CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 163

_id ee8f
authors Rasdorf, William J.
year 1987
title Extending Database Management Systems for Engineering Applications
source Computers in Mechanical Engineering (CIME). American Society of Mechanical Engineers, March, 1987. vol. 5: pp. 62-69
summary During the design of a manufactured component, large amounts of information pertaining to all aspects of the design must be stored, accessed, and operated upon. A database management system (DBMS), composed of a central repository of data and the associated software for controlling accesses to it and operations on it, provides one way to uniformly store, manage, and use this information. This paper presents a framework for an extension to relational database management systems that combines a set of engineering constraints with a database of engineering data items. The representation requires a database that is able to store all of the data normally associated with engineering design as well as the constraints imposed upon the engineering design process. A powerful and flexible constraint processing system is needed to adequately ensure that engineering data conforms to the limitations imposed upon it by the design process. Such a system must be capable of allowing constraints to be invoked at a variety of times, and provide numerous options for the user when violations are detected. This paper introduces a concept called structured constraints that integrates state- of-the-art advances in DBMSs and current research in engineering constraint processing to further enhance CAD system capabilities. It discusses the extensions to relational database theory that are needed to achieve such a constraint handling capability for mechanical engineering applications. The goal sought is a managed repository of data supporting interfaces to a wide variety of application programs and supporting processing capabilities for maintaining data integrity by incorporating engineering constraints. The Structured Constraint model is a general method for classifying semantic integrity constraints. It is based on the structure of the relational model and is therefore independent of any particular query language. In addition, it is a formalism that possesses conceptual clarity and generality which make it useful for representing and communicating arbitrary constraints. The key contribution of this formalism is its basis for a completely definable implementation of an engineering integrity system
keywords civil engineering, relational database, constraints management, management, DBMS
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 8331
authors Rasdorf, William J., Ulberg, Karen J. and Baugh, John W. Jr.
year 1987
title A Structure-Based Model of Semantic Integrity Constraints for Relational Databases
source International Journal of Engineering with Computers. Springer-Verlag, Spring, 1987. vol. 2: pp. 31- 39
summary Database management systems (DBMSs) are in widespread use because of the ease and flexibility with which they enable users to access large volumes of data. The use of DBMSs has spread from its origin in business applications to scientific and engineering applications as well. As engineers rely more and more on the computer for data storage, our ability to manually keep track of relationships between data and to ensure data accuracy is severely limited. The inherent fluctuations in engineering design data as well as its large volume, increase the difficulty of doing so. Ensuring data accuracy through the use of integrity constraints which limit or constrain the values of the data is a central aspect of DBMS use. Enforcing constraints (to the extend possible) is a job for the DBMS. This alleviates some of the burden placed on the user and database administrator to maintain the integrity of the database. In addition, it enables integrity constraints to be conceptually centralized and made available for inspection and modification instead of being scattered among application programs. Despite their importance, however, capabilities for handling integrity constraints in commercial DBMSs are limited and they lack adequate integrity maintenance support. In addition, a comprehensive theoretical basis for such support-the role of a constraint classification, representation, invocation, and use methodology-has yet to be developed. This paper presents a formalism that classifies semantic integrity constraints based on the structure of the relational database model. Integrity constraints are characterized by the portion of the database structure they access, whether one or more relations, attributes, or tuples. Thus, the model is completely general, allowing the identification, definition, and arbitrary specification of any constraint on a relational database. It also provides a basis for the implementation of a database integrity subsystem. Examples of each type of constraint are illustrated using a small engineering database, and various implementation issues are discussed
keywords civil engineering, relational database, constraints management
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id e60d
authors Gross, Mark D., Ervin, Stephen M. and Anderson, James (et al)
year 1987
title Designing with Constraints
source John Wiley & Sons, 1987. pp. 53-83. includes bibliography
summary The constraint model of designing provides a means of demonstrating and exploring the computability of design. Designing is understood as a process of incrementally defining an initially ill-defined question, and concurrently proposing and testing possible answers. That is, not finding THE solution to A problem, but finding A solution to THE problem. Articulating (including inventing and modifying) the question, and exploring possible alternative answers (or designs), are two fundamental activities which can be supported by computers and the constraint model. The authors discuss the use of constraints to explicate design questions, circumscribe feasible regions and specify proposed solutions, and examine the processes of search and scrutiny within a region. Naming, solving history-keeping, block-structuring, identifying and resolving conflicts are among tasks identified that can be rendered to a computer. Questions of knowledge representation and inference making with ambiguity and imprecision are discussed. Examples of the application of the constraint model to design problems in architecture and site planning are illustrated by brief scenarios
keywords constraints, design process, search, knowledge
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 696c
authors Beheshti, M. and Monroy, M.
