CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 81 to 100 of 172

_id a1a1
authors Cornick, T. and Bull, S.
year 1988
title Expert Systems for Detail Design in Building
source CAAD futures 87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 117-126
summary Computer-Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) requires detailed knowledge of the construction of building elements to be effective as a complete design aid. Knowledge-based systems provide the tools for both encapsulating the "rules" of construction - i.e. the knowledge of good construction practice gained from experience - and relating those rules to geometric representation of building spaces and elements. The "rules" of construction are based upon the production and performance implications of building elements and how these satisfy various functional criteria. These building elements in turn may be related to construction materials, components and component assemblies. This paper presents two prototype knowledge-based systems, one dealing with the external envelope and the other with the internal space division of buildings. Each is "component specific" and is based upon its own model of the overall construction. This paper argues that "CAAD requires component specific knowledge bases and that integration of these knowledge bases into a knowledge-based design system for complete buildings can only occur if every knowledge base relates to a single coordinated construction model".
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 9999
authors Coxe, W., Hartung, N.F., Hochberg, H.H., Lewis, B.J., Maister, D.H., Mattox, R.F. and Piven, P.A.
year 1987
title Success Strategies for Design Professionals
source New York, McGraw-Hill
summary As consultants with the opportunity to analyze literally hundreds of professional design firms, we have found the search for ideal management methods challenging. Each time we've observed a format that appears to work well for some or many firms, an exception has soon appeared, contradicting what looked like a good rule to follow. For example, some firms do outstanding work organized as project teams, others are very successful with a departmentalized project structure, and still others get good results with a studio format. One of the major puzzles for observers has been finding a relation between the project delivery system used by firms (that is, "how we do our work") and how the organization itself is operated (that is, "how we structure and run the firm"). After years of study and trial and error, a model has begun to emerge that holds promise for creating some order among these issues. At the heart of this model is the recognition that although no one strategy fits all firms, there is a family of understandable principles from which almost any firm of design professionals can devise its own best strategy. We call these the SuperPositioning principles. This book sets forth the theory, a set of master strategies derived from it, and some thoughts on how to put the principles to use. We look forward to further learning in the years ahead from the experience of professionals who apply the principles in their own firms.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 0748
authors Coyne, R.D., Rosenman, M.A. and Radford, A.D. (et.al.)
year 1987
title Innovation and Creativity in Knowledge-based CAD
source Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1987. pp. 435-465
summary The authors examine the creativity of knowledge-based design systems from a narrow information processing perspective. As a property of the design process innovation and creativity can be identified by observing both the quality of the product, and also the characteristics of the process itself. The key theme running through the discussion is the acquisition of knowledge as the key to understanding creativity. This involves not only the ability of a system to acquire knowledge, but also its ability to control its own processes and change its own structure. In order to discuss this view a model of design systems is put forward in which a distinction between interpretative and syntactic subsystems for innovation and creativity is made
keywords design process, knowledge base, systems, creativity, knowledge acquisition, representation
series CADline
email Richard.Coyne@ed.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/17 08:13

_id 0518
authors Degelman, Larry O. and Miranda, Valerian
year 1987
title Development of Interfaces for CAD Processing in Architecture
source Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Raleigh (North Carolina / USA) 1987, pp. 95-104
summary Substantial efforts within Europe and Japan, as well as the U.S., have been placed on automating construction processes within the building industry, while lesser efforts have been focused on computer integration in the design processes. This paper addresses the design end of the design/build spectrum and how this subject is approached in the educational and research programs at Texas A&M University. The problems of fragmentation and incompatibility of existing software data bases for building design are recognized as being the major drawbacks to significant progress in Computer-Aided Design. This is followed by a description of proposed models for future interfaces and communications linkages necessary for successful computer integration in the building design process.

