CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 7767
authors Danahy, John W.
year 1987
title Sophisticated Image Rendering in Environmental Design Review Graphics Systems
source Proceedings of ACM CHI+GI'87 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems and Graphics Interface 1987 p.211-217
summary The Landscape Architecture Programme and the Computer Systems Research Institute at the University of Toronto undertook two studies using advanced rendering tools pioneered in the areas of computer animation and graphic art. Through two professional landscape architectural design studies we explored the potential role and impact of computer simulation in the initial, more creative phases of the design work. Advanced image rendering hardware and software were used to produce high quality computer drawings of design concepts. The techniques employed in this study are unique in their application to environmental design where they dramatically improve the designer's opportunities to simulate realistic images of proposed design alternatives and to consider the visual and spatial implications of such alternatives. The case studies represented in the paper were undertaken for the National Capital Commission in Ottawa, Canada. The first project is an urban design massing study called the "Parliamentary Precinct Study" and the second project is a detailed design of the "Ceremonial Routes" in Ottawa.
keywords Image Rendering; Design Review; System Specification
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id 6f4d
authors Hall, Theodore W.
year 1987
title Space Stations, Computers and Architectural Design
source Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Raleigh (North Carolina / USA) 1987, pp. 7-18
summary In the winter semester of 1987, I had the opportunity to work with a group of aerospace engineering students on the design of an artificial-gravity rotating space habitat. This was an interesting project in its own right, but of particular relevance to ACADIA was the role of the computer in the design process. Because of its unusual nature, this project forced me to reconsider several issues. This paper addresses the following: (-) The computer as a medium for communication. (-) The need for special tools for special tasks. (-) The pros and cons of computer models vs. cardboard models. (-) The designer's reliance on technology and technocrats. (-) The role of the guru. // Since it was the experience with the space habitat design project that raised these issues, the discussion starts there. The paper then looks for similar experiences in other, more "typical" studio projects. The conclusions are personal opinions about software design, computer literacy, and the teaching of CAD skills to non-programmers.

series ACADIA
email twhall@cuhk.edu.hk
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id c7ac
authors Hardwick, Martin and Spooner, David L.
year 1987
title Comparison of Some Data Models for Engineering Objects
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. March, 1987. vol. 7: pp. 56-66 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Many proposals using object-oriented data models for engineering objects have appeared in the literature. These data models try to represent the data in engineering systems more naturally by organizing it logically and/or physically into objects relevant to the engineering applications using the database. The article reviews and examines several of these proposed data models to identify important properties of the models. It shows that none of the data models excels in all areas, but each has desirable properties
keywords objects, CAD, design, database, representation, modeling
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 0740
authors Herman, M. Jackson, N. and Pomerenke, S.
year 1987
title Four-D Architectural Exploration Through CAD: Applications of the Computer to Architectural History
source Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Raleigh (North Carolina / USA) 1987, pp. 55-64
summary This paper, which is based on ongoing research, demonstrates methods of utilizing Computer-Aided Design (CAD) to explore objects of architectural significance in relation to time and space. The paper shows how the use of animated walk-through allows these objects to be experienced with the realism of built form which no other means of recording can achieve.

The paper argues that, through the use of the computer, the whole nature of Architectural History, as it is currently taught in schools of architecture, will need to be changed and that a more pragmatic, hands- on approach to the subject will have to be adopted. Thus we advocate that the computer, the tool of today and the future, will allow students to experience architecture in the way they did in the past, from the Grand Tour to the architectural apprenticeship, aU before the introduction of architectural academies.

