CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 8a38
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Parks, Linda M.
year 1987
title Natural Language Prototypes for Analyzing Design Standards
source Southampton, U.K: Computational Mechanics Publications, 1987. pp. 147-160
summary CADLINE has abstract only. This paper addresses the use of natural language processing for acquiring, processing, and representing knowledge from design standards. A standard is a set of provisions providing principles, models, rules, limits, and particulars that are established by some authority for some purpose. In their textual form as written documents, design standards cannot directly be used in computer-aided design (CAD) systems. This paper demonstrates how standards can be transformed, using natural language processing techniques, from their textual form to alternative representations that more readily lend themselves to use in computer-aided design systems, supporting a variety of design applications. The language being transformed is the Building Officials and Code Administrators Building Code, one set of requirements that govern the design of buildings. Prototype computer subsystems have been developed that transform natural language sentences to case-grammar format and finally to subject-relationship- object triplets. The three prototypes that achieve these transformations are described: a parser, a semantic analyzer, and a query system. During one processing cycle, the system identifies that data items in a provision and the relationships between the data items. It also interacts with the user to add new data items to its knowledge bases, to verify data items found, and to add to its vocabulary. Alternatively, it responds to natural-language questions about the contents of the standard by identifying the relevant provisions within the standards. Processing formal documents requires knowledge about vocabulary, word-order, time, semantics, reference, and discourse. Despite the relative clarity of formal writing as it occurs in standards, the difficulties of implied responsibility, multiple meanings, and implied data items remain. A long-term research program at North Carolina State University has been defined that builds on these prototypes to further investigate knowledge acquisition and representation for standards
keywords design, standards, analysis, AI, natural languages
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id eb5f
authors Al-Sallal, Khaled A. and Degelman, Larry 0.
year 1994
title A Hypermedia Model for Supporting Energy Design in Buildings
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 39-49
summary Several studies have discussed the limitations of the available CAAD tools and have proposed solutions [Brown and Novitski 1987, Brown 1990, Degelman and Kim 1988, Schuman et al 1988]. The lack of integration between the different tasks that these programs address and the design process is a major problem. Schuman et al [1988] argued that in architectural design many issues must be considered simultaneously before the synthesis of a final product can take place. Studies by Brown and Novitski [1987] and Brown [1990] discussed the difficulties involved with integrating technical considerations in the creative architectural process. One aspect of the problem is the neglect of technical factors during the initial phase of the design that, as the authors argued, results from changing the work environment and the laborious nature of the design process. Many of the current programs require the user to input a great deal of numerical values that are needed for the energy analysis. Although there are some programs that attempt to assist the user by setting default values, these programs distract the user with their extensive arrays of data. The appropriate design tool is the one that helps the user to easily view the principal components of the building design and specify their behaviors and interactions. Data abstraction and information parsimony are the key concepts in developing a successful design tool. Three different approaches for developing an appropriate CAAD tool were found in the literature. Although there are several similarities among them, each is unique in solving certain aspects of the problem. Brown and Novitski [1987] emphasize the learning factor of the tool as well as its highly graphical user interface. Degelman and Kim [1988] emphasize knowledge acquisition and the provision of simulation modules. The Windows and Daylighting Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) emphasizes the dynamic structuring of information, the intelligent linking of data, the integrity of the different issues of design and the design process, and the extensive use of images [Schuman et al 19881, these attributes incidentally define the word hypermedia. The LBL model, which uses hypermedia, seems to be the more promising direction for this type of research. However, there is still a need to establish a new model that integrates all aspects of the problem. The areas in which the present research departs from the LBL model can be listed as follows: it acknowledges the necessity of regarding the user as the center of the CAAD tool design, it develops a model that is based on one of the high level theories of human-computer interaction, and it develops a prototype tool that conforms to the model.

