CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 61 to 80 of 172

_id 05c2
authors Balachandran, M. B. and Gero, John S.
year 1987
title Use of Knowledge in Selection and Control of Optimization Algorithms
source engineering Optimization. 1987. vol. 12: pp. 163-173
summary Computers have been widely used in optimization based problem solving processes to assist with the numerical computations. The widespread availability of symbolic computational tools and recent developments in artificial intelligence now make it feasible to expand the role of computers in this area. Various classes of knowledge used to improve the efficiency of the optimization processes are presented in this paper. A prototype system developed in the domain of multicriteria decision making is demonstrated. The system contains knowledge needed to select appropriate optimization algorithms, to control the solution process, and to select alternate algorithms if needed
keywords multicriteria, algorithms, knowledge base, systems, problem solving, optimization
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 016a
authors Balachandran, M. B. and Gero, John S.
year 1987
title A Knowledge-based Approach to Mathematical Design Modeling and Optimization
source engineering Optimization. 1987. vol. 12: pp. 91-115
summary Optimization is a well understood process in design domains. Designers formulate their design problems as single criterion or multicriteria optimization problems and then select an appropriate optimization algorithm to search for the optimal values for the design variables. The formulation and algorithm selection procedures have been considered to be activities which relied on substantive human knowledge. This paper describes a computer system, OPTIMA, which formulates design optimization problems from a pseudo-English description into canonical algebraic expressions. It then recognizes the formulation and selects appropriate algorithm(s) for its solution. Finally, it runs the selected algorithm(s) and sends the results back to the original descriptions. Areas of expert knowledge involved in carrying out the above tasks are identified. Such knowledge is explicitly encoded in the system. The basic philosophy and key features of the system are described and are illustrated with examples
keywords structures, algorithms, knowledge base, systems, optimization, engineering
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 08a1
authors Balachandran, M.B. and Gero, John S.
year 1987
title A Knowledge-based Graphical Interface for Structural Design
source Southampton: CM Publications, 1987. pp. 335-346
summary This paper describes a knowledge-based graphical interface for the domain of structural engineering. The key aspects of the system include graphics interpretation, feature extraction of graphic objects and the identification of the entity itself. Details of the implementation of a prototype system using Prolog and C are provided. The domain knowledge is represented as frames. Examples are given to illustrate the performance of the system
keywords structures, user interface, knowledge base, systems, design, engineering, computer graphics, frames
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c568
authors Balachandran, M.B. and John S. Gero
year 1987
title A Model for Knowledge Based Graphical Interfaces
source AI '87: Proceedings of the Australian Joint Artificial Intelligence Conference. 1987. pp. 505-521. Also published in Artificial Intelligence Developments and Applications edited by J. S. Gero and R Stanton, North-Holland Pub. 1988. -- CADLINE has abstract only.
summary This paper describes a model for knowledge-based graphical interface which incorporates a variety of knowledge of the domain of application. The key issues considered include graphics interpretation, extraction of features of graphics objects and identification of prototype objects. The role of such knowledge-based interfaces in computer-aided design is discussed. A prototype system developed in Prolog and C is described and its application in the domain of structural engineering is demonstrated
keywords user interface, computer graphics, knowledge base, systems, civil engineering, structures
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c89d
authors Bancroft, Pamela J.
year 1987
title The Integration of Computing into Architectural Education Through Computer Literate Faculty
source Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Raleigh (North Carolina / USA) 1987, pp. 109-120
summary This paper discusses the apparent correlation between faculty computer literacy and the success of integrating computing into architectural education. Relevant questions of a 1985 national survey which was conducted to study the historical development of faculty computer utilization are analyzed and interpreted. The survey results are then used as the basis for a series of recommendations given for increasing computer literacy among faculty in architectural schools, thus increasing the integration of computing.