series ACADIA
type normal paper
last changed 2006/06/15 12:16

_id 8385
authors Holtz, Neal M. and Rasdorf, William J.
year 1988
title An Evaluation of Programming Languages and Language Features for Engineering Software Development
source International Journal of Engineering with Computers. Springer-Verlag, 1988. vol. 3: pp. 183-199
summary Also published as 'Procedural Programming Languages for the Development of CAD and CAE Systems Software,' in the proceedings of ASME International Conference on Computers in Engineering (1987 : New York, NY). The scope of engineering software has increased dramatically in the past decade. In its early years, most engineering applications were concerned solely with solving difficult numerical problems, and little attention was paid to man- machine interaction, to data management, or to integrated software systems. Now computers solve a much wider variety of problems, including those in which numerical computations are less predominant. In addition, completely new areas of engineering applications such as artificial intelligence have recently emerged. It is well recognized that the particular programming language used to develop an engineering application can dramatically affect the development cost, operating cost. reliability, and usability of the resulting software. With the increase in the variety, functionality, and complexity of engineering software, with its more widespread use, and with its increasing importance, more attention must be paid to programming language suitability so that rational decisions regarding language selection may be made. It is important that professional engineers be aware of the issues addressed in this paper, for it is they who must design, acquire, and use applications software, as well as occasionally develop or manage its development. This paper addresses the need for engineers to possess a working knowledge of the fundamentals of computer programming languages. In pursuit of this, the paper briefly reviews the history of four well known programming languages. It then attempts to identify and to look critically at the attributes of programming languages that significantly affect the production of engineering software. The four procedural programming languages chosen for review are those intended for scientific and general purpose programming, FORTRAN 77, C, Pascal, and Modula-2. These languages are compared and some general observations are made. As it is felt important that professional engineers should be able to make informed decisions about programming language selection, the emphasis throughout this paper is on a methodology of evaluation of programming languages. Choosing an appropriate language can be a complex task and many factors must be considered. Consequently, fundamentals are stressed
keywords programming, engineering, languages, software, management, evaluation, FORTRAN, C, PASCAL, MODULA-2, CAD, CAE
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 7bc9
authors Kjaer, Bodil
year 1987
title PROGRESS TOWARDS AN AMERICAN FULL SCALE ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN SIMULATION LABORATORY (SIM-LAB)
source Proceedings of the 1st European Full-Scale Workshop Conference / ISBN 87-88373-20-7 / Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-16 January 1987, pp. 45-51
summary The need for a hands-on, full scale mock-up facility where elements of the man-made environment can be tried out before being built has recently become of considerable concern to people from a wide range of fields. This is possibly a result of a more general recognition of all the barriers which crowd our physical environment; the barriers which impede our ability to work effectively and dwell comfortably. It may also have something to do with the fact that funds are no longer available for the building and production of too hastily conceived designs of the sort which need extensive modification and improvement in order to function in an acceptable manner.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 13:09

_id ddss2006-hb-187
id DDSS2006-HB-187
authors Lidia Diappi and Paola Bolchi
year 2006
title Gentrification Waves in the Inner-City of Milan - A multi agent / cellular automata model based on Smith's Rent Gap theory
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) 2006, Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Dordrecht: Springer, ISBN-10: 1-4020-5059-3, ISBN-13: 978-1-4020-5059-6, p. 187-201
summary The aim of this paper is to investigate the gentrification process by applying an urban spatial model of gentrification, based on Smith's (1979; 1987; 1996) Rent Gap theory. The rich sociological literature on the topic mainly assumes gentrification to be a cultural phenomenon, namely the result of a demand pressure of the suburban middle and upper class, willing to return to the city (Ley, 1980; Lipton, 1977, May, 1996). Little attempt has been made to investigate and build a sound economic explanation on the causes of the process. The Rent Gap theory (RGT) of Neil Smith still represents an important contribution in this direction. At the heart of Smith's argument there is the assumption that gentrification takes place because capitals return to the inner city, creating opportunities for residential relocation and profit. This paper illustrates a dynamic model of Smith's theory through a multi-agent/ cellular automata system approach (Batty, 2005) developed on a Netlogo platform. A set of behavioural rules for each agent involved (homeowner, landlord, tenant and developer, and the passive 'dwelling' agent with their rent and level of decay) are formalised. The simulations show the surge of neighbouring degradation or renovation and population turn over, starting with different initial states of decay and estate rent values. Consistent with a Self Organized Criticality approach, the model shows that non linear interactions at local level may produce different configurations of the system at macro level. This paper represents a further development of a previous version of the model (Diappi, Bolchi, 2005). The model proposed here includes some more realistic factors inspired by the features of housing market dynamics in the city of Milan. It includes the shape of the potential rent according to city form and functions, the subdivision in areal submarkets according to the current rents, and their maintenance levels. The model has a more realistic visualisation of the city and its form, and is able to show the different dynamics of the emergent neighbourhoods in the last ten years in Milan.
keywords Multi agent systems, Housing market, Gentrification, Emergent systems
series DDSS
last changed 2006/08/29 10:55

