CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 121 to 140 of 172

_id cee5
authors Mackenzie, C.A. and Gero, John S.
year 1987
title Learning Design Rules from Decisions and Performances
source Artificial Intelligence in Engineering. 1987. vol. 2: pp. 2-10
summary This paper examines an approach to the extraction of implicit knowledge in rule form about the relationships between design decisions and their performance consequences. The effects of an imposed structure on a performance space are observed in relation to matching points in a decision space. A mapping between the two spaces embodies the knowledge that is discovered. The performance space is structured by Pareto optimization and the knowledge extraction process is illustrated by two examples from building design. The use of the methodology for learning about decision/performance relationships in extant designs is proposed
keywords inference, expert systems, design process, evaluation, learning, theory, applications, systems
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id c7e0
id c7e0
authors Maria Gabriela Caffarena Celani
year 2002
title BEYOND ANALYSIS AND REPRESENTATION IN CAD: A NEW COMPUTATIONAL APPROACH TO DESIGN EDUCATION
source Submitted to the Department of Architecture in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the field of Architecture: Design & Computation at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
summary This thesis aims at changing students' attitude towards the use of computer-aided design (CAD) in architecture. It starts from the premise that CAD is used mostly for analysis and representation, and not as a real design aide, and that architecture students have a bias against learning computer programming. For this purpose, a prototypical instruction system that mixes computer-aided design and computational design theory was developed, based on a series of fundamental concepts that are common to both fields. This system was influenced by Mitchell's (1987) The Art of Computer Graphics Programming and Stiny's (1976) shape grammars. Despite being based on solid theoretical foundations, CAD has progressively become an exclusively practical tool, since its origins in the 50's and 60's, while computational design theories have been mostly restricted to the academic circles. This thesis proposes an inversion in the present situation: the study of CAD theory, and the application of computational design into practice. The system proposed provides a conceptual framework that can be adapted to different circumstances, including course formats and resources, as well as students' background and technical training. It is based on seven fundamental concepts from computational design theories that are also important to the study of shape grammars: symmetry, recursion, rule-based compositions, parameterization of shapes, generative systems, algorithmization of design procedures, and shape emergence. These concepts are introduced within a CAD context, where their practical implementation and experimentation are possible, focusing the understanding of the computational nature of design. During this research, the proposed system was tested in two case studies with students from schools that had contrary orientations in terms of the importance of CAD in the architectural curriculum. In these experimental courses, students' activities evolved from using a commercial CAD tool in an innovative way, to the use of programming techniques for creating meaningful tools. Despite not having a statistical reach, the fieldwork allowed drawing preliminary conclusions about the proposed system's efficacy, since virtually all the students reported changing their understanding of the role of CAD in architecture, while some also acknowledged a conceptual influence in other subjects and in the way they see architecture.
keywords Symmetry
series thesis:PhD
type normal paper
email celani@fec.unicamp.br
more http://www.fec.unicamp.br/~celani/
last changed 2004/11/17 19:51

_id 0347
authors Maver, T.
year 1988
title Software Tools for the Technical Evaluation of Design Alternatives
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 47-58
summary Designing buildings which 'work' - economically, socially and technically - remains the central challenge for architects. This paper is concerned with the state of development of software tools for the evaluation of the technical issues which are relevant at the conceptual stages, as opposed to the detailed stages, of design decision-making. The technical efficiency of building is of enormous economic importance. The capital investment in building in Europe represents some 12% of the Gross Domestic Product; this capital investment is exceeded by an order of magnitude, however, by the operating costs of buildings over their life span. In turn, these operating costs are exceeded - again by an order of magnitude - by the costs associated with the (human) operations which go on within the building, and on which the design of the building has some impact.
series CAAD Futures
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2001/06/04 15:16