series ACADIA
email l-degelman@neo.tamu.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id ae4f
authors Kalay, Yehuda E., Swerdloff, Lucien M. and Majkowski, Bruce R.
year 1987
title Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research : Summary of Proposed Research Plan
source March, 1987. [8] p. includes bibliography
summary The potentials of recent advancements in computer-driven, information-rich technologies have begun to effect the disciplines of architecture, planning, and design. The roles of computer-aided design tools are, however, still not completely specified, and it is the responsibility of research institutes, and in particular schools of architecture and design, to explore, define, and develop the uses of computers in architecture, planning, and design. The CAD program at the School of Architecture and Planning is based on the premise that research and education are both essential and interdependent components which provide students with necessary technical skills, improve methods of teaching fundamental design knowledge, and foster the exploration and development of new technologies and methodologies for computers in design. The program has been implemented in what the authors have termed the 'Triad Methodology' of computer-aided architectural design: the teaching of CAD principles to students, the development of a strong research program, and the use of computer tools to enhance the school's general curriculum. The CAD Lab functions as a conduit for basic and advanced research intended to enhance architecture and planning through the use of computers. The faculty and graduate students have already demonstrated their interest and ability to undertake state of the art research in CAD. It is expected that these interests will continue and proliferate in the future. This paper briefly outlines the direction, scope, and required resources for computer related research at the School of Architecture and Planning in Buffalo
keywords CAD, education, architecture, research
series CADline
email kalay@socrates.berkeley.edu
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id diss_kuo
id diss_kuo
authors Kuo, C.J.
year 1999
title Unsupervised Dynamic Concurrent Computer-Aided Design Assistant
source Los Angeles: UCLA
summary The increasing capability of computer-aided architectural design systems has strengthened the role that the computer plays in the workplace. Due to the complexity of developing new techniques and research, these systems are undertaken mostly by scientists and engineers without significant architectural input (Willey, 1991). The design concept of these systems may be based on a well-defined and well-understood process, which is not yet realized in architectural design (Galle, 1994). The output of such research may not be easily adapted into the design process. Most of the techniques assume a complete understanding of the design space (Gero and Maher, 1987) (Willey, 1991). The description or construction of the design space is always time and space consuming, and the result can never be complete due to the ever-changing nature of architectural design. This research intends to initiate a solution for the above problems. The proposed system is an unsupervised-dynamic-concurrent-computer-aided-design assistant. The “unsupervised” means the learning process is not supervised by the user because it is against the designer's nature to “think-aloud” in the design studio and it also increases the work load. It is dynamic because the size of the knowledge base is constantly changing. Concurrent means that there are multiple procedures active simultaneously. This research focuses on learning the operational knowledge from an individual designer and reapplying it in future designs. A computer system for this experiment is constructed. It is capable of The preliminary result shows a positive feedback from test subjects. The purpose of this research is to suggest a potent computational frame within which future developments may flourish.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/11/28 06:37

_id 4910
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Watson, Bruce R.
year 1987
title A Knowledge-Based Approach to Engineering Information Retrieval and Management
source London, UK: Chapman and Hall Ltd., 1987. pp. 267-295
summary Building design, construction, operation, maintenance, and control are all processes that have achieved various levels of computer use. Although the degree of computerization varies significantly, one common aspect of the computing needs of each process is an abundance of data in the form of tables, standards, project definition information, catalogs, etc. In most cases this data is stored in files which are independently used for input to stand-alone single-process application programs, such as a structural analysis application. The utility of these independent files is therefore limited to a single application. As concepts of integration of engineering applications evolved, the use of databases and database management systems (DBMS) increased. A number of issues of significant concern emerged. First, there is a need to retrieve data from many independent, possibly widely distributed databases. Second, there is a need for a uniform means of doing so. Third, such databases routinely undergo dynamic change. Changes in a database schema commonly result from the evolution of a design, from changes in the design process itself, and from changes in other subsequent downstream processes. Such continuing changes must be reflected in the database schemas and they subsequently require that application programs be updated and that online users be educated on a continuing basis. This chapter describes a knowledge-based expert system that provides access to and integration of the many underlying databases needed to support the building design/construction process. The unique aspect of the expert system presented in this chapter is its capture of the knowledge that an experienced human user incorporates in his search for data in a database, i.e., it seeks to identify and use the generic knowledge needed to operate a DBMS to retrieve data. This knowledge is used by the interface to enable both the online users and the application programs to request data without knowing the data's location or precisely how to ask for it. Further, the interface makes use of mechanisms that allow the user to request data without knowing the exact name by which it is stored in the database. In doing so it formalizes the levels of complexity of that knowledge and points out the multidisciplinary applications of the research results
