CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

PDF papers
References

Hits 41 to 60 of 172

_id 43a9
authors Goldman, Glenn and Zdepski, Stephen
year 1987
title Form, Color & Movement
source Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Raleigh (North Carolina / USA) 1987, pp. 39-50
summary Computer generated three dimensional architectural modeling is a fundamental transformation of the traditional architectural design process.

Viewing a three dimensional computer model from many vantage points and through animation sequences, presents buildings and their surrounding environments as a sequence of spaces and events, rather than as static objects or graphic abstractions. Three dimensional modeling at the earliest stages of design tends to increase the spatial and formal properties of early building design studies, and diminishes the dominance of plan as the form giver.

The following paper is based upon the work of second, third and fifth year architectural students who have engaged in architectural design through the use of microcomputer graphics. In each case they entered the architectural studio with virtually no computer experience. Although the assigned architectural projects were identical to those of other "conventional" architectural studios, their design work was accomplished, almost solely, using four different types of graphic software: Computer-Aided Drafting, 3-Dimensional Modeling, Painting and Animation programs. Information presented is based upon student surveys, semester logs, interviews, impressions of external design critics, and the comparison of computer based and conventional studio final presentations.

series ACADIA
email goldman@njit.edu
last changed 2003/04/17 13:40

_id e41f
authors Port, S.
year 1988
title Computer-drafting - State of the Art
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 15-22
summary This paper briefly reviews the state of the art in computer drafting. It moves on to consider some of the limitations of computer drafting systems today. It poses a number of questions regarding the trends and future development of the subject, and suggests some points which should be addressed by the vendors and user organisations alike. The paper concentrates on marketing and management matters rather than on purely technical issues.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 4d3b
authors Archea, John
year 1987
title Puzzle-Making : What Architects Do When No One is Looking
source New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1987. pp. 37-52. includes bibliography
summary The thesis of this paper is that architects work in a manner that is antithetical to problem-solving because they cannot explicate desired effects prior to their realization through the design process. In an attempt to clarify architecture's uncommon mode of action the author suggests that instead of specifying what they are trying to accomplish prior to their attempts to accomplish it as problem-solver do, architects treat design as a search for the most appropriate effects that can be attained in a unique context. They seek sets of combinatorial rules that will result in an internally consistent fit between a kit of parts and the effects that are achieved when those parts are assembled in a certain way
keywords puzzle making, problem solving, architecture, design process
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id cf2011_p170
id cf2011_p170
authors Barros, Mário; Duarte José, Chaparro Bruno
year 2011
title Thonet Chairs Design Grammar: a Step Towards the Mass Customization of Furniture
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 181-200.
summary The paper presents the first phase of research currently under development that is focused on encoding Thonet design style into a generative design system using a shape grammar. The ultimate goal of the work is the design and production of customizable chairs using computer assisted tools, establishing a feasible practical model of the paradigm of mass customization (Davis, 1987). The current research step encompasses the following three steps: (1) codification of the rules describing Thonet design style into a shape grammar; (2) implementing the grammar into a computer tool as parametric design; and (3) rapid prototyping of customized chair designs within the style. Future phases will address the transformation of the Thonet’s grammar to create a new style and the production of real chair designs in this style using computer aided manufacturing. Beginning in the 1830’s, Austrian furniture designer Michael Thonet began experimenting with forming steam beech, in order to produce lighter furniture using fewer components, when compared with the standards of the time. Using the same construction principles and standardized elements, Thonet produced different chairs designs with a strong formal resemblance, creating his own design language. The kit assembly principle, the reduced number of elements, industrial efficiency, and the modular approach to furniture design as a system of interchangeable elements that may be used to assemble different objects enable him to become a pioneer of mass production (Noblet, 1993). The most paradigmatic example of the described vision of furniture design is the chair No. 14 produced in 1858, composed of six structural elements. Due to its simplicity, lightness, ability to be stored in flat and cubic packaging for individual of collective transportation, respectively, No. 14 became one of the most sold chairs worldwide, and it is still in production nowadays. Iconic examples of mass production are formally studied to provide insights to mass customization studies. The study of the shape grammar for the generation of Thonet chairs aimed to ensure rules that would make possible the reproduction of the selected corpus, as well as allow for the generation of new chairs within the developed grammar. Due to the wide variety of Thonet chairs, six chairs were randomly chosen to infer the grammar and then this was fine tuned by checking whether it could account for the generation of other designs not in the original corpus. Shape grammars (Stiny and Gips, 1972) have been used with sucesss both in the analysis as in the synthesis of designs at different scales, from product design to building and urban design. In particular, the use of shape grammars has been efficient in the characterization of objects’ styles and in the generation of new designs within the analyzed style, and it makes design rules amenable to computers implementation (Duarte, 2005). The literature includes one other example of a grammar for chair design by Knight (1980). In the second step of the current research phase, the outlined shape grammar was implemented into a computer program, to assist the designer in conceiving and producing customized chairs using a digital design process. This implementation was developed in Catia by converting the grammar into an equivalent parametric design model. In the third phase, physical models of existing and new chair designs were produced using rapid prototyping. The paper describes the grammar, its computer implementation as a parametric model, and the rapid prototyping of physical models. The generative potential of the proposed digital process is discussed in the context of enabling the mass customization of furniture. The role of the furniture designer in the new paradigm and ideas for further work also are discussed.
keywords Thonet; furniture design; chair; digital design process; parametric design; shape grammar
series CAAD Futures
email m.barros@ipt.pt
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id 0faa
authors Duelund Mortensen, Peder
year 1991
title THE FULL-SCALE MODEL WORKSHOP
source Proceedings of the 3rd European Full-Scale Modelling Conference / ISBN 91-7740044-5 / Lund (Sweden) 13-16 September 1990, pp. 10-11
summary The workshop is an institution, available for use by the public and established at the Laboratory of Housing in the Art Academy's school of Architecture for a 3 year trial period beginning April 1985. This resumé contains brief descriptions of a variety of representative model projects and an overview of all projects carried out so far, including the pilot projects from 1983 and planned projects to and including January 1987. The Full Scale Model Workshop builds full size models of buildings, rooms and parts of buildings. The purpose of the Full Scale Model Workshop is to promote communication among building's users. The workshop is a tool in an attempt to build bridges between theory and practice in research, experimentation and communication of research results. New ideas and experiments of various sorts can be tried out cheaply, quickly and efficiently through the building of full scale models. Changes can be done on the spot as a planned part of the project and on the basis of ideas and experiments achieved through the model work itself. Buildings and their space can thus be communicated directly to all involved persons, regardless of technical background or training in evaluation of building projects.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 13:23