_id e806
authors Maver, T.W.
year 1987
title The New Studio: CAD and the Workstation - State of the Art
source Architectural Education and the Information Explosion [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Zurich (Switzerland) 5-7 September 1987.
summary This presentation draws on three main sources: (i) reportage of the ATHENA project at MIT, (ii) the experience of the author as a Professor of CAAD, (iii) the work of the eCAADe on the social impacts of CAAD. // Project ATHENA was introduced to MIT in May 1983 as an experiment in the potential uses of advanced computer technology throughout the University curriculum. By the end of the project a network of about 2000 high performance graphics workstations - supplied mainly by IBM and DEC - will have been installed; about half of MIT's $20 million investment is being devoted to the development of new applications software for teaching across almost all the academic Departments, including Architecture.

series eCAADe
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/04/17 13:57

_id maver_108
id maver_108
authors Maver, T.W., Clarke, J.A., Stearn, D.d. and Kim, J.J.
year 1987
title Lighting Simulation in Building Performance Appraisal
source Proceedings of Electronic Imaging Conference, Boston
summary This paper describes an advanced, multi-chromatic lighting simulation model capable of representing complex geometries and randomly distributed luminaires. The model, known by the acronym DIM (Dynamic Illumination Model), is now operational as a research prototype and a follow-on project has now commenced which aims to transform this prototype into a polished design tool. DIM accepts a description of a zone's geometry, surface finishes, contents and natural and artificial light sources. A multi-chromatic ray tracking scheme is then employed to obtain the spectral surface luminance distribution corresponding to each light source. Output from the model are the usual contours of planar illuminance and coloured perspective images.
series other
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/09/03 13:36

_id 651b
authors Maver, Tom and Wagter, Harry (eds.)
year 1988
title CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings]
source Second International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 0-444-42916-6 / Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, 261 p.
summary The building Industry is Europe's largest single industry employing directly or indirectly 1 in 8 of the working population; yet it is fragmented, ill-organised and unprogressive. Part at least of the cause can be attributed to a failure by the architectural profession to adopt advances in Information Technology - notably Computer Aided Design. The purpose of the series of conferences on CAAD Futures is to chart a route towards a future in which the outcome of current and continuing research and development results in design tools which are acceptable to practioners and which substantially improve the quality of design decision-making and management. The papers which are printed in these proceedings make a significant contribution to our view of the future. Together they cover the range of issues which are the legitimate concern of researchers, developers, vendors, and users of CAAD software; as might be expected, they raise as many questions as they answer and they pose problems as well as reporting progress.
series CAAD Futures
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 0e54
authors McLaughlin, S. and Gero, John S.
year 1987
title Learning From Characterized Designs
source Southampton: CM Publications, 1987. pp. 347-359
summary Designs can be described by the morphism between two descriptor sets: decisions and performances. Characterized designs are those in which both decisions and their consequent performances are articulated. Pareto optimization is discussed as a means of structuring performances and decisions. The induction algorithm ID3 is presented as a means of abstracting general relationships from sets of characterized designs. An example from the domain of building design is presented
keywords design, algorithms, learning, optimization, performance, architecture, building
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 84ee
authors McLaughlin, S. and Gero, John S.
year 1987
title Acquiring Expert Knowledge from Characterized Designs
source Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design and Manufacturing. 1987. vol. 1: pp. 73-87
summary The expertise of designers consists primarily of information about the relationship between goals or performance criteria and the attributes of the desired artifact that will result in performances that will satisfy these criteria. Pareto optimization is discussed as a means of structuring designs on the basis of their performance. The induction algorithm ID3 is used as means of inferring general statements about the nature of solutions which exhibit Pareto optimal performance in terms of a set of performance criteria. The rules inferred in a building design domain are compared with those extracted using a heuristic based learning system
keywords knowledge acquisition, design, optimization, algorithms, learning, inference, architecture, performance
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id e524
authors Miranda, Valerian and Degelman, Larry 0.
year 1987
title An Experimental Computer-Aided Design Studio
source Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Raleigh (North Carolina / USA) 1987, pp. 19-28
summary A pilot experiment was conducted in the use of microcomputers and Computer Aided Design (CAD) software for architectural design education. The CAD workstations were incorporated into two consecutive semesters of the third year design studio and consisted of TANDY 3000 HD (tm) microcomputers with 20 megabyte hard disks, digitizer tablets, digitizer mice, enhanced graphics capabilities, dot-matrix printers and multi-pen plotters. Software packages included the Personal Architect (tm), VersaCAD (tm), DataCAD (tm), word processing software etc. Student to machine ratio of 4 to 1 was maintained and the use of the equipment was made available to students for approximately 20 hours per day.