series ACADIA
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id b9d1
authors Barlas, Adnan
year 1987
title STAGED BUILDING IN HIGH RISE HOUSING
source Proceedings of the 1st European Full-Scale Workshop Conference / ISBN 87-88373-20-7 / Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-16 January 1987, pp. 53-56
summary Since 1950s Turkey is experiencing a high rate of urbanization as a result of the inflow of Iarge number of rural immigrants to the urban areas, in addition to the natural urban population growth. This high level of urbanization gave rise to various burdens and problems within the urban areas. One of these problems.and the most important,is seen in the housing sector. The increasing level of housing need of the urban society could not be met by, the available urban housing a stock. Thus, there emerged a different type of production at the fringes of the urban areas, which is called as "squatter"; being completely unauthorized. In addition to the rapid urbanization -he general deficiencies in the Turkish economy have also effected the urban case. The rents and the prices of the dwelling units in the authorized stock increased to such level that, a great portion of the urban households with low and lower middle incomes could not afford to buy or rent a dwelling unit from the authorized stock. The situation is still the same now.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 13:07

_id 963b
authors Bartels, R.H., Beatty, J.C. and Barsky, B.A.
year 1987
title An Introduction to Splines for Use in Computer Graphics and Geometric Modeling
source Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Los Altos, CA
summary The most basic output primitives in every computer graphics library are "lineSegment()" and "Polygon()", ortheir equivalents. These are, of course, sufficent in the sense that any curved line or surface can be arbitrarrily well approximated by straight line segments or planar polygons, but in many contexts that is not enough. Such approximations often require large amounts of data to obtain satifactory smoothness, and they are awkward to manipulate. Then too, even with the the most sophisticated continous shading models, polygonaltechniques can resultin visually ojectionable images. Mach bands may be apparent at the borders between adjacent polygons, and there is always a telltale angularity to polygonal silhouettes. Hence many modeling systems are augmented by circles, spheres, cylinders, etc. and allow such simple primitives to be combined to form quite complex objects.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 3985
authors Barton, G.E., Berrywick, R.C. and Ristad, E.S.
year 1987
title Computational Complexity and Natural Language
source MIT Press, Cambridge MA
summary Computational Complexity and Natural Language heralds an entirely new way of looking at grammatical systems. It applies the recently developed computer science tool of complexity theory to the study of natural language
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id fbcd
authors Bayazit, N.
year 1987
title Theoretical Basis of a Computer-Aided Design Education and Research Laboratory
source Design Studies, Vol 8, No: 3, July, pp.138-149
summary This paper investigates the theoretical basis of computer-aided design (CAD) education and research relevant to the establishment of a micro-CAD laboratory in Istanbul Technical University (ITU). The initial paragraphs of the paper are allocated to the CAD systems' theoretical considerations. In the second part an interactive education and research model is developed. Applicability of this model through professional practice is discussed and examples of research findings are explained.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 409f
authors Becker, Joseph D.
year 1987
title Arabic Word Processing
source communications of the ACM. July, 1987. vol. 30: pp. 600-610 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The technology of word processing in the Middle East recently developed a word processing software that can correctly format the cursive, interacting letters of the Arabic script. Moreover, new layout procedures can automatically intermix right-to-left Arabic or Hebrew writing with left-to-right text in European or other languages. The design presented in this article is embodied in the Xerox View Point Documenter, but its principles apply equally well to any Arabic desktop publishing
keywords software, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id a820
authors Bjerg, Kresten
year 1987
title FULL-SCALE IN ANOTHER SENSE
source Proceedings of the 1st European Full-Scale Workshop Conference / ISBN 87-88373-20-7 / Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-16 January 1987, pp. 31-35
summary My point of departure is a long standing interest in close human communication. I have been much interested in the multiplicities of communicative levels between persons sharing daily life, e.g. spouses in a household. In the mid-sixties I was working with the first videotapings of marital dyads in a laboratory setting. The "interplay- analysis" which I developed at that time, however, was hampered by the lack of contextual naturalism in the setting. Since - working in the field of "altered states of consciousness" - I came to question the adequacy of studies of extra-ordinary states, in view of the lacking methodology for dealing even with the ranges of the variable ordinary states of mind over the 24-hour cycle in everyday life, and their potential relation to the micro-structure of the habitual ongoing activities of members of a household.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 13:08

