CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 141 to 160 of 172

_id 4910
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Watson, Bruce R.
year 1987
title A Knowledge-Based Approach to Engineering Information Retrieval and Management
source London, UK: Chapman and Hall Ltd., 1987. pp. 267-295
summary Building design, construction, operation, maintenance, and control are all processes that have achieved various levels of computer use. Although the degree of computerization varies significantly, one common aspect of the computing needs of each process is an abundance of data in the form of tables, standards, project definition information, catalogs, etc. In most cases this data is stored in files which are independently used for input to stand-alone single-process application programs, such as a structural analysis application. The utility of these independent files is therefore limited to a single application. As concepts of integration of engineering applications evolved, the use of databases and database management systems (DBMS) increased. A number of issues of significant concern emerged. First, there is a need to retrieve data from many independent, possibly widely distributed databases. Second, there is a need for a uniform means of doing so. Third, such databases routinely undergo dynamic change. Changes in a database schema commonly result from the evolution of a design, from changes in the design process itself, and from changes in other subsequent downstream processes. Such continuing changes must be reflected in the database schemas and they subsequently require that application programs be updated and that online users be educated on a continuing basis. This chapter describes a knowledge-based expert system that provides access to and integration of the many underlying databases needed to support the building design/construction process. The unique aspect of the expert system presented in this chapter is its capture of the knowledge that an experienced human user incorporates in his search for data in a database, i.e., it seeks to identify and use the generic knowledge needed to operate a DBMS to retrieve data. This knowledge is used by the interface to enable both the online users and the application programs to request data without knowing the data's location or precisely how to ask for it. Further, the interface makes use of mechanisms that allow the user to request data without knowing the exact name by which it is stored in the database. In doing so it formalizes the levels of complexity of that knowledge and points out the multidisciplinary applications of the research results
keywords civil engineering, knowledge base, database, expert systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id ee8f
authors Rasdorf, William J.
year 1987
title Extending Database Management Systems for Engineering Applications
source Computers in Mechanical Engineering (CIME). American Society of Mechanical Engineers, March, 1987. vol. 5: pp. 62-69
summary During the design of a manufactured component, large amounts of information pertaining to all aspects of the design must be stored, accessed, and operated upon. A database management system (DBMS), composed of a central repository of data and the associated software for controlling accesses to it and operations on it, provides one way to uniformly store, manage, and use this information. This paper presents a framework for an extension to relational database management systems that combines a set of engineering constraints with a database of engineering data items. The representation requires a database that is able to store all of the data normally associated with engineering design as well as the constraints imposed upon the engineering design process. A powerful and flexible constraint processing system is needed to adequately ensure that engineering data conforms to the limitations imposed upon it by the design process. Such a system must be capable of allowing constraints to be invoked at a variety of times, and provide numerous options for the user when violations are detected. This paper introduces a concept called structured constraints that integrates state- of-the-art advances in DBMSs and current research in engineering constraint processing to further enhance CAD system capabilities. It discusses the extensions to relational database theory that are needed to achieve such a constraint handling capability for mechanical engineering applications. The goal sought is a managed repository of data supporting interfaces to a wide variety of application programs and supporting processing capabilities for maintaining data integrity by incorporating engineering constraints. The Structured Constraint model is a general method for classifying semantic integrity constraints. It is based on the structure of the relational model and is therefore independent of any particular query language. In addition, it is a formalism that possesses conceptual clarity and generality which make it useful for representing and communicating arbitrary constraints. The key contribution of this formalism is its basis for a completely definable implementation of an engineering integrity system
keywords civil engineering, relational database, constraints management, management, DBMS
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id c1b6
authors Ries, R.
year 1999
title Computational Analysis of the Environmental Impact of Building Designs
source Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh
summary Concem for the environmental implications of human activities is becoming increasingly important to society. The concept of current development that does not compromise future generations! abilities to meet their needs is a goal for many communities and individuals (WCED 1987). These concerns require the evaluation and assessment of the potential environmental impact of human activities so that informed choices can be made. Building construction and operation activities are of significant importance in view of a) national and intemational economies, 6) resource consumption, c) human occupancy, and d) environmental impact. For example, in the United States the built environment represents an extensive investment, both as an annual expenditure and as an aggregate investment. In the mid-l980ís, up to 30% of new and remodeled buildings had indoor air quality related complaints. Buildings also consume approximately 35% of the primary energy in the U.S. every year, resulting in the release of 482 million metric tons of carbon in 1993. I Methods developed to assess the environmental impact of buildings and development patterns can and have taken multiple strategies. The most straightforward and simple methods use single factors, such as energy use or the mass of pollutant emissions as indicators of environmental performance. Other methods use categorization and weighting strategies. These gauge the effects of the emissions typically based on research studies and use a weighting or effect formulation to normalize, compare, and group emissions so that a scalar value can be assigned to a single or a set of emissions. These methods do not consider the characteristics of the context where the emissions occur.
series thesis:MSc
email rr43@andrew.cmu.edu
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id ddss9846
id ddss9846
authors Rigatti, Decio
year 1998
title Rubem Berta Housing Estate: Order and Structure, Designand Use
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary The main goal of this paper is to investigate, through some space configurational based tools, a quite common phenomenon found in many different locations in Brazil, concerning the process of urban changes individually introduced by dwellers of public housing estates. A significant number of housing estates, particularly those designed according to rationalist concepts, seem to be unable to support space related social requirements and are then widely transformed when compared to the original layouts. Beyond the quantitative features, the morphological changes that take place in those housing estates mean a fundamental new approach to understand how completely new urban structures can arisefrom the space produced by a comprehensive urban design, took as a starting point for the transformations made by the dwellers of those settlements. As a case study is analysed the Rubem Berta Housing Estate which was built in Porto Alegre/RS, Brazil, for 20,000 people in the late 70ís. Since the begining of its occupation in 1986 and the invasion that took place in 1987, the urban transformations there have never stopped. Itís possible to realize that the dwellers individually use some constant physical rules to define the new settlement which are very similar within the estate itself and, at the same time, very similar to those found in other transformed housing estates of this sort. The physical rules introduced change the features of the entire settlement in two different levels: a) locally, through the transformations introduced in order to solve individual needs; b) globally, the local rules of physical transformations produce a new overall structure for the whole urban complex. The knowledge of this process makes it possible to bring to the surface of architectural theory some generic configurational codes that can be used as a tool for designing public housing estates in Brazil.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 844e
authors Robert E. Johnson and Yasser Mansour
year 1987
title Aspects of Rules and Language in Design Decisions
source Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Raleigh (North Carolina / USA) 1987, pp. 183-194
summary This paper is a report of a doctoral research seminar conducted during the Winter term, 1987. The interdisciplinary seminar investigated both theoretical and practical aspects of how design decisions are made. Participants in the seminar represented diverse interests ranging from human science to computer-aided design. The paper focuses on two of several decision making issues that emerged from this seminar: design rules and design languages. These issues are explored from a theoretical context and illustrated through design experiments and discussions that were conducted as part of the seminar. The paper concludes with several suggestions for the development of computer-aided design software.