keywords civil engineering, knowledge base, database, expert systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id ddss9846
id ddss9846
authors Rigatti, Decio
year 1998
title Rubem Berta Housing Estate: Order and Structure, Designand Use
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary The main goal of this paper is to investigate, through some space configurational based tools, a quite common phenomenon found in many different locations in Brazil, concerning the process of urban changes individually introduced by dwellers of public housing estates. A significant number of housing estates, particularly those designed according to rationalist concepts, seem to be unable to support space related social requirements and are then widely transformed when compared to the original layouts. Beyond the quantitative features, the morphological changes that take place in those housing estates mean a fundamental new approach to understand how completely new urban structures can arisefrom the space produced by a comprehensive urban design, took as a starting point for the transformations made by the dwellers of those settlements. As a case study is analysed the Rubem Berta Housing Estate which was built in Porto Alegre/RS, Brazil, for 20,000 people in the late 70’s. Since the begining of its occupation in 1986 and the invasion that took place in 1987, the urban transformations there have never stopped. It’s possible to realize that the dwellers individually use some constant physical rules to define the new settlement which are very similar within the estate itself and, at the same time, very similar to those found in other transformed housing estates of this sort. The physical rules introduced change the features of the entire settlement in two different levels: a) locally, through the transformations introduced in order to solve individual needs; b) globally, the local rules of physical transformations produce a new overall structure for the whole urban complex. The knowledge of this process makes it possible to bring to the surface of architectural theory some generic configurational codes that can be used as a tool for designing public housing estates in Brazil.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 2622
authors Schmitt, G.
year 1988
title Expert Systems and Interactive Fractal Generators in Design and Evaluation
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 91-106
summary Microcomputer based interactive programmable drafting programs and analysis packages are setting new standards for design support, systems in architectural offices. These programs allow the representation and performance simulation of design proposals with one tool, but they lack the ability to represent knowledge concerning relations between design and artifact. While they can expediate the traditional design and analysis process, they do not fundamentally improve it. We shall describe three computationally related approaches which could be a step towards a necessary paradigm change in developing design software. These approaches deal with expert design generators and evaluators, function oriented programming, and fractal design machines.
series CAAD Futures
email gerhard.schmitt@sl.ethz.ch
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 016a
authors Balachandran, M. B. and Gero, John S.
year 1987
title A Knowledge-based Approach to Mathematical Design Modeling and Optimization
source engineering Optimization. 1987. vol. 12: pp. 91-115
summary Optimization is a well understood process in design domains. Designers formulate their design problems as single criterion or multicriteria optimization problems and then select an appropriate optimization algorithm to search for the optimal values for the design variables. The formulation and algorithm selection procedures have been considered to be activities which relied on substantive human knowledge. This paper describes a computer system, OPTIMA, which formulates design optimization problems from a pseudo-English description into canonical algebraic expressions. It then recognizes the formulation and selects appropriate algorithm(s) for its solution. Finally, it runs the selected algorithm(s) and sends the results back to the original descriptions. Areas of expert knowledge involved in carrying out the above tasks are identified. Such knowledge is explicitly encoded in the system. The basic philosophy and key features of the system are described and are illustrated with examples
keywords structures, algorithms, knowledge base, systems, optimization, engineering
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 08a1
authors Balachandran, M.B. and Gero, John S.
year 1987
title A Knowledge-based Graphical Interface for Structural Design
source Southampton: CM Publications, 1987. pp. 335-346
summary This paper describes a knowledge-based graphical interface for the domain of structural engineering. The key aspects of the system include graphics interpretation, feature extraction of graphic objects and the identification of the entity itself. Details of the implementation of a prototype system using Prolog and C are provided. The domain knowledge is represented as frames. Examples are given to illustrate the performance of the system
keywords structures, user interface, knowledge base, systems, design, engineering, computer graphics, frames
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c568
authors Balachandran, M.B. and John S. Gero
year 1987
title A Model for Knowledge Based Graphical Interfaces
source AI '87: Proceedings of the Australian Joint Artificial Intelligence Conference. 1987. pp. 505-521. Also published in Artificial Intelligence Developments and Applications edited by J. S. Gero and R Stanton, North-Holland Pub. 1988. -- CADLINE has abstract only.