Design assignments neither emphasized nor required the use of CAD techniques, as the experiment was designed to measure the students' acceptance of and adaptation to the use of CAD tools. The objective was to "teach" design in the traditional sense of a design studio, while making the computer an integral part of the setting in which the student learned designing and problem solving.

Measurements were made of (1) time for the "fundamentals" learning curve, (2) time for a "basic competence" learning curve, (3) hours utilized by categories of type of use, (4) hours utilized by equipment and software type, and (5) progress in design ability as evaluated by the traditional jury review methods.

series ACADIA
email l-degelman@neo.tamu.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id ce3b
authors Mitchell, J.R. and Radford, Antony D.
year 1987
title EAVE, A Generative Expert System for Detailing
source Environment and Planning B. 1987. vol. 14: pp. 281-292
summary Grammars of shapes and designs are rule-based models for the generation of members of a class of designs. The applicability of the formalism as a basis for generative expert systems for construction details in computer-aided design is discussed. A demonstration system is presented
keywords applications, automation, synthesis, shape grammars, CAD, expert systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id ed0f
authors Moshe, R. and Shaviv, E.
year 1988
title Natural Language Interface for CAAD System
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 137-148
summary This work explores issues involved in the development of a natural interface for man-machine dialogue in architectural design processes. A hand-touch on an interactive surface is suggested as the best natural-language interface for architectural CAD systems. To allow the development of a rich range of hand-touch natural-language for communicating information and commands to the computer, it is proposed to develop a new type of a touch-panel, for which a set of specifications is presented. A conceptual design of an architectural workstation, having the described touch-panel, is presented. This workstation is characterized by the integration of the entire range of control and communication facilities required for any architectural task into a single interactive unit. The conceptual model for this workstation is the standard size drawing board, on which the architect is accustomed to spread documents, drawings, books and tools, shuffle them around and interchange them freely by using the natural-language interface developed in this work. The potential of the suggested hand-touch natural-language and the proposed workstation are demonstrated by a case-study.
series CAAD Futures
email arredna@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 2e9a
authors Oxman, Rivka E. and Gero, John S.
year 1987
title Using an Expert System for Design Diagnosis and Design Synthesis
source Expert Systems. 1987. vol. 4: pp. 4-15 : ill. includes bibliography
summary This paper describes the concepts which allow an expert system to be used for both design diagnosis and design synthesis. An example of the implementation of these concepts is presented in the domain of preliminary design of domestic kitchens in the expert system PREDIKT. PREDIKT carries out both design diagnosis and design synthesis using the same knowledge base and utilizes an existing expert system shell which has forward and backward chaining capabilities. The significance of graphical interaction with expert systems in design domains is demonstrated
keywords synthesis, expert systems, design, evaluation, architecture
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 0a9c
authors Ozel, Filiz
year 1987
title The Computer Model "BGRAF": A Cognitive Approach to Emergency Egress Simulation
source University of Michigan