year 1988
title Requirements for Developing an Information System for Architecture
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 149-170
summary This paper discusses possibilities of developing new tools for architectural design. It argues that architects should meet the challenge of information technology and computer-based design techniques. One such attempt has been the first phase of the development of an architectural design information system (ADIS), also an architectural design decision support system. The system should benefit from the developments of the artificial intelligence to enable the architect to have access to information required to carry out design work. In other words: the system functions as a huge on-line electronic library of architecture, containing up-to-date architectural design information, literature, documents, etc. At the same time, the system offers necessary design aids such as computer programs for design process, drawing programs, evaluation programs, cost calculation programs, etc. The system also provides data communication between the architect and members of the design coalition team. This is found to be of vital importance in the architectural design process, because it can enable the architect to fit in changes, brought about in the project by different parties. Furthermore, they will be able, to oversee promptly the consequences of changes or decisions in a comprehensive manner. The system will offer advantages over the more commonly applied microcomputer based CAAD and IGDM (integrated graphics database management) systems, or even larger systems available to an architect. Computer programs as well as hardware change rapidly and become obsolete. Therefore, unrelenting investment pressure to up-date both software and hardware exists. The financial burden of this is heavy, in particular for smaller architectural practices (for instance an architect working for himself or herself and usually with few or no permanent staff). ADIS, as an on-line architectural design aid, is constantly up-dated by its own organisation. This task will be co-ordinated by the ADIS data- base administrator (DBA). The processing possibilities of the system are faster, therefore more complex processing tasks can be handled. Complicated large graphic data files, can be easily retrieved and manipulated by ADIS, a large system. In addition, the cost of an on-line system will be much less than any other system. The system is based on one model of the architectural design process, but will eventually contain a variety of design models, as it develops. The development of the system will be an evolutionary process, making use of its users' feed-back system. ADIS is seen as a step towards full automation of architectural design practices. Apart from being an architectural design support system, ADIS will assist the architect in his/her administrative and organisational activities.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 9999
authors Coxe, W., Hartung, N.F., Hochberg, H.H., Lewis, B.J., Maister, D.H., Mattox, R.F. and Piven, P.A.
year 1987
title Success Strategies for Design Professionals
source New York, McGraw-Hill
summary As consultants with the opportunity to analyze literally hundreds of professional design firms, we have found the search for ideal management methods challenging. Each time we've observed a format that appears to work well for some or many firms, an exception has soon appeared, contradicting what looked like a good rule to follow. For example, some firms do outstanding work organized as project teams, others are very successful with a departmentalized project structure, and still others get good results with a studio format. One of the major puzzles for observers has been finding a relation between the project delivery system used by firms (that is, "how we do our work") and how the organization itself is operated (that is, "how we structure and run the firm"). After years of study and trial and error, a model has begun to emerge that holds promise for creating some order among these issues. At the heart of this model is the recognition that although no one strategy fits all firms, there is a family of understandable principles from which almost any firm of design professionals can devise its own best strategy. We call these the SuperPositioning principles. This book sets forth the theory, a set of master strategies derived from it, and some thoughts on how to put the principles to use. We look forward to further learning in the years ahead from the experience of professionals who apply the principles in their own firms.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 8385
authors Holtz, Neal M. and Rasdorf, William J.