_id e7a8
authors Emde, H.
year 1988
title Geometrical Fundamentals for Design and Visualization of Spatial Objects
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 171-178
summary Every architectural object is a 3-dimensional entity of the human environment, haptically tangible and optically visible. During the architectural process of planning every object should be designed as a body and should be visualized in pictures. Thus the parts of construction get an order in space and the steps of construction get an order in time. The ideal planning object is a simulated anticipation of the real building object, which is to be performed later on. The possibility to relate the planning object immediately to the building object relies on the fact that they both have the same "geometry" This means: both can be described in the same geometric manner. Creating and visualizing spatial objects is based on geometrical fundamentals. Theoretical knowledge and practical control of these fundamentals is essential for the faultless construction and the realistic presentation of architectural objects. Therefore they have to be taught and learned thoroughly in the course of an architectural education. Geometrical design includes the forming of object- models (geometry of body boundaries), the structuring of object-hierarchies (geometry of body combinations) and the colouring of objects. Geometrical visualization includes controlling the processes of motion, of the bodies (when moving objects) and of the center of observation (when moving subjects) as well as the representation of 3-dimensional objects in 2- dimensional pictures and sequences of pictures. All these activities of architects are instances of geometrical information processing. They can be performed with the aid of computers. As for the computer this requires suitable hardware and software, as for the architect it requires suitable knowledge and capabilities to be able to talk about and to recall the perceivable objects and processes of the design with logic abstracts (language of geometry). In contrast to logical, numerical and textual informations the geometric informations concerning spatial objects are of much higher complexity. Usually these complexes of information are absorbed, processed and transmitted by the architect in a perceptive manner. The computer support in the field of geometry assumes that the processing of perceptions of the human consciousness can be converted by the computer as a framework of logical relations. Computer aided construction and representation require both suited devices for haptical and optical communication and suitable programs in particular.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id acadia12_239
id acadia12_239
authors Jackson, Jesse ; Stern, Luke
year 2012
title Fabricating Sustainable Concrete Elements: A Physical Instantiation of the Marching Cubes Algorithm
source ACADIA 12: Synthetic Digital Ecologies [Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-1-62407-267-3] San Francisco 18-21 October, 2012), pp. 239-247
summary This paper explores how an algorithm designed to represent form can be made physical, and how this physical instantiation can be made to respond to a set of design imperatives. Specifically, the paper demonstrates how Marching Cubes (Lorensen and Cline 1987), an algorithm that extracts a polygonal mesh from a scalar field, can be used to initiate the design for a system of modular concrete armature elements that permit a large degree of variability using a small number of discrete parts. The design of these elements was developed in response to a close examination of Frank Lloyd Wright's Usonian Automatic system, an architecturally pertinent historical precedent. The fabricated results positively satisfy contemporary design criteria, including maximal formal freedom, optimal environmental performance, and minimal life-cycle costs.
keywords Form-finding Algorithms , Digital Fabrication , Sustainability , Frank Lloyd Wright , Concrete , Tectonic Elements
series ACADIA
type panel paper
email jesse.colin.jackson@gmail.com
last changed 2013/01/09 10:06