series ACADIA
last changed 1999/01/01 18:14

_id cdea
authors Rogers, Hartley Jr.
year 1987
title Theory of Recursive Functions and Effective Computability
source xxi, 482 p. Cambridge, Mass.: the MIT Press, 1987. includes bibliography: p.459-468 and index
summary Central concerns of the book are related theories of recursively enumerable sets, of degree of un-solvability and turing degrees in particular. A second group of topics has to do with generalizations of recursion theory. The third topics group mentioned is subrecursive computability and subrecursive hierarchies
keywords computation, recursion, theory
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 0e42
authors Rouse, W., Geddes, N. and Curry, R.
year 1998
title An Architecture for Intelligent Interfaces: Outline of an Approach to Supporting Operators of Complex Systems Articles
source Human-Computer Interaction 1987-1988 v.3 n.2 pp. 87-122
summary The conceptual design of a comprehensive support system for operators of complex systems is presented. Key functions within the support system architecture include information management, error monitoring, and adaptive aiding. One of the central knowledge sources underlying this functionality is an operator model that involves a combination of algorithmic and symbolic models for assessing and predicting an operator's activities, awareness, intentions, resources, and performance. Functional block diagrams are presented for the overall architecture as well as the key elements within this architecture. A variety of difficult design issues are discussed, and ongoing efforts aimed at resolving these issues are noted.
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id 2622
authors Schmitt, G.
year 1988
title Expert Systems and Interactive Fractal Generators in Design and Evaluation
source CAAD futures Ď87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 91-106
summary Microcomputer based interactive programmable drafting programs and analysis packages are setting new standards for design support, systems in architectural offices. These programs allow the representation and performance simulation of design proposals with one tool, but they lack the ability to represent knowledge concerning relations between design and artifact. While they can expediate the traditional design and analysis process, they do not fundamentally improve it. We shall describe three computationally related approaches which could be a step towards a necessary paradigm change in developing design software. These approaches deal with expert design generators and evaluators, function oriented programming, and fractal design machines.
series CAAD Futures
email gerhard.schmitt@sl.ethz.ch
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 8dbf
authors Schmitt, Gerhard
year 1987
title The Perceived Impact of Computers on the Teaching of Design Goals and Reality
source Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Raleigh (North Carolina / USA) 1987, pp. 135-152
summary The actual and potential impact of computers on design education is an issue of growing concern for students, faculty, and practitioners. The assessment ranges from very positive to negative. (On first sight, the complexity of reasons for and against computers in design seems overwhelming. This paper attempts to isolate reasons for the various attitudes and find a method to judge the impact of computers on design education rationally by identifying goals and comparing them to reality.