year 1988
title An Evaluation of Programming Languages and Language Features for Engineering Software Development
source International Journal of Engineering with Computers. Springer-Verlag, 1988. vol. 3: pp. 183-199
summary Also published as 'Procedural Programming Languages for the Development of CAD and CAE Systems Software,' in the proceedings of ASME International Conference on Computers in Engineering (1987 : New York, NY). The scope of engineering software has increased dramatically in the past decade. In its early years, most engineering applications were concerned solely with solving difficult numerical problems, and little attention was paid to man- machine interaction, to data management, or to integrated software systems. Now computers solve a much wider variety of problems, including those in which numerical computations are less predominant. In addition, completely new areas of engineering applications such as artificial intelligence have recently emerged. It is well recognized that the particular programming language used to develop an engineering application can dramatically affect the development cost, operating cost. reliability, and usability of the resulting software. With the increase in the variety, functionality, and complexity of engineering software, with its more widespread use, and with its increasing importance, more attention must be paid to programming language suitability so that rational decisions regarding language selection may be made. It is important that professional engineers be aware of the issues addressed in this paper, for it is they who must design, acquire, and use applications software, as well as occasionally develop or manage its development. This paper addresses the need for engineers to possess a working knowledge of the fundamentals of computer programming languages. In pursuit of this, the paper briefly reviews the history of four well known programming languages. It then attempts to identify and to look critically at the attributes of programming languages that significantly affect the production of engineering software. The four procedural programming languages chosen for review are those intended for scientific and general purpose programming, FORTRAN 77, C, Pascal, and Modula-2. These languages are compared and some general observations are made. As it is felt important that professional engineers should be able to make informed decisions about programming language selection, the emphasis throughout this paper is on a methodology of evaluation of programming languages. Choosing an appropriate language can be a complex task and many factors must be considered. Consequently, fundamentals are stressed
keywords programming, engineering, languages, software, management, evaluation, FORTRAN, C, PASCAL, MODULA-2, CAD, CAE
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 651b
authors Maver, Tom and Wagter, Harry (eds.)
year 1988
title CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings]
source Second International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 0-444-42916-6 / Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, 261 p.
summary The building Industry is Europe's largest single industry employing directly or indirectly 1 in 8 of the working population; yet it is fragmented, ill-organised and unprogressive. Part at least of the cause can be attributed to a failure by the architectural profession to adopt advances in Information Technology - notably Computer Aided Design. The purpose of the series of conferences on CAAD Futures is to chart a route towards a future in which the outcome of current and continuing research and development results in design tools which are acceptable to practioners and which substantially improve the quality of design decision-making and management. The papers which are printed in these proceedings make a significant contribution to our view of the future. Together they cover the range of issues which are the legitimate concern of researchers, developers, vendors, and users of CAAD software; as might be expected, they raise as many questions as they answer and they pose problems as well as reporting progress.
series CAAD Futures
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 4910
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Watson, Bruce R.
year 1987
title A Knowledge-Based Approach to Engineering Information Retrieval and Management
source London, UK: Chapman and Hall Ltd., 1987. pp. 267-295
summary Building design, construction, operation, maintenance, and control are all processes that have achieved various levels of computer use. Although the degree of computerization varies significantly, one common aspect of the computing needs of each process is an abundance of data in the form of tables, standards, project definition information, catalogs, etc. In most cases this data is stored in files which are independently used for input to stand-alone single-process application programs, such as a structural analysis application. The utility of these independent files is therefore limited to a single application. As concepts of integration of engineering applications evolved, the use of databases and database management systems (DBMS) increased. A number of issues of significant concern emerged. First, there is a need to retrieve data from many independent, possibly widely distributed databases. Second, there is a need for a uniform means of doing so. Third, such databases routinely undergo dynamic change. Changes in a database schema commonly result from the evolution of a design, from changes in the design process itself, and from changes in other subsequent downstream processes. Such continuing changes must be reflected in the database schemas and they subsequently require that application programs be updated and that online users be educated on a continuing basis. This chapter describes a knowledge-based expert system that provides access to and integration of the many underlying databases needed to support the building design/construction process. The unique aspect of the expert system presented in this chapter is its capture of the knowledge that an experienced human user incorporates in his search for data in a database, i.e., it seeks to identify and use the generic knowledge needed to operate a DBMS to retrieve data. This knowledge is used by the interface to enable both the online users and the application programs to request data without knowing the data's location or precisely how to ask for it. Further, the interface makes use of mechanisms that allow the user to request data without knowing the exact name by which it is stored in the database. In doing so it formalizes the levels of complexity of that knowledge and points out the multidisciplinary applications of the research results
keywords civil engineering, knowledge base, database, expert systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 0e42
authors Rouse, W., Geddes, N. and Curry, R.