_id e26f
authors Kalay, Y. (ed.)
year 1987
title Computability of Design
source New York: Wiley & Sons
summary Computer-aided design (CAD) has promised to transform the art and science of architectural design. Yet, despite some significant achievements in the past 3 decades, it has so far failed to do so. This stimulating volume, derived from a symposium held at SUNY, Buffalo in December 1986, explores the reasons why design is so difficult to support by computational means, and what can be done to alleviate this difficulty. Written by an interdisciplinary panel of experts, it presents a varied and comprehensive view of the ways creative design processes can be modelled. The contributors do not all reach the same conclusions, which makes this book lively reading. Topics are arranged into four parts: constructing models of the design process, the computational representation of design knowledge (including spatial information and implicit design intent), methods for computing the design process as a whole (including mathematical programming, expert systems, and shape grammars), and the integration of CAD with traditional design practices.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 671c
authors Kalay, Yehuda E., Swerdloff, Lucien M. and Harfmann, Anton C.
year 1987
title A Knowledge-Based Approach to Dynamic Computer-Aided Design Task Allocation
source Expert Systems in Computer-Aided Design: Proceeding of the IFIP WG 5.2 Working Conference on Expert system in Computer-Aided Design --- edited by Gero, John S Sydney: North-Holland, 1987. pp. 203-224 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary A model of the design process control that supports dynamic allocation of tasks between a designer and a computer is presented. The model is discussed theoretically, and is demonstrated through a Prolog implementation for the participatory design of single family houses. Its utility and universal applicability are established, as well as its relationship to other computational approaches to design automation
keywords expert systems, design process, knowledge base, architecture, control, housing, applications
series CADline
email kalay@socrates.berkeley.edu
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 4109
authors Li, Shu-Xiang and Leow, Murray H.
year 1987
title The Quadcode and its Arithmetic
source Communications of the ACM. July, 1987. vol. 30: pp. 621-626 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The quadcode is a hierarchical data structure for describing digital images. It has the following properties: (1) straightforward representation of dimension, size, and the relationship between an image and its subsets; (2) explicit description of geometric properties, such as location, distance, and adjacency; and (3) ease of conversion from and to raster representation. The quadcode has applications to computer graphics and image processing because of its ability to focus on selected subsets of the data and to allow utilization of multiple resolutions in different parts of the image. A related approach is the quadtree. Samet recently presented a thorough survey of the literature in that field. Gargantini and Abel and Smith presented linear quadtrees and linear locational keys that are efficient labeling techniques for quadtrees. In those papers the geometric concepts of the image are discussed by using the tree as an interpretive medium, and the approaches and procedures are based on traversal of the nodes in the tree. In this paper the authors present the quadcode system, which is a direct description of the image, and discuss the geometric concepts in terms of the coded images themselves
keywords quadtree, image processing, representation, computer graphics, search
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8a1b
authors Mackenzie, C.A.
year 1987
title Inducing Relational Grammars From Design Interpretations
source AI'87 : Proceeding of the Australian Joint Artificial Intelligence Conference. 1987. pp. 207-220 CADLINE has abstract only.
summary --- Also published in Artificial Intelligence Developments and Applications edited by J. S. Gero and R. Stanton, North-Holland Pub. 1988. The combination of a heuristic driven search and a tree systems inference technique to induce context-free design grammars is presented. This is achieved by searching for the most useful interpretations of each design in a sample set and discovering regularities in their tree systems representation. The knowledge induced is represented as an accepting tree systems automation and generative grammar. Examples from the domain of architectural design are given
keywords heuristics, inference, search, shape grammars, knowledge, representation, architecture
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 404e
authors Oksala , T.
year 1988
title Logical Models for Rule-based CAAD
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 107-116