_id 6683
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Wang, TsoJen E.
year 1987
title Spike : A Generic Design Standards Processing Expert System
source Southampton, UK: Computational Mechanics Publications, pp. 241-257. Also published in : Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Engineering International Conference Proceedings (2nd. : 1987 : Boston, MA.)
summary Standards, codes, and specifications play an important role in the design of buildings, bridges, and other engineering systems. A design configuration must be checked against all standards to ensure that it is acceptable. This process of design conformance checking using standards is often very tedious. The successful automation of conformance checking is one of the components of a comprehensive computer-aided design system. In that past, standards were interpreted and converted into application programs written in procedural programming languages such as FORTRAN. This approach is extremely inflexible and often error-prone. To support a fully automated computer-aided design system, standards must be incorporated into the design process in a more generic and flexible manner. This paper investigates the feasibility of alternatively casting standards in a form suitable for processing in a knowledge-based expert system environment. The emergence of expert systems from artificial intelligence research has provided a technology that readily lends itself to the automation of design standards. Knowledge-based expert systems have become a powerful tool in tackling domains like design where some of the problem-solving knowledge is diverse and ill-structured. Using an expert system tool, a standard can be represented and processed independent of a CAD application program. Two prototype standards processing systems utilizing the production system approach have been constructed and are presented herein. Although the obvious direct translation casting the provisions of a standard as rules in a production system has its advantages, a more generic and flexible representation scheme is proposed herein. The approach advocated in this paper is to represent standards as databases of facts which can be readily and generically processed by an expert system. The database representation is derived from a unified view of standards obtained by using the standards modeling tools proposed by previous researchers in this field during the past decade. Building on this existing technology resulted in a knowledge- based standards processing architecture which is generic, modular, and flexible. An implementation of this architecture is presented and described
keywords standards, civil engineering, expert systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 66e5
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Wang, TsoJen E.
year 1987
title Generic Design Standards Processing in a Knowledge-based expert system Environment
source Design Process, National Science Foundation Workshop Proceedings. 1987. pp. 267-291. CADLINE has abstract only
summary Standards, codes, and specifications play an important role in the design of buildings, bridges, and other engineering systems. A design configuration must be checked against all standards to ensure that it is acceptable. This process of design conformance checking using standards is often very tedious. The successful automation of conformance checking is one of the components of a comprehensive computer-aided design system. In the past, standards were interpreted and converted into application program written in procedural programming languages such as FORTRAN. This approach is extremely inflexible and often error prone. To support a fully automated computer-aided design system, standards must be incorporated into the design process in a more generic and flexible manner. This paper investigates the feasibility of alternatively casting standards in a form suitable for processing in a knowledge-based expert system environment. The emergence of expert systems from artificial intelligence research has provided a technology that readily lends itself to the automation of design standards. Knowledge-based expert systems have become a powerful tool in tackling domains like design where some of the problem-solving knowledge is diverse and ill-structured. Using an expert system tool, a standard can be represented and processed independent of a CAD application program. Two prototype standards processing systems utilizing the production system approach have been constructed and are presented herein. Although the obvious direct translation casting the provisions of a standard as rules in a production system has its advantages, a more generic and flexible representation scheme is proposed herein. The approach advocated in this paper is to represent standards as databases of facts which can be readily and generically processed by an expert system. The database representation is derived from a unified view of standards obtained by using the standards modeling tools proposed by previous researchers in this field during the past decade. Building on this existing technology resulted in a knowledge- based standards processing architecture which is generic, modular, and flexible. An implementation of this architecture is presented and described
keywords knowledge base, standards, expert systems, civil engineering
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8331
authors Rasdorf, William J., Ulberg, Karen J. and Baugh, John W. Jr.
year 1987
title A Structure-Based Model of Semantic Integrity Constraints for Relational Databases
source International Journal of Engineering with Computers. Springer-Verlag, Spring, 1987. vol. 2: pp. 31- 39
summary Database management systems (DBMSs) are in widespread use because of the ease and flexibility with which they enable users to access large volumes of data. The use of DBMSs has spread from its origin in business applications to scientific and engineering applications as well. As engineers rely more and more on the computer for data storage, our ability to manually keep track of relationships between data and to ensure data accuracy is severely limited. The inherent fluctuations in engineering design data as well as its large volume, increase the difficulty of doing so. Ensuring data accuracy through the use of integrity constraints which limit or constrain the values of the data is a central aspect of DBMS use. Enforcing constraints (to the extend possible) is a job for the DBMS. This alleviates some of the burden placed on the user and database administrator to maintain the integrity of the database. In addition, it enables integrity constraints to be conceptually centralized and made available for inspection and modification instead of being scattered among application programs. Despite their importance, however, capabilities for handling integrity constraints in commercial DBMSs are limited and they lack adequate integrity maintenance support. In addition, a comprehensive theoretical basis for such support-the role of a constraint classification, representation, invocation, and use methodology-has yet to be developed. This paper presents a formalism that classifies semantic integrity constraints based on the structure of the relational database model. Integrity constraints are characterized by the portion of the database structure they access, whether one or more relations, attributes, or tuples. Thus, the model is completely general, allowing the identification, definition, and arbitrary specification of any constraint on a relational database. It also provides a basis for the implementation of a database integrity subsystem. Examples of each type of constraint are illustrated using a small engineering database, and various implementation issues are discussed
keywords civil engineering, relational database, constraints management
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id e01a
authors Rosenman, M.A., Coyne, R.D. and Gero, J.S.
year 1987
title Expert Systems for Design Applications
source pp. 74-91
summary Reprinted in J.R. Quinlan (ed.) Applications of Expert Systems. Sydney, Addison-Wesley, (1987) pp. 66-84. The suitability of expert systems to design is demonstrated through three classes of design applications. These are the interpretation of design codes, the interpretation of design specifications to produce designs and, thirdly, a method for conflict resolution applicable to more general classes of design
keywords design, knowledge, expert systems
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/17 08:17