year 1998
title An Architecture for Intelligent Interfaces: Outline of an Approach to Supporting Operators of Complex Systems Articles
source Human-Computer Interaction 1987-1988 v.3 n.2 pp. 87-122
summary The conceptual design of a comprehensive support system for operators of complex systems is presented. Key functions within the support system architecture include information management, error monitoring, and adaptive aiding. One of the central knowledge sources underlying this functionality is an operator model that involves a combination of algorithmic and symbolic models for assessing and predicting an operator's activities, awareness, intentions, resources, and performance. Functional block diagrams are presented for the overall architecture as well as the key elements within this architecture. A variety of difficult design issues are discussed, and ongoing efforts aimed at resolving these issues are noted.
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id 8e25
authors Smeltzer, Geert T.A.
year 1987
title Implications of Expert Systems, Data Management and Data Communication for Architectural Education
source Architectural Education and the Information Explosion [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Zurich (Switzerland) 5-7 September 1987.
summary The availability of computersystems for processing, managing and communicating data and expertise, does not mean that the results of these processes, will improve automatically. It also shows to much optimism if you expect that the use of process management and communication tools will enlarge the possibilities of the processes themselves. First of all we will have to face the limitations and we will have to accept them, at the cost of the traditional or ordinary architectural education. Mainly we will have to settle for less and worse design results in the beginning of the use of the new tools. In later stages, however, we will have to be able to deal with higher design quality for more aspects at the same time, in stead of the average quality, for mainly only the visual aspect. To meet the limitations of tools like computersystems, we will have to limit and structure the data and expertise, until we will have reached an absolute minimum quantity and a maximum quality of data and expertise. In fact we should strive, at first, for an “implosion” of data and expertise. Then, by adding more and more expertise and necessary data of the same quality, we can control an information explosion.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/05/16 19:36

_id e2b3
authors Bollinger, Elizabeth
year 1987
title The New Studio: CAD and the Workstation: Implications for Architecture Education
source Architectural Education and the Information Explosion [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Zurich (Switzerland) 5-7 September 1987.
summary Exploring the potential of the computer in the design process; Use of the computer through the conceptual, schematic, and design development processes, as well as the more conventional presentation techniques; and successes and failures regarding the integration of the computer into the thesis projects.
series eCAADe
email EBollinger@uh.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ea89
authors Brown, John L.
year 1987
title Integrating Computers into the Design Studio - A Critical Evaluation
source Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Raleigh (North Carolina / USA) 1987, pp. 29-38
summary This paper presents a critical evaluation of two years of experience in using computer aided design as the primary graphic tool in an architectural design studio. In addition to significant benefits being realized, it was found that in a number of circumstances the graphic tool seemed to place unnecessary or inappropriate constraints on the designer. A critical examination of this tendency revealed that there may be a discrepancy between the theoretical framework in which computer aided design systems are developed and used, and the conceptual framework of contemporary architectural thought. These issues arising from the studio experience, are discussed and placed within the context of current theoretical concerns in architecture.

series ACADIA
email john.brown@housebrand.info
last changed 2003/05/15 19:17

_id c7e0
id c7e0
authors Maria Gabriela Caffarena Celani
year 2002
title BEYOND ANALYSIS AND REPRESENTATION IN CAD: A NEW COMPUTATIONAL APPROACH TO DESIGN EDUCATION
source Submitted to the Department of Architecture in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the field of Architecture: Design & Computation at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
summary This thesis aims at changing students' attitude towards the use of computer-aided design (CAD) in architecture. It starts from the premise that CAD is used mostly for analysis and representation, and not as a real design aide, and that architecture students have a bias against learning computer programming. For this purpose, a prototypical instruction system that mixes computer-aided design and computational design theory was developed, based on a series of fundamental concepts that are common to both fields. This system was influenced by Mitchell's (1987) The Art of Computer Graphics Programming and Stiny's (1976) shape grammars. Despite being based on solid theoretical foundations, CAD has progressively become an exclusively practical tool, since its origins in the 50's and 60's, while computational design theories have been mostly restricted to the academic circles. This thesis proposes an inversion in the present situation: the study of CAD theory, and the application of computational design into practice. The system proposed provides a conceptual framework that can be adapted to different circumstances, including course formats and resources, as well as students' background and technical training. It is based on seven fundamental concepts from computational design theories that are also important to the study of shape grammars: symmetry, recursion, rule-based compositions, parameterization of shapes, generative systems, algorithmization of design procedures, and shape emergence. These concepts are introduced within a CAD context, where their practical implementation and experimentation are possible, focusing the understanding of the computational nature of design. During this research, the proposed system was tested in two case studies with students from schools that had contrary orientations in terms of the importance of CAD in the architectural curriculum. In these experimental courses, students' activities evolved from using a commercial CAD tool in an innovative way, to the use of programming techniques for creating meaningful tools. Despite not having a statistical reach, the fieldwork allowed drawing preliminary conclusions about the proposed system's efficacy, since virtually all the students reported changing their understanding of the role of CAD in architecture, while some also acknowledged a conceptual influence in other subjects and in the way they see architecture.