summary The aim of this paper is to present the basic results of a theoretic approach to represent architectural individual forms in CAD systems. From the point of view of design methodology and problem solving these descriptions might be conceived' as parts of possible environments satisfying the laws of some design theory in logical sense. This paper describes results in a series of logical studies towards rule and knowledge based systems for design automation. The effective use of programming languages and computers as design aids in architecture presupposes certain capabilities to articulate built environment logically. The use of graphic languages in the description of environmental items e.g. buildings might be theoretically mastered by formal production systems including linguistic, geometric, and spatio-material generation. The combination of the power of formal mechanisms and logical individual calculus offers suitable framework to generate arbitrary e.g. free spatial compositions as types or unique solutions. In this frame it is natural to represent in a coherent way very complex hierarchical parsing of buildings in explicit form as needed in computer implementations. In order to simulate real design work the individual configurations of possible built forms should be designed to satisfy known rules. In the preliminary stage partial solutions to design problems may be discussed in mathematical terms using frameworks like lattices, graphs, or group theoretical considerations of structural, functional, and visual organization of buildings. The capability to produce mathematically sophisticated geometric structures allows us to generalize the approach further. The theoretical design knowhow in architecture can be partly translated in to some logic and represented in a knowledge base. These rules are used as selection criteria for geometric design candidates in the sense of logical model theory and mathematical optimization. The economy of the system can be developed by using suitable conduct mechanisms familiar e.g. from logic programming. The semantics of logic offers a frame to consider computer assisted and formal generation in design. A number of semantic and pragmatic problems, however, remain to be solved. In any case conceptual analyses based on logic are applicable in order to rationally reconstruct architectural goals contributing to the quality of environmental design, which should be the main goal in the development of design systems in near future.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 2fac
authors Schmitt, Gerhard
year 1987
title ARCHPLAN - An Architectural Planning Front End to Engineering Design Expert Systems
source ii, 22 p. : ill
summary Engineering Design Research Center, CMU, 1987. EDRC-48-04-87. ARCHPLAN is a knowledge-based ARCHitectural PLANning front end to a set of vertically integrated engineering expert systems. ARCHPLAN is part of a larger project to explore the principles of parallel operation of expert systems in an Integrated Building Design Environment. It is designed toÔ h)0*0*0*°° ÔŒ operate in conjunction with HIRISE, a structural design expert system; with CORE and SPACER, two expert systems for the spatial layout of buildings; and with other knowledge based systems dealing with construction planning, specification, and foundation design. ARCHPLAN operates either in connection with these expert systems or as a stand- alone program. It consists of three major parts: the application, the user interface, and the graphics package
keywords The application offers a knowledge based approach towards the
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id 861a
authors Sedas, Sergio W. and Talukdar, Sarosh N.
year 1987
title A Disassembly Planner for Redesign
source The Winter Annual Meeting of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Symposium of Intelligent and Integrated Manufacturing Analysis and Synthesis. December, 1987. Pittsburgh, PA: Engineering Design Research Center, CMU, 1988. [6] p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary This paper describes an algorithm for generating plans for disassembling given objects. The plans are produced by a set of knowledge sources acting on a set of representations for the object. Both sets are arbitrarily expandable, so programs using the approach can grow continually in capability. Our present complement of knowledge sources and representations can tackle relatively difficult problems. Three examples are included. The first requires a good bit of geometric reasoning before appropriate subassemblies can be selected. The second and third require certain movable parts to be repositioned before disassembly can be achieved
keywords algorithms, representation, synthesis, assemblies, knowledge, reasoning, mechanical engineering
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 0a09
authors Akin, O., Dave, B. and Pithavadian, S.
year 1987
title Problem Structuring in Architectural Design
source February, 1987. [4], 15 p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary The purpose of this research is to describe in operational terms the process of problem structuring while solving spatial problems in architectural design. The designer's behavior is described in terms of problem structuring, when problem parameters are established or transformed, and in terms of problem solving when these parameters are satisfied in a design solution. As opposed to problem solving, the structuring of problems is an under-studied but crucial aspect of complex tasks such as design. This work is based on observations derived from verbal protocol studies. To consider various levels of skill, the research subjects range from professional architects to novice designers. Subjects are given space planning problems which require them to develop solutions in accordance with individually established constraints and criteria, the majority of which are not explicit stated in the problem description. Based on the results of the protocol analysis, a framework is developed which explains how information processing characteristics, problem structure and different levels of expertise interact to influence the designer behavior
keywords architecture, design process, problem solving, protocol analysis, problem definition
series CADline
email oa04@andrew.cmu.edu
last changed 2003/05/17 08:09