_id 21d1
authors Blinn, James F.
year 1987
title How Many Ways Can You Draw a Circle?
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. August, 1987. vol. 7: pp. 39-65
summary This is a first in a series of columns on computer graphics. In this column the author discusses the different algorithms one can find for drawing circles. The algorithms collection can be categorized by the two types of output: line endpoints or pixel coordinates. This comes from the general dichotomy of curve representation - parametric vs. algebraic. The language used is a mishmash of several programming constructs
keywords drafting, circles, algorithms, programming, techniques
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id eeea
authors Boehm, Barry W.
year 1987
title Improving Software Productivity
source IEEE Computer. September, 1987. vol. 20: pp. 43-47 : ill. graphs, tables. includes bibliography
summary This article discusses avenues of improving productivity for both custom and mass-produced software. Some of the topics covered are: The importance of improving software productivity, measuring software productivity, analyzing software productivity, improving and indicating trends in software productivity
keywords software, productivity, engineering, programming
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id a936
authors Boesjes, E.
year 1988
title The Structure of the Automation Process; Implications for CAAD
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 59-69
summary In this paper we describe the dynamic process of change of computer components, computer products and user-techniques. We will refer to this process as the process of automation. In the first part we describe the structure of the process of automation. This structure consists of components and relations between these components. Some of the relations can be characterised as regularities. In the second part we briefly describe the State of the Art in CAAD. From the State of the Art and the process of automation we can extrapolate the State of the Future in CAAD. This extrapolation doesn't bring us to the future we want. The structure of the process of automation will have to change if we want future CAAD to develop towards an ideal.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ecaade2017_172
id ecaade2017_172
authors Brand?o, Filipe, Paio, Alexandra and Whitelaw, Christopher
year 2017
title Mapping Mass Customization
source Fioravanti, A, Cursi, S, Elahmar, S, Gargaro, S, Loffreda, G, Novembri, G, Trento, A (eds.), ShoCK! - Sharing Computational Knowledge! - Proceedings of the 35th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy, 20-22 September 2017, pp. 417-424
summary Mass customization (MC) and personal fabrication (PF) are current relevant topics in architecture offices practice and schools design research. Architects are adopting information based design and production techniques as a response to architectural century challenges. However, is not clear how various authors used and transformed the concept in practice, research and industry after three decades since the MC term was introduced by Davis (1987). Therefore, is essential to map the most relevant works in the field in relation to production and design control. The paper presents some of the results of the ongoing study through an evolving map that aims to visualize relationships, layering complexity and revealing difference.
keywords Mass Customization; Personal Fabrication; Housing; Map
series eCAADe
email fjsbo@iscte.pt
last changed 2017/09/13 13:30