keywords Symmetry
series thesis:PhD
type normal paper
email celani@fec.unicamp.br
more http://www.fec.unicamp.br/~celani/
last changed 2004/11/17 19:51

_id 0347
authors Maver, T.
year 1988
title Software Tools for the Technical Evaluation of Design Alternatives
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 47-58
summary Designing buildings which 'work' - economically, socially and technically - remains the central challenge for architects. This paper is concerned with the state of development of software tools for the evaluation of the technical issues which are relevant at the conceptual stages, as opposed to the detailed stages, of design decision-making. The technical efficiency of building is of enormous economic importance. The capital investment in building in Europe represents some 12% of the Gross Domestic Product; this capital investment is exceeded by an order of magnitude, however, by the operating costs of buildings over their life span. In turn, these operating costs are exceeded - again by an order of magnitude - by the costs associated with the (human) operations which go on within the building, and on which the design of the building has some impact.
series CAAD Futures
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2001/06/04 15:16

_id ed0f
authors Moshe, R. and Shaviv, E.
year 1988
title Natural Language Interface for CAAD System
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 137-148
summary This work explores issues involved in the development of a natural interface for man-machine dialogue in architectural design processes. A hand-touch on an interactive surface is suggested as the best natural-language interface for architectural CAD systems. To allow the development of a rich range of hand-touch natural-language for communicating information and commands to the computer, it is proposed to develop a new type of a touch-panel, for which a set of specifications is presented. A conceptual design of an architectural workstation, having the described touch-panel, is presented. This workstation is characterized by the integration of the entire range of control and communication facilities required for any architectural task into a single interactive unit. The conceptual model for this workstation is the standard size drawing board, on which the architect is accustomed to spread documents, drawings, books and tools, shuffle them around and interchange them freely by using the natural-language interface developed in this work. The potential of the suggested hand-touch natural-language and the proposed workstation are demonstrated by a case-study.
series CAAD Futures
email arredna@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 404e
authors Oksala , T.
year 1988
title Logical Models for Rule-based CAAD
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 107-116
summary The aim of this paper is to present the basic results of a theoretic approach to represent architectural individual forms in CAD systems. From the point of view of design methodology and problem solving these descriptions might be conceived' as parts of possible environments satisfying the laws of some design theory in logical sense. This paper describes results in a series of logical studies towards rule and knowledge based systems for design automation. The effective use of programming languages and computers as design aids in architecture presupposes certain capabilities to articulate built environment logically. The use of graphic languages in the description of environmental items e.g. buildings might be theoretically mastered by formal production systems including linguistic, geometric, and spatio-material generation. The combination of the power of formal mechanisms and logical individual calculus offers suitable framework to generate arbitrary e.g. free spatial compositions as types or unique solutions. In this frame it is natural to represent in a coherent way very complex hierarchical parsing of buildings in explicit form as needed in computer implementations. In order to simulate real design work the individual configurations of possible built forms should be designed to satisfy known rules. In the preliminary stage partial solutions to design problems may be discussed in mathematical terms using frameworks like lattices, graphs, or group theoretical considerations of structural, functional, and visual organization of buildings. The capability to produce mathematically sophisticated geometric structures allows us to generalize the approach further. The theoretical design knowhow in architecture can be partly translated in to some logic and represented in a knowledge base. These rules are used as selection criteria for geometric design candidates in the sense of logical model theory and mathematical optimization. The economy of the system can be developed by using suitable conduct mechanisms familiar e.g. from logic programming. The semantics of logic offers a frame to consider computer assisted and formal generation in design. A number of semantic and pragmatic problems, however, remain to be solved. In any case conceptual analyses based on logic are applicable in order to rationally reconstruct architectural goals contributing to the quality of environmental design, which should be the main goal in the development of design systems in near future.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id e304
authors Porada, M.
year 1988
title Digital Image: A Bridge Towards Mental Images?