summary During the past decade, fire safety researchers have come to the understanding that human factors in fires play an important role in controlling the spread of fire; and in decreasing the number of fire casualties in buildings. With the current developments in computer technology, computer modeling of human behavior in fires emerged as an effective method of research. Such computer modeling techniques offered the advantage of being able to experiment with hypothetical fires in buildings without Note endangering human life. Consequently, a study to develop a computer model that will simulate the emergency egress behavior of people in fires was undertaken. Changes in the information processing capacity of the individual as a result of time pressure and stress was considered as part of the emergency egress decision process. Theories from environmental psychology identified a range of cognitive factors, such as visual access in buildings, architectural differentiation, signage and plan configuration that affect way finding and route selection in buildings. These factors needed to be incorporated into emergency egress models. The model was based on the integrated building data base of the CAD system developed at the University of Michigan, Architecture and Planning Lab., which provided a comprehensive building definition, and allowed both graphic and tabular output. Two actual fire incidences were simulated as part of the validation study. These studies have stressed the importance of the cognitive aspects of the physical environment as a factor in emergency egress. A goal structure that represented the total decision process during fires was incorporated into the model. This structure allowed the inputting and testing of a variety of goal structures by using actions as model blocks. The objectives of the model developed in this study can best be summarized as to study and eventually to predict the route selection and exiting behavior in fires, with the purpose of using such information in making building design and code development decisions, and in suggesting action sequences that will best support the safety of the occupants of a building under different emergency conditions.
series thesis:PhD
email ozel@asu.edu
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id ef46
authors Petrovic, I.
year 1991
title Integrative Knowledge-Based Design Systems : A View
source The Computer Integrated Future, CIB W78 Seminar September, 1991. Unnumbered : ill. includes bibliography.
summary The paper describes a recent project whose objective was to redesign GIMSEX-PERT, an existing architectural knowledge- based design system developed in 1987. Its critical generative problems appeared to be the rigid structure and limited evaluation criteria. The project's outcome is DESTOOLS, based on the 'object-oriented-methodology' inspired by the traditional trial-and-error approach. It includes a set of interchangeable design methods that can be applied interactively by any desired sequence, producing or transforming a GIMS Building System object. Such 'moderately- loose' system structure offers flexibility in use, avoids pitfalls of knowledge-based design systems with rigid structure, and is applicable in design research, education and practice
keywords knowledge base, design, architecture, methods, systems, education, practice, integration, evaluation
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c95f
authors Petrovic, Ivan and Svetel, Igor
year 1994
title Conversation on Design Action: By Men or by Machines?
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 15-23
summary A design studio of the future shall be based on dislocated, distributed design services, and feature the ‘design by collaboration’ enabled by the computer transmitted information. However, in a collaborative design process, computer may take an additional role, i.e., as an “ultimately structured dynamic communication medium ... based on the notion of commitment and interpretation” (Winograd and Flores 1987). Various models of ‘intelligent’ design systems based on the ideas of ‘open, distributed, artificial intelligence systems’ have shown that the computer-based design agents which act on the object-to-be-designed model could be involved in a “conversation for action” (Winograd and Flores, Ibid.). The aim of the paper is to illustrate a computer-based design system that enables ‘a-kind-of’ conversations by the design agents before the design decisions were made. After the description of a design experiment and the conversation that went on between the design agents, the traits of the applied ‘design design system’ are discussed.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 07:15