Efforts in the area of CAD development are undertaken within the "computers in architecture" emphasis area in the PhD program at this university and are targeted at resolution of the CAD interface problems. This happens in both the teaching and research programs. Initially, the communication problems between the building design team and the building systems software are being approached through a PhD-level course in software development for building design problems. In this context, the non-graphical aspects of CAD are being addressed through the development of user friendly, tutorial- type software. Longer range research objectives are directed at the special three-way interfaces between the (1) Design Team, (2) Graphics Handler, and (3) Analytical Engine, and the linkages of these to the Common Data Base.

series ACADIA
email l-degelman@neo.tamu.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id ec19
authors Dhar, Vasant and Pople, Harry E.
year 1987
title Rule-Based Versus Structure- Base Models for Explaining Generating Expert Behavior
source Communications of the ACM. June, 1987. vol. 30: pp. 542-554 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Flexible representations are required in order to understand and generate expert behavior. In this article the authors argue for a representation that contains partial model components that are synthesized into qualitative models containing entities and relationships relevant to the domain. The model components can be replaced and arranged in response to changes in the task environment. The authors have found this 'model constructor' to be useful in synthesizing models that explain and generate expert behavior, and have explored its ability to support decision making in the problem domain of business resource planning, where reasoning is based on models that evolve in response to changing external conditions or internal policies
keywords AI, cognition, modeling, expert systems, knowledge base, representation
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 73aa
authors Duelund Mortensen, Peder and Zahle, Karen (ed.)
year 1987
title Proceedings of the 1st European Full-Scale Workshop Conference
source Proceedings of the 1st European Full-Scale Workshop Conference / ISBN 87-88373-20-7 / Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-16 January 1987, 67 p.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2003/08/25 08:12

_id 84ca
authors Dupagne, A.
year 1987
title Teaching Machines. A Creative Revival of Architectural Education or a Pernicious Restoration of Technical Dominance?
source Architectural Education and the Information Explosion [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Zurich (Switzerland) 5-7 September 1987.
summary Architectural design is not a science nor a technology. Architectural design is a praxis of both. It embodies knowledge coming from a large range of varied domains, like policy, culture, economy, environmental science, psychology, ..., but it must be clearly distinguished from Bach. It has little to do with the knowledge development or with a better understanding of physical phenomena. Architectural design is a creative activity generating products that intend to achieve: (-) the fulfilment of individual and social needs; (-) serve certain purposes; (-) in order to change the world. // It is a purposeful activity intervening directly on the built environment in order to intentionally modify it. Therefore, teaching architectural design can reasonably be organized as a training for action and, by contrast, the knowledge attainment becomes a relatively secondary objective.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/18 06:58