_id 471f
authors Brooks, Frederick P. Jr.
year 1987
title Essence and Accidents of Software Engineering
source IEEE Computer. April, 1987. vol. 20: pp. 10-19 : ill. includes bibliography. -- See also Information Processing '86 edited by H.J. Kugler; and Brooks, F.P. 'The Mythical Man-Month,' Addison-Wesley, 1978
summary The author analyzed the nature and the problems of software engineering and assessed the technical developments that are most often advanced as potential solutions for the problems
keywords software, programming, languages, management
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 8e02
authors Brown, A.G.P. and Coenen, F.P.
year 2000
title Spatial reasoning: improving computational efficiency
source Automation in Construction 9 (4) (2000) pp. 361-367
summary When spatial data is analysed the result is often very computer intensive: even by the standards of contemporary technologies, the machine power needed is great and the processing times significant. This is particularly so in 3-D and 4-D scenarios. What we describe here is a technique, which tackles this and associated problems. The technique is founded in the idea of quad-tesseral addressing; a technique, which was originally applied to the analysis of atomic structures. It is based on ideas concerning Hierarchical clustering developed in the 1960s and 1970s to improve data access time [G.M. Morton, A computer oriented geodetic database and a new technique on file sequencing, IBM Canada, 1996.], and on atomic isohedral (same shape) tiling strategies developed in the 1970s and 1980s concerned with group theory [B. Grunbaum, G.C. Shephard, Tilings and Patterns, Freeman, New York, 1987.]. The technique was first suggested as a suitable representation for GIS in the early 1980s when the two strands were brought together and a tesseral arithmetic applied [F.C. Holdroyd, The Geometry of Tiling Hierarchies, Ars Combanitoria 16B (1983) 211–244.; S.B.M. Bell, B.M. Diaz, F.C. Holroyd, M.J.J. Jackson, Spatially referenced methods of processing raster and vector data, Image and Vision Computing 1 (4) (1983) 211–220.; Diaz, S.B.M. Bell, Spatial Data Processing Using Tesseral Methods, Natural Environment Research Council, Swindon, 1986.]. Here, we describe how that technique can equally be applied to the analysis of environmental interaction with built forms. The way in which the technique deals with the problems described is first to linearise the three-dimensional (3-D) space being investigated. Then, the reasoning applied to that space is applied within the same environment as the definition of the problem data. We show, with an illustrative example, how the technique can be applied. The problem then remains of how to visualise the results of the analysis so undertaken. We show how this has been accomplished so that the 3-D space and the results are represented in a way which facilitates rapid interpretation of the analysis, which has been carried out.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id ea89
authors Brown, John L.
year 1987
title Integrating Computers into the Design Studio - A Critical Evaluation
source Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Raleigh (North Carolina / USA) 1987, pp. 29-38
summary This paper presents a critical evaluation of two years of experience in using computer aided design as the primary graphic tool in an architectural design studio. In addition to significant benefits being realized, it was found that in a number of circumstances the graphic tool seemed to place unnecessary or inappropriate constraints on the designer. A critical examination of this tendency revealed that there may be a discrepancy between the theoretical framework in which computer aided design systems are developed and used, and the conceptual framework of contemporary architectural thought. These issues arising from the studio experience, are discussed and placed within the context of current theoretical concerns in architecture.

series ACADIA
email john.brown@housebrand.info
last changed 2003/05/15 19:17

_id 0b9f
authors Carini, Alessandra
year 1987
title THE ITALIAN FULL-SCALE MODELS LABORATORY
source Proceedings of the 1st European Full-Scale Workshop Conference / ISBN 87-88373-20-7 / Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-16 January 1987, pp. 27-30
summary The Housing Research Center OIKOS has its offices in Bologna and is runned by a non-profit association of public and private Bodies. Among the members of the Association there are the University of Bologna, the Polytechnic of Turin, the Municipalities of Bologna, Turin, Venice and Brescia, the Emilia Romagna District, the National Builders Association, The Building and Housing Cooperatives, the Public Housing Association of Bologna, several building industries and so on. A few years ago OIKOS proposed a research to the National Housing Committee of the Ministry of Works. The object was to create in Italy a full-scale models laboratory, as well as a few European Countries had done before. We visited the Laboratories of Lausanne, Lund and Amsterdam. The National Housing Committee acknowledged the opportunity of this kind of Laboratory, which is an important tool to experiment and control in advance technical, architectural and use features of housing spaces.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 13:08

_id caadria2011_061
id caadria2011_061
authors Celani, Gabriela; José P. Duarte and Carlos V. Vaz
year 2011
title The gardens revisited: The link between technology, meaning and logic?
source Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / The University of Newcastle, Australia 27-29 April 2011, pp. 643-652
summary The objective of this paper is to compare the computational concepts present in three books published by Mitchell between 1987 and 1990: The art of computer-graphics programming (1987), which has Robin Liggett and Thomas Kvan as co-authors, The logic of architecture (1990), probably his most influential work, and The poetics of gardens (1988), which has Charles Moore and William Turnbull as coauthors. By looking at the concepts that are presented in the three books and establishing a comparison between them, we expect to show that The poetics of Gardens should not be seen as a detour from Mitchell´s line of research, but rather as a key piece for understanding the relationship between technology, meaning and logic in his very coherent body of work.
keywords Computational design concepts; technology; meaning; logic
series CAADRIA
email celani@fec.unicamp.br
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

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