Part One establishes facts: the human and financial investment that universities have made in CAD, based on results from publications and a national ACADIA survey, and the investment of architectural firms in CAD, based on recent national and regional in-depth studies.

Part Two examines goals of the use of CAD in the design studio. For better analysis, goals are divided into two extreme categories: tool independent and tool dependent. Tool independent goals are born out of the need to improve the existing design education, independent from technological development. Tool dependent goals are tailored to the alleged capabilities of new software and hardware and to pressure from the professional community. The actual definition of goals for design education will lie somewhere in between.

Part three examines the reality in the design studio. It tries to determine the place of the computer in the design process from a student's view, and an educator's view. The last section is dedicated to the testing of the developed theory against actual studios.

series ACADIA
email gerhard.schmitt@sl.ethz.ch
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 54c7
authors Schoen, D.
year 1987
title Educating the Reflective Practitioner
source San Francisco: Josey-Bass Publishers
summary Building on the concepts of professional competence that he introduced in his classic The Reflective Practitioner, Schon offers an approach for educating professional in all areas that will prepare them to handle the complex and unpredictable problems of actual practice with confidence, skill, and care.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 60f6
authors Shapiro, Stuart C. and Rapaport, William J.
year 1987
title Knowledge Representation for Natural Language Processing
source September, 1987. pp. 56-77. includes bibliography
summary In this paper the authors extend, deepen, and clarify their theory of intentional knowledge representation for natural- language processing, as presented in previous papers and in light of objections raised by others. The essential claim is that tokens in a knowledge-representation system represent only intentions and not extensions. The authors pursue this investigation by building CASSIE, a computer model of a cognitive agent and, to the extent she works, a cognitive agent herself. CASSIE's mind is implemented in the SNePS propositional semantic-network processing system
keywords This paper explicates the relations among nodes, mental tokens,
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id a158
authors Turner, James A.
year 1987
title Graphic Standards: IGES and PDES in an AEC Environment
source Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Raleigh (North Carolina / USA) 1987, pp. 195-
summary The idea made a lot of sense: many diverse CAD systems communicating a common project data-base through a neutral format translator. The "Initial Graphics Exchange Specification", kindly known as IGES (pronounced "I guess" by its proponents, and "I guess not" by its opponents) was the the initial effort, and is either loved or hated; there is no "neutral" ground. Has it succeeded? Has it failed? Is there a future in this neutral format business? Was CAD meant to be "design" or "drafting"? Does industry support it? What does it mean for architecture? Is a "one-to-many" translator a wonderful idea, but impossible to implement? Is a complete set of "one-to-one" translators a better idea?

This paper will give a short history of IGES, discuss its reason for being, list its strengths and weaknesses, examine its inner workings, and introduce the current effort of the IGES committee: a total "Product Design Exchange Specification", PDES (and internationally as STEP). It will also discuss the techniques used by the PDES application committees to model their various products, and give a case study of the effort of the AEC committee in modeling an architectural "product".