_id 68cb
authors Fenves, Stephen J. and Baker, Nelson C.
year 1987
title Spatial and Functional Representation Language for Structural Design
source 21 p. : ill. Pittsburgh: Engineering Design Research Center, CMU, December, 1987. includes bibliography
summary Knowledge-based systems for structural design developed to date have used simple geometric representations which have not provided adequate spatial reasoning. Shape grammars are suggested as a representation for a knowledge-based system capable of performing spatial and functional reasoning. The representation needs to serve all disciplines involved in the design process, where different semantics of each discipline are associated with the same spatial information about design objects. The representation is demonstrated in the building design environment, where possible structural systems can be generated dependent upon the building's spatial layout
keywords representation, shape grammars, structures, design, problem solving, planning, civil engineering, architecture
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id aa0b
authors Fenves, Stephen J.
year 1987
title Role of Artificial Intelligence and Knowledge-Base Expert System Methods in Civil Engineering
source 20, [21] p. Pittsburgh: Engineering Design Research Center, Carnegie Mellon University, December, 1987. includes bibliography
summary Present use of computers in civil engineering is largely devoted to numeric, algorithmic calculations. This mode is not appropriate for the empirical, heuristic, ill-structured problems of civil engineering practice. The paper reviews recent work in artificial intelligence and expert systems addressing these latter issues, identifies the distinctive features of engineering knowledge based systems, the roles of such systems, and attempts to predict their evolution
keywords AI, expert systems, knowledge base, design, methods, civil engineering
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 224d
authors Fiebrich, Rolf-Dieter
year 1987
title The Connection Machine : A General Purpose Accelerator for VLSI CAD
source COMPCON 87. IEEE Computer Society, Spring, 1987. pp. 211-214 : ill. includes a short bibliography
summary This paper first summarizes the implementation of several computation-intensive CAD algorithms on the Connection Machine, a massively parallel computer. It then discusses parallel operations of a memory resident design data base currently under development. This data base is the central component to which all CAD tools interface. Substantial speedups are obtained for tasks like simulation and placement as well as database operations. Highly interactive capabilities further shorten the design cycle
keywords CAD, algorithms, database, architecture, parallel processing, programming, geometric modeling, integrated circuits, design, electrical engineering, CAE
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id 2389
authors Fischler, Martin A. and Firschein, Oscar
year 1987
title Intelligence : The Eye, The Brain, and the Computer
source xiv, 331 p. [4] p. of plates : ill. ( some col.) Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Pub Co., 1987. includes bibliography: p. 311-323 and index.
summary This book presents a view of intelligence, both human and machine. It provides an understanding of the concept of intelligence, the nature of the cognitive and perceptual capabilities of people and computers and the representations and algorithms used to attain intelligent behavior
keywords AI, learning, cognition, perception, representation, theory
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id e8f1
authors Frazer, J.
year 1988
title Plastic Modelling - The Flexible Modelling of the Logic of Structure and Spaces
source CAAD futures 87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 199-208
summary Plastic Modelling is a technique which allows the computer model to be easily developed and manipulated. In particular it models not only building geometry but also logical relationships between elements, components, structure and spaces. It is the author's contention that this approach to solid modelling is particularly suitable for the interactive development of architectural design ideas.
series CAAD Futures
email sdfrazer@polyu.edu.hk
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 2613
authors Frew, Robert S.
year 1990
title The Organization of CAD Teaching in Design Schools
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures 89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 387-392
summary This paper is the result of a survey of European CAD teaching that was conducted in 1987 and 1988. It makes comparisons with teaching at the Yale School of Architecture, and goes on to analyze the issues that should be addressed in a CAD program in a school of architecture.
series CAAD Futures
email frewr1@southernct.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id a7c1
authors Galle, Per
year 1987
title A Basic Problem Definition Language for Automated Floor Plan Design
source 113 p. 1987. DIKU Research Report No. 87/4
summary CADLINE has abstract only. Algorithms for automated floor plan design need a machine- readable description of properties of the desired floor plans. In this report BPDL ('Basic Problem Definition Language'), a rudimentary language for stating such descriptions, is developed. The development is based on a discussion of pragmatic aspects of possible features of the language. The resulting language is described by formal definitions of syntax and semantics, accompanied by informal explanations. Finally, experiments with a floor plan design algorithm that supports BPDL are reported and it is concluded that even a rudimentary language like BPDL can describe relatively non- trivial floor plan layouts, provided a set of geometrical primitives, attributes and relations that make up the language are carefully chosen. Further research along the lines of BPDL is suggested, and the importance of a systematic approach to development of future specification languages for architectural design is stressed
keywords architecture, floor plans, design, attributes, relations, semantics, algorithms, synthesis, planning, languages
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id 801f
authors Galle, Per
year 1987
title Branch & Sample : Systematic Combinatorial Search without Optimization
source 73 p. 1987. DIKU Research Report No. 87/5. CADLINE has abstract only
summary Many constraint satisfaction problems are combinatorically explosive, i.e. have far too many solutions. Optimization techniques may help in selecting solutions for consideration, but a reasonable measure of optimality is not always at hand. The branch & sample algorithm is presented as an alternative to optimization. If the constraints themselves limit the solution set sufficiently, the algorithm finds all solutions, but otherwise a suitable number of solutions (determined by the user) is generated, such that each new solution has a maximal distance to those already generated. The distance measure used is a so called ultrametric distance expressible in terms of the search tree: solutions are viewed as m-tuples of fixed length, each of whose m decision variables corresponds to a level in the search tree. The distance between two solutions is the number of edges from their leaf nodes to the closest common predecessor node in the tree. For problems whose decision variables depend on each other (as is often the case) the set of solutions generated in this way corresponds well to the intuitive notion of a 'representative sample.' The principles of Branch & Sample are first introduced informally, then the algorithm is developed by stepwise refinement, and two examples of its use are given. A fully tested application-independent implementation of the algorithm in C is given as an appendix