_id aef1
authors Rosenman, M.A., Gero, J.S. and Coyne, R.D. (et al)
year 1987
title SOLAREXPERT : A Prototype Expert System for Passive Solar Energy Design in Housing
source Canberra: Aust NZ Solar Energy Society, 1987. vol.II: pp. 361-370. Also published in People and Technology - Sun, Climate and Building, edited by V. Szokolay, Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, 1988
summary Passive solar energy design is not an exact science in which a set of analytical procedures can be followed to produce results. Rather it depends heavily on subjective parameters and experience collected over time which is heuristic by nature. At present this knowledge is available in books but while this knowledge is comprehensive, it is unstructured and not always easy to make use of. A computer-based system allows for flexible interactive dialogue and for the incorporation of analytical procedures which may be required. This paper describes work on SOLAREXPERT, a prototype expert system to aid designers in passive solar energy design for single dwellings. The system operates at a strategic level to provide basic advice on the form of construction and types of passive solar systems and at a spatial zone level to provide more detailed advice on sizes and materials. It allows for modification of the information entered so that users may explore several possibilities
keywords applications, experience, housing, expert systems, energy, design, architecture
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/17 08:17

_id e757
authors Schijf, R.
year 1988
title Strategies For CAAD Education - The Singapore Way
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 23-46
summary For over one year (1985/86) the author was as senior lecturer instrumental in developing and initiating a CAAD-curriculum at the Singapore School of Architecture. The paper describes the circumstances surrounding the acquisition of the Schools' large CAD-system, the CAAD-curriculum proposals, and the first pilot courses. On the basis of this preliminary experience some observations for CAAD-teaching are made, which are related to more universal strategies for CAAD-education.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 8e25
authors Smeltzer, Geert T.A.
year 1987
title Implications of Expert Systems, Data Management and Data Communication for Architectural Education
source Architectural Education and the Information Explosion [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Zurich (Switzerland) 5-7 September 1987.
summary The availability of computersystems for processing, managing and communicating data and expertise, does not mean that the results of these processes, will improve automatically. It also shows to much optimism if you expect that the use of process management and communication tools will enlarge the possibilities of the processes themselves. First of all we will have to face the limitations and we will have to accept them, at the cost of the traditional or ordinary architectural education. Mainly we will have to settle for less and worse design results in the beginning of the use of the new tools. In later stages, however, we will have to be able to deal with higher design quality for more aspects at the same time, in stead of the average quality, for mainly only the visual aspect. To meet the limitations of tools like computersystems, we will have to limit and structure the data and expertise, until we will have reached an absolute minimum quantity and a maximum quality of data and expertise. In fact we should strive, at first, for an “implosion” of data and expertise. Then, by adding more and more expertise and necessary data of the same quality, we can control an information explosion.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/05/16 19:36

_id c659
authors Van Ingen, Wim
year 1987
title NOTES ON THE ECOLOGY OF HABITAT, RESTORATION OF AN IMPORTANT DIALOG
source Proceedings of the 1st European Full-Scale Workshop Conference / ISBN 87-88373-20-7 / Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-16 January 1987, pp. 19-25
summary The Ecology of Habitat or shortly "dwelling ecology", belongs internationally to the, so called "man-environment" sciences. Studied, here is the interrelationship between man and his built environment, especially that environment in which he lives. These man-environment sciences are proceeded from the development of the social sciences in the last thirty years, like sociology and psychology in which a rising interest was growing for architecture generally and more specific in dwelling-architecture because of the relation of man with the physical space in which he lives. Also there. is a growing interest of architects in the results of sociological and psychological research in human behaviour and human meanings in the built environment as far this information is of importance for the influence people have on the environment. Dwelling ecology is a part of the Household Sciences. Not only because she is taught within the School of Household Sciences in our university, but because all sciences in this School share the same basic philosophy that is, to start all scientific work form the point of view of the consumer. Translated into the terminology of the -dwelling-ecology the consumer is the dweller.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 13:09