_id ae05
authors Akin, Omer
year 1987
title Expertise of the Architect
source November, 1987. [13] p. unevenly numbered : ill. includes bibliography
summary One of the areas where the expertise of the seasoned architect comes out is in the initial structuring of design problems. During problem structuring the parameters and processes used in design are defined. Experienced architects modify these parameters both in global and local levels as a function of the success of their research process. Experienced architects also rely on 'scenarios' acquired through pervious experiences with similar problems to initialize their problem structures or to redefined them
keywords design, architecture, methods
series CADline
email oa04@andrew.cmu.edu
last changed 2003/05/17 08:09

_id e820
authors Armstrong, W.W., Green, M. and Lake, R.
year 1987
title Near- Real-Time Control of Human Figure Models
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. June, 1987. vol. 7: pp. 52-60 : ill
summary Includes bibliography. Animating human figures is one of the major problems in computer animation. A recent approach is the use of dynamic analysis to compute the movement of a human figure, given the forces and torques operating within and upon the body. One of the problems with this technique is computing the forces and torques required for particular motions: this has been called the control problem of dynamic analysis. To develop a better understanding of this problem, an interactive interface to a dynamics package has been produced. This interface, along with a collection of low-level motion processes, can be used to control the motion of a human figure model. This article describes both the user interface and the motion processes, along with experiences with this approach
keywords computer graphics, animation, user interface
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id 8eb4
authors Athithan, G. and Patnaik, L.M.
year 1987
title Geometric Searching In Extended CSG Models : Application to Solid Modeling and Viewing
source February, 1987. 30 p. : ill
summary In this paper, the CSG representation scheme is augmented with the 'cartesian product.' The sweep method of generating solids is encompassed by this 'Extended CSG' formalism. The point inclusion problem encountered in the area of geometric searching in computational geometry is discussed in the context to solid models represented by 'extended CSG.' A simple algorithm to solve it that has a time complexity O(n), where n is the number of primitives, is presented. Allowing for preprocessing and extra storage, a second efficient algorithm, having a time complexity O(log n), is developed. The relevance of point inclusion problem in solid modelling techniques is indicated. An extended CSG based solid modeling method is proposed. A solution to the problem of hidden line removal, that uses the faster algorithm for the point inclusion problem, is also presented in the paper
keywords point inclusion, computational geometry, data structures, solid modeling, CSG, computer graphics, hidden lines
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id a60d
authors Bairstow, Jeffrey N.
year 1987
title Personal Workstations Redefine Desktop Computing
source high Technology. March, 1987. pp. 18-23 : ill. includes bibliography: p. 64
summary Becoming an essential tool in any creative activity, the personal workstations were successfully adopted by software developers for designing both system and application software, by electronics engineers for computer-aided design, and by a wide range of businesses for technical publishing. The rapid adoption of networking and file standards by the workstation manufacturers will undoubtedly put them in a good position to install large networks of both PCs and workstations linked to existing corporate mainframe computers
keywords hardware, technology, business
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 0cd8
authors Baker, Nelson C. and Fenves, Stephen J.
year 1987
title A Knowledge Acquisition Study of Structural Engineers Performing Preliminary Design
source 92 p. : ill. Pittsburgh, PA: Engineering Design Research Center, CMU, December, 1987. EDRC-12-19-87
summary This paper describes interviews with experts in structural engineering. Video recordings of the experts performing preliminary structural design for three buildings were obtained. The knowledge acquisition process is described and the conclusions reached are presented. The conclusions are discussed in terms of level of design detail, solution time, distribution of process and domain activities, the use of previous information in the design process, and the use of sketches
keywords knowledge acquisition, civil engineering, design process, design methods, drafting, systems, protocol analysis
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

For more results click below:

show page 0show page 1this is page 2show page 3show page 4show page 5show page 6show page 7show page 8HOMELOGIN (you are user _anon_622950 from group guest) CUMINCAD Papers Powered by SciX Open Publishing Services 1.002