keywords algorithms, combinatorics, search, constraints, floor plans, layout, synthesis, architecture
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id 2ac0
authors Galle, Per
year 1987
title A Formalized Concept of Sketching in Automated Floor Plan Design
source 177 p. 1987. DIKO Research Report No.87/3
summary CADLINE has abstract only. Automated floor plan design, though originally motivated by the difficulties encountered by architects manually designing building layouts, raise several questions that may be of relevance to related application areas as well. e.g. design of electronic circuitry. One such question is, 'how do we come from a given set of constraints on size and placement of rooms (components) to a set of floor plans (circuit layouts) that satisfy these constraints?' In manual architectural design, sketches are used as an intermediate step. The present work is a study of a number of formalizations of the sketch concept which have been or could be used in computer- generation of architectural floor plans. A particular type of sketch, called the 'delta-derivative', is suggested and developed. The delta-derivative of a desired solution plan is an approximation of that solution plan and usually several other similar or 'equivalent' solutions. The idea is to generate sketches ('abstract' plans) before solutions ('concrete' plans), because they are simpler to compute, weeding out sketches that are not 'promising', and trying to refine the remaining sketches into solutions proper, thus limiting the amount of combinatorial search. Several abstraction levels of sketches may be used in this process. However, constraints as specified by the user of an automated design system are assumed to apply to the solutions; therefore a major theoretical problem which is addressed in the report is the derivation of sketch-level constraints that define which sketches to be generated. A comprehensive floor plan design system based on these ideas has been implemented, and empirical results are reported which confirms certain predicted advantages of delta-derivatives but also shows that the sketch-level constraints based on the developed theory are too weak if used alone; they allow generation of too many sketches which cannot possibly be refined into solutions. The report finally conjectures a solution to this problem
keywords CAD, planning, architecture, floor plans, design, combinatorics, programming, abstraction
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id 476d
authors Gero, J. and Maher, M.
year 1988
title Future Roles of Knowledge-based Systems in the Design Process
source CAAD futures 87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 81-90
summary This paper examines the future roles of knowledge-based systems in the design process. It commences with a brief review of computer-aided design and knowledge-based systems prior to examining the present and future roles of knowledge-based systems in design under the headings of: design analysis/formulation; design synthesis; and design evaluation. The paper concludes with a discussion on design integration, novel design, and detail design.
series CAAD Futures
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 8eb5
authors Gero, John S. (Conference Chairman and Editor)
year 1987
title Expert Systems in Computer-Aided Design
source IFIP WG 5.2 Working Conference on Expert Systems in Computer-Aided Design. proceedings. 1987. 533 p. : ill. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1987. Also published as a book by North Holland (Amsterdam, 1987)
summary The aim of the Expert Systems in Computer-Aided Design conference was to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas and experiences related to expert systems in computer-aided design, to present and explore the state-of-the-art of expert systems in computer-aided design, to delineate future directions in both research and practice and to promote further development. Seventeen of the nineteen papers accepted were presented with each presentation followed by a round table discussion. The discussion was taped, transcribed and edited and forms part of this volume. The authors came from seven countries, whilst the attendees represented some thirteen nationalities. There is an implicit structure in the ordering of the papers, commencing with system architectures, representation tools through applications to specific design concerns. These papers demonstrate the wide variety of knowledge engineering tools needed in computer-aided design. It is interesting to observe the progression over these three conferences in the ratio of computer scientists to design researchers amongst the authors. The balance over the period has swung from a predominance of computer scientists to a predominance of design researchers. We are beginning to see knowledge engineering development driven by designers' needs
keywords CAD, expert systems, AI, design
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 2f5a
authors Gero, John S. and Coyne, Richard D.
year 1987
title Knowledge-based Planning as a Design Paradigm
source Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1987. pp. 289-323 : tables. includes bibliography
summary The application of sequential planning to the design process is discussed, considering design as a search through a space of states. The procedures which transform states utilize a kind of design knowledge. Planning is considered as a method of controlling the design process. Various paradigms of planning are discussed along with their application to design. The authors discuss forward deduction and backtracking, backward deduction hierarchical planning and constructive approaches to planning. These lead to the view that control in design is a multi-level process. The paradigms are illustrated with examples implemented in PROLOG. With this it is shown that knowledge-based planning is a good design paradigm
keywords control, design process, planning, PROLOG, knowledge base
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/17 08:17

_id c948
authors Gero, John S. and Maher, Mary Lou
year 1987
title A Future Role of Knowledge-based Systems in the Design Process
source CAAD Futures'87 International Conference Computer Aided Architectural Design. May, 1987. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 81-90. includes bibliography
summary This paper examines the future role of knowledge-based systems in the design process. It commences with a brief review of computer-aided design and knowledge-based systems prior to examining the present and future roles of knowledge- based systems in design under the headings of: Design Analysis (design formulation); Design Synthesis; Design Evaluation; and Detail Design. The paper concludes with a discussion on design integration and on novel design
keywords design process, knowledge base, systems, CAD, synthesis, evaluation, analysis, detailing
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

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