_id 8e6f
authors Wilcox, R. Peter
year 1987
title Interactive Color Theory - Education, Research and Practice: The Development of CoMoS3
source Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Raleigh (North Carolina / USA) 1987, pp. 77-86
summary This paper describes one way to integrate the computer into architectural color research, teaching, and practice. In my work with the Architecture and Interior Architecture programs at the University of Oregon, I am currently developing software exploiting the full three-dimensional and dynamic nature of the Munsell color organization, thereby making it easier for students to learn and apply color theory. CoMoS3 provides an interactive means of understanding and exploring color relationships from within the Munsell system of organization, employing the Munsell harmonies essentially as both a theoretical datum and an interactive "mentor" for color studies. In describing CoMoS3, Color Modelling System in 3D, this paper proposes a method for the integration of computers into one of the more creative and subjective aspects of architectural education and practice. The paper also discusses the problems inherent in this approach and suggests directions for future work.

series ACADIA
email r.peter.wilcox@co.multnomah.or.us
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id ef3d
authors Wilhelms, Jane
year 1987
title Using Dynamic Analysis for Realistic Animation of Articulated Bodies
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. June, 1987. Vol. 7: pp. 12-27 : ill. (some col.). includes bibliography
summary A major problem in animation is creating motion that appears natural and realistic, particularly in such complex articulated bodies as humans and other animals. At present, truly lifelike motion is produced mainly by copying recorded images, a tedious and lengthy process that requires considerable external equipment. An alternative is the use of dynamic analysis to predict motion. Using dynamic motion control, bodies are treated as masses acting under the influence of external and internal forces and torques. Dynamic control is advantageous because motion is naturally restricted to physically realizable patterns, and many types of motion can be predicted automatically. Use of dynamics is computationally expensive and specifying controlling forces and torques can be difficult. However, there is evidence that dynamics offers hope for more realistic, natural, and automatic motion control. Because such motion simulates real world conditions, an animation system using dynamic analysis is also a useful tool in such related fields as robotics and biomechanics
keywords CAD, animation, computer graphics, simulation
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:10

_id 866f
authors Zelissen, C.
year 1988
title From Drafting to Design: New Programming Tools are Needed
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 253-261
summary The software needed by engineers and architects shows two new aspects. First, these programs get more and more graphic elements, secondly there is a trend from general purpose packages to more problem oriented programs. Comparing several of these application depending programs, a strong similarity appears; a user builds up a representation of a (technical) model by placing, replacing, deleting and so on, representations of objects, belonging to this model. From the programmer's point of view, it must be possible to abstract the several models and the actions on the components of a model, and therefore to build one-program with a model description as parameter. Assuming the existence of such a program, the only remaining part needed to build a complete dedicated package has reference to the specific technical calculations. In this contribution we touch on a number of the problems in developing and implementing such a program.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 9583
authors Brown, Stephen
year 1987
title Computer-Aided Learning Support for Environmental Design Students Ergonomic Design
source Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 31st Annual Meeting 1987 pp. 889-893
summary Intelligent CAD systems could be a useful vehicle for disseminating Human Factors principles among non Human Factors designers. Limitations of current CAD systems are discussed and an experimental system is described. It is suggested that future CAD systems should be less than expert, should be responsive to different learning styles and should employ a variety of electronic media at the user interface.
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id 8f51
authors Cox, Brad J.
year 1987
title The Objective-C Environment; Past, Present, and Future
source COMPCON 88. December, 1987. 6 p. includes bibliography
summary The Objective-C environment is a growing collection of tools and reusable components (Software-ICs) for large-scale production system-building. Its goal is to make it possible for its users to build software systems in the way that hardware engineers build theirs, by reusing Software-ICs supplied by a marketplace in generic components rather than by building everything from scratch. The environment is based on conventional technology (C and Unix-style operating systems), which it includes and extends. The extensions presently include a compiled and an interpreted implementation of Objective-C (an object-oriented programming language based on C) and several libraries of reusable components (ICpaks)
keywords languages, OOPS, software, programming, business, Objective-C
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

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