheless it will be useful to sketch a framework. It gives an opportunity to participants to compare, and will help to judge the different influences of the conclusions in the right context. For the authors it might mean that they can fill in their own place, and that their introductions can be short so there will be more time available for in depth explanations. It must be stated that CAAD-Futures theme is at the design part of the building process as mentioned in its announcement "it takes stock of current developments in CAAD and attempts to anticipate the direction of future developments and their relevance to and impact on architectural practice and education, the building industry and the quality of the built environment".
series CAAD Futures
email Harry.Wagter@brighthouse.nl
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 0cb8
authors Yessios, Chris I.
year 1987
title A Fractal Studio
source Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Raleigh (North Carolina / USA) 1987, pp. 169-182
summary The experience of using computer aided architectural design tools in a second year graduate studio is presented. These tools had to be developed as the search for design solutions evolved. The computer has been used for the exploration and generation of architectural forms and very little as a drafting/rendering machine. The generative algorithms were based on fractal geometries, arabesque ornamentations, DNA/RNA biological processes' etc. The design problem was a Biological Research Complex. The whole experience raised some interesting pedagogical questions, which are also discussed.

series ACADIA
email cyessios@formz.com
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 65d7
authors Yessios, Chris I.
year 1987
title The Computability of Void Architectural Modeling
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1987. pp. 141-172 : ill. includes a short bibliography
summary Solid modeling has proven inefficient as a computational aid to architectural design. A theory and computational method called Void Modeling has been developed to accommodate a class of objects that are containers for other objects. Examples include space enclosures, which are the primitive elements in architectural compositions. The basic computational techniques of void modeling are presented. They show void modeling to be highly efficient in addressing the syntactic and semantic requirements of architectural design
keywords solid modeling, architecture, representation, methods
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 866f
authors Zelissen, C.
year 1988
title From Drafting to Design: New Programming Tools are Needed
source CAAD futures 87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 253-261
summary The software needed by engineers and architects shows two new aspects. First, these programs get more and more graphic elements, secondly there is a trend from general purpose packages to more problem oriented programs. Comparing several of these application depending programs, a strong similarity appears; a user builds up a representation of a (technical) model by placing, replacing, deleting and so on, representations of objects, belonging to this model. From the programmer's point of view, it must be possible to abstract the several models and the actions on the components of a model, and therefore to build one-program with a model description as parameter. Assuming the existence of such a program, the only remaining part needed to build a complete dedicated package has reference to the specific technical calculations. In this contribution we touch on a number of the problems in developing and implementing such a program.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 471f
authors Brooks, Frederick P. Jr.
year 1987
title Essence and Accidents of Software Engineering
source IEEE Computer. April, 1987. vol. 20: pp. 10-19 : ill. includes bibliography. -- See also Information Processing '86 edited by H.J. Kugler; and Brooks, F.P. 'The Mythical Man-Month,' Addison-Wesley, 1978
summary The author analyzed the nature and the problems of software engineering and assessed the technical developments that are most often advanced as potential solutions for the problems
keywords software, programming, languages, management
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id e820
authors Armstrong, W.W., Green, M. and Lake, R.
year 1987
title Near- Real-Time Control of Human Figure Models
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. June, 1987. vol. 7: pp. 52-60 : ill
summary Includes bibliography. Animating human figures is one of the major problems in computer animation. A recent approach is the use of dynamic analysis to compute the movement of a human figure, given the forces and torques operating within and upon the body. One of the problems with this technique is computing the forces and torques required for particular motions: this has been called the control problem of dynamic analysis. To develop a better understanding of this problem, an interactive interface to a dynamics package has been produced. This interface, along with a collection of low-level motion processes, can be used to control the motion of a human figure model. This article describes both the user interface and the motion processes, along with experiences with this approach
keywords computer graphics, animation, user interface
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id 8eb4
authors Athithan, G. and Patnaik, L.M.
year 1987
title Geometric Searching In Extended CSG Models : Application to Solid Modeling and Viewing
source February, 1987. 30 p. : ill
summary In this paper, the CSG representation scheme is augmented with the 'cartesian product.' The sweep method of generating solids is encompassed by this 'Extended CSG' formalism. The point inclusion problem encountered in the area of geometric searching in computational geometry is discussed in the context to solid models represented by 'extended CSG.' A simple algorithm to solve it that has a time complexity O(n), where n is the number of primitives, is presented. Allowing for preprocessing and extra storage, a second efficient algorithm, having a time complexity O(log n), is developed. The relevance of point inclusion problem in solid modelling techniques is indicated. An extended CSG based solid modeling method is proposed. A solution to the problem of hidden line removal, that uses the faster algorithm for the point inclusion problem, is also presented in the paper
keywords point inclusion, computational geometry, data structures, solid modeling, CSG, computer graphics, hidden lines
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id 266d
authors Badler, Norman I., Manoochehri, Kamran H. and Walters, Graham
year 1987
title Articulated Figure Positioning by Multiple Constraints
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. June, 1987. vol. 7: pp. 28-38 : ill. Includes bibliography
summary A problem that arises in positioning an articulated figures is the solution of 3D joint positions (kinematics), when joint angles are given. If more than one such goal is to be achieved, the problem is often solved interactively by positioning or solving one component of the linkage, then adjusting another, then redoing the first, and so on. This iterative process is slow and tedious. The authors present a method that automatically solves multiple simultaneous joint position goals. The user interface offers a six-degree-of freedom input device to specify joint angles and goal positions interactively. Examples are used to demonstrate the power and efficiency of this method for key-position animation
keywords animation, constraints, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 05c2
authors Balachandran, M. B. and Gero, John S.
year 1987
title Use of Knowledge in Selection and Control of Optimization Algorithms
source engineering Optimization. 1987. vol. 12: pp. 163-173
summary Computers have been widely used in optimization based problem solving processes to assist with the numerical computations. The widespread availability of symbolic computational tools and recent developments in artificial intelligence now make it feasible to expand the role of computers in this area. Various classes of knowledge used to improve the efficiency of the optimization processes are presented in this paper. A prototype system developed in the domain of multicriteria decision making is demonstrated. The system contains knowledge needed to select appropriate optimization algorithms, to control the solution process, and to select alternate algorithms if needed
keywords multicriteria, algorithms, knowledge base, systems, problem solving, optimization
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c89d
authors Bancroft, Pamela J.
year 1987
title The Integration of Computing into Architectural Education Through Computer Literate Faculty
source Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Raleigh (North Carolina / USA) 1987, pp. 109-120
summary This paper discusses the apparent correlation between faculty computer literacy and the success of integrating computing into architectural education. Relevant questions of a 1985 national survey which was conducted to study the historical development of faculty computer utilization are analyzed and interpreted. The survey results are then used as the basis for a series of recommendations given for increasing computer literacy among faculty in architectural schools, thus increasing the integration of computing.

series ACADIA
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

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