_id ecaade2011_149
id ecaade2011_149
authors Popov, Nikolay
year 2011
title Generative sub-division morphogenesis with Cellular Automata and Agent-Based Modelling
source RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia) 21-24 September 2011, pp.166-174
summary This paper reports on some recent research carried out to develop computational generative urban design system that can be used as an alternative approach to master planning. The focus of the investigation is an 11 ha site located in the South-East edge of Auckland, New Zealand. The urban (or sub-urban) morphology is modelled as cellular automaton based on Hillier’s (1984) x-y syntax in order to resemble the morphology of the existing village. An agent based system based on Reynolds’ (1987) flocking algorithm evolves synchronously with the automaton and tests its ecological fitness. The emergent pattern of development therefore results from the mutual co-adaption of the cellular automaton and the agent based model. The outcomes are variety of spatial morphologies that connects well with adjacent existing village and at the same time take into account landscape and ecological peculiarities of the site.
wos WOS:000335665500019
keywords Generative urban design; structural coupling; cellular automata; agent based modelling
series eCAADe
email npopov@unitec.ac.nz
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ea5c
authors Purcell, P.
year 1988
title The Role of Media Technology in the Design Studio
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 179-187
summary This paper refers to a program of work, which aims to integrate a range of computer-based multi-media technologies which has the overall goal of enhancing the processes of education in the design studio. The individual projects describe the development of visual information systems and intelligent design systems. The framework of support for much of the work is Project Athena, a campus wide initiative to apply new technology towards enhancing the educational process project.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 0fba
authors Quarendon, P. and Woodwark, J.R.
year 1987
title Three-Dimensional Models for Computer Graphics
source [2] 17 p. : col. ill. Winchester, UK: IBM UK Scientific Center, May, 1987. IBM UKSC Report 158. includes bibliography
summary The various object models which are in use for generating computer graphics are reviewed and some of their advantages and disadvantages discussed. In particular, methods of overcoming the apparently unpromising performance characteristics of set-theoretic solid models are described. A number of examples are given showing the use of set- theoretic models in graphics applications. It is concluded that, while these models were developed for computer-aided design, they will have increasing use in computer graphics
keywords geometric modeling, methods, performance, evaluation, solid modeling,boolean operations, computer graphics, B- rep
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 27e8
authors Rasdorf, William J. and High, Stacey L.
year 1987
title Simplified Steel Compression Member Design
source Dynamics of Structures ASCE Structures Congress Proceedings. 1987. American Society of Civil Engineers, vol. D: pp. 352-367. CADLINE has abstract only
summary The American Institute of Steel Construction 'Specification for the Design, Fabrication, and Erection of Structural Steel Buildings' has made manual steel column design exceedingly time consuming and difficult. The objective of this paper is to present a simplified method of designing steel columns subjected to axial loads and moments for use in situations where automated design methods are inappropriate. Steel column design is based on the interaction equations of the AISC Specification. These equations are presented in terms of actual and allowable stresses and much time is required by a designer to manually determine the stresses and solve the equations. To simplify their solution, the interaction equations were reformulated and a set of parameters (multipliers) was introduced into them. The parameters were investigated to determine their validity, limits, and ranges of significant influence. They were then tabulated to provide quick and easy access for use. The modified interaction equations and the tabulated parameters constitute the results of this study. They are the physical tools that enable a designer to rapidly select initial steel column sections to satisfy design requirements and specification constraints. The analysis confirms that these tools can realistically and accurately be determined. The equations were algebraically derived and the tables were generated as a function of the properties of the sections. Thus, a new design method, combining the use of tabulated parameters with algebraically modified interaction equations, has been developed. This method greatly simplifies and speeds up the column section selection process
keywords civil engineering, structures, synthesis, design, methods
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id a18d
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Storaasli, Olaf O.
year 1987
title Educational Fundamentals of Computer-Aided Engineering
source International Journal of Applied Engineering Education. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1987. vol. 3: pp. 247-254
summary The role of computer science is increasing in nearly every engineering discipline. One of the dilemmas in engineering education today is how future engineers can best assimilate the advanced, yet fundamental, knowledge of computer science appropriate for their professional engineering career. This paper suggests that the role of the academic community must be to prepare engineering students to use computer methods and applications as a part of their fundamental engineering education. It is the responsibility of colleges and universities to incorporate contemporary computing fundamentals into their academic curriculum to improve the professional qualifications of their engineering graduates. This paper discusses current educational practices and their shortcomings as well as new options to reinforce and enhance the role of computing in engineering. The key ingredients, operating system fundamentals, data structures, program control and organization, algorithms, and computer architectures (relative to concurrent processing) are discussed. The paper suggests that to convey the essentials of computer science to future engineers requires in part, the addition of computer courses to the engineering curriculum. It also requires a strengthening of the computational content of many others so that the student comes to treat the computer as a fundamental component of his work. Indeed this is a major undertaking but the benefits of advanced computer knowledge by new engineering graduates promises to provide significant future innovations in the engineering profession. The proper tradeoff between engineering fundamentals and computer science is changing with many of the concepts of engineering now being packaged in algorithms or on computer chips. The impact of advances in computer technology on engineering education are therefore discussed. Several of the benefits of enhanced computational expertise by engineers are enumerated and case studies of recent NASA initiatives whose success required that engineers possess an in-depth knowledge of computer science are presented
keywords CAE, civil engineering, education
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

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