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 209-216
summary How we see things depends on our education and our cultural pre-suppositions. This does not allow to convey some logical form, but nevertheless makes possible a more global and less formalized understanding of the objects, their environment and their physical proprieties. In architecture, the digital image acts according to two directions: (-) representation: the fine images are a means of communication between the different parties implementing building projects. (-) modelization: in addition to its iconic qualities the layers of different models simulate the most different aspects of the ,image and the environment characteristics. // At this level our vision is directly concerned with the design of the studied object; it acts both in the design process and in the expression of our conceptual images. How does modelization work? Infographical representation deals with a more or less schematic and conceptualized world the reading of which is more typified than particularized. It deals with a schematization nearly "ideographical" of the mental image thus is produced "synthetism", a neologism similar to such expressions as realism or abstractionism.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 801f
authors Galle, Per
year 1987
title Branch & Sample : Systematic Combinatorial Search without Optimization
source 73 p. 1987. DIKU Research Report No. 87/5. CADLINE has abstract only
summary Many constraint satisfaction problems are combinatorically explosive, i.e. have far too many solutions. Optimization techniques may help in selecting solutions for consideration, but a reasonable measure of optimality is not always at hand. The branch & sample algorithm is presented as an alternative to optimization. If the constraints themselves limit the solution set sufficiently, the algorithm finds all solutions, but otherwise a suitable number of solutions (determined by the user) is generated, such that each new solution has a maximal distance to those already generated. The distance measure used is a so called ultrametric distance expressible in terms of the search tree: solutions are viewed as m-tuples of fixed length, each of whose m decision variables corresponds to a level in the search tree. The distance between two solutions is the number of edges from their leaf nodes to the closest common predecessor node in the tree. For problems whose decision variables depend on each other (as is often the case) the set of solutions generated in this way corresponds well to the intuitive notion of a 'representative sample.' The principles of Branch & Sample are first introduced informally, then the algorithm is developed by stepwise refinement, and two examples of its use are given. A fully tested application-independent implementation of the algorithm in C is given as an appendix
keywords algorithms, combinatorics, search, constraints, floor plans, layout, synthesis, architecture
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id e41f
authors Port, S.
year 1988
title Computer-drafting - State of the Art
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 15-22
summary This paper briefly reviews the state of the art in computer drafting. It moves on to consider some of the limitations of computer drafting systems today. It poses a number of questions regarding the trends and future development of the subject, and suggests some points which should be addressed by the vendors and user organisations alike. The paper concentrates on marketing and management matters rather than on purely technical issues.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 0a09
authors Akin, O., Dave, B. and Pithavadian, S.
year 1987
title Problem Structuring in Architectural Design
source February, 1987. [4], 15 p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary The purpose of this research is to describe in operational terms the process of problem structuring while solving spatial problems in architectural design. The designer's behavior is described in terms of problem structuring, when problem parameters are established or transformed, and in terms of problem solving when these parameters are satisfied in a design solution. As opposed to problem solving, the structuring of problems is an under-studied but crucial aspect of complex tasks such as design. This work is based on observations derived from verbal protocol studies. To consider various levels of skill, the research subjects range from professional architects to novice designers. Subjects are given space planning problems which require them to develop solutions in accordance with individually established constraints and criteria, the majority of which are not explicit stated in the problem description. Based on the results of the protocol analysis, a framework is developed which explains how information processing characteristics, problem structure and different levels of expertise interact to influence the designer behavior
keywords architecture, design process, problem solving, protocol analysis, problem definition
series CADline
email oa04@andrew.cmu.edu
last changed 2003/05/17 08:09

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