The paper will conclude with the opinions on the future of IGES by the author (a four year member of the IGES/PDES organization).

series ACADIA
email turner@umich.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 8c73
authors Van Wyk, C.G. Skip
year 1987
title CAAD Usage: Now and When At OSU
source Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Raleigh (North Carolina / USA) 1987, pp. 121-134
summary In February of this year the Department of Architecture at The Ohio State University began a study to determine existing and long-term needs and expectations regarding the use of computers in teaching, research, administration, and service. The results of the study are to aid in two broad planning objectives: (1) facility, hardware, and software acquisition; and (2) curriculum enhancement, faculty and staff development, and support services (i.e., consultants, lab monitors, etc.).

An interview technique was developed to address three main concerns: (1) how computers are and should be utilized in areas--i.e., research, course preparation, lecture delivery, computer-aided instruction, grading and monitoring, and student exercises; (2) what kinds of applications are and should be utilized--i.e., word processing, statistics, graphics, drafting, modeling, audio-visual, database, etc.; and (3) what problems or concerns stand in the way of achieving the desired levels of computer usage.

The twenty-three full-time faculty surveyed (96% participation) represent 65 curriculum courses varying in format from design studio and labs to lecture. This paper outlines the methods of the study and presents the findings via graphs of current and desired computer usage by both area and application along with a graphic summary of statistics and trends. Also presented are a summary of root problems and concerns noted during the interview process and conclusions and limitations of study.

series ACADIA
email vanwyk@swcp.com
last changed 2003/04/20 17:09

_id 0d8c
authors Wang, Ming-Hung
year 1987
title Ways of arrangement :The basic operations of form-making
source Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Architecture
series thesis:PhD
email ming@mail.ncku.edu.tw
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id c1c6
authors Woolsey, Ch., Hooper, S.K. and Curtis, G.
year 1987
title VizAbility
source PWS Publishing, San Francisco
summary The handbook provides you with a broad conceptual overview of visual thinking by guiding you through the interactive experiences of VizAbility(tm). It parallels the structure of the CD-ROM, providing a context for your reflections and comments on these experiences and for analysis of their implications. Although the VizAbility(tm) Handbook can be read on its own and still provide valuable insight, it is designed to interact with the VizAbility(tm) CD-ROM. The intent is to integrate the three components so as to encourage you to move fluidly between the different media to explore, experience, and extend your visual abilities.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 0cb8
authors Yessios, Chris I.
year 1987
title A Fractal Studio
source Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Raleigh (North Carolina / USA) 1987, pp. 169-182
summary The experience of using computer aided architectural design tools in a second year graduate studio is presented. These tools had to be developed as the search for design solutions evolved. The computer has been used for the exploration and generation of architectural forms and very little as a drafting/rendering machine. The generative algorithms were based on fractal geometries, arabesque ornamentations, DNA/RNA biological processes' etc. The design problem was a Biological Research Complex. The whole experience raised some interesting pedagogical questions, which are also discussed.

series ACADIA
email cyessios@formz.com
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 65d7
authors Yessios, Chris I.
year 1987
title The Computability of Void Architectural Modeling
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1987. pp. 141-172 : ill. includes a short bibliography
summary Solid modeling has proven inefficient as a computational aid to architectural design. A theory and computational method called Void Modeling has been developed to accommodate a class of objects that are containers for other objects. Examples include space enclosures, which are the primitive elements in architectural compositions. The basic computational techniques of void modeling are presented. They show void modeling to be highly efficient in addressing the syntactic and semantic requirements of architectural design
keywords solid modeling, architecture, representation, methods
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 2832
authors Baraniak, David W.
year 1987
title Automatic Data Capture: Scanners Offer a Cost-effective Solution
source computer Graphics World November, 1987. vol. 10: pp. 93-94, 97 : ill.
summary table. In order to decide whether today's scanner deliver the price and performance a particular CAAD application demand, the author lists vendors, scanner type, raster to vector conversion editing raster vector, data exchange format and compares them
keywords hardware, CAD, scanning, business
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id efb2
authors Blinn, James F.
year 1987
title Platonic Solids
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. November, 1987. vol. 7: pp. 62-66 : ill
summary The problem in constructing Platonic Solids is to find explicit coordinates for the vertices. The article describes how to find orientations that allow the vertex coordinates to be as simple as possible
keywords computer graphics, geometric modeling, algorithms
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 6b77
authors Blinn, James F.
year 1987
title Nested Transformations and Blobby Man
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. October, 1987. vol. 7: pp. 59-65 : ill
summary The author's notational scheme for nested transformation is described. As an example a database for an articulated human figure called Blobby Man is given
keywords modeling, computational geometry, transformation, solids, programming, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

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