summary This paper describes a model for knowledge-based graphical interface which incorporates a variety of knowledge of the domain of application. The key issues considered include graphics interpretation, extraction of features of graphics objects and identification of prototype objects. The role of such knowledge-based interfaces in computer-aided design is discussed. A prototype system developed in Prolog and C is described and its application in the domain of structural engineering is demonstrated
keywords user interface, computer graphics, knowledge base, systems, civil engineering, structures
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 696c
authors Beheshti, M. and Monroy, M.
year 1988
title Requirements for Developing an Information System for Architecture
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 149-170
summary This paper discusses possibilities of developing new tools for architectural design. It argues that architects should meet the challenge of information technology and computer-based design techniques. One such attempt has been the first phase of the development of an architectural design information system (ADIS), also an architectural design decision support system. The system should benefit from the developments of the artificial intelligence to enable the architect to have access to information required to carry out design work. In other words: the system functions as a huge on-line electronic library of architecture, containing up-to-date architectural design information, literature, documents, etc. At the same time, the system offers necessary design aids such as computer programs for design process, drawing programs, evaluation programs, cost calculation programs, etc. The system also provides data communication between the architect and members of the design coalition team. This is found to be of vital importance in the architectural design process, because it can enable the architect to fit in changes, brought about in the project by different parties. Furthermore, they will be able, to oversee promptly the consequences of changes or decisions in a comprehensive manner. The system will offer advantages over the more commonly applied microcomputer based CAAD and IGDM (integrated graphics database management) systems, or even larger systems available to an architect. Computer programs as well as hardware change rapidly and become obsolete. Therefore, unrelenting investment pressure to up-date both software and hardware exists. The financial burden of this is heavy, in particular for smaller architectural practices (for instance an architect working for himself or herself and usually with few or no permanent staff). ADIS, as an on-line architectural design aid, is constantly up-dated by its own organisation. This task will be co-ordinated by the ADIS data- base administrator (DBA). The processing possibilities of the system are faster, therefore more complex processing tasks can be handled. Complicated large graphic data files, can be easily retrieved and manipulated by ADIS, a large system. In addition, the cost of an on-line system will be much less than any other system. The system is based on one model of the architectural design process, but will eventually contain a variety of design models, as it develops. The development of the system will be an evolutionary process, making use of its users' feed-back system. ADIS is seen as a step towards full automation of architectural design practices. Apart from being an architectural design support system, ADIS will assist the architect in his/her administrative and organisational activities.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id e861
authors Burnham, G.T.
year 1987
title Microcomputer-Based Expert System for the Design of Operational Military Airfields
source Department of Architectural Science, University of Sydney
summary This thesis develops a number of prototypical expert systems on a microcomputer to assist the military designer or engineer with facets of military operational airfield design. An existing expert system shell BUILD written in PROLOG-1 was altered to provide a more permanent record of the results of the system execution. The individual knowledge base includes production rules which conform to the BUILD syntax requirements. A number of additional clauses related to the knowledge base are written in PROLOG-1. The expert system consists of some 200 rules and an additional 36 clauses. The rules contain knowledge on soil characteristics pertinent to airfields, factors involved in calculating lengths of runways and factors for determining the effort involved in construction. The knowledge for the expert systems was gathered from a combination of civilian and military literature sources, the author's own experience, and discussions with military and air force personnel currently engaged in the design, planning and construction of these facilities. Development of these prototypical expert systems demonstrates the feasibility of implementing expert systems on microcomputers in this domain. Furthermore, it demonstrates their possible application to military engineering design particularly where the design process relies on a large amount of tabulated data and heuristic knowledge. It is this type of knowledge that is often used by the military engineer to find a timely problem solution when provided with a range of options. [Unpublished. -- CADLINE has abstract only.]
keywords Applications, Military Engineering, Expert Systems, Design, Planning
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2002/12/14 18:15

_id a1a1
authors Cornick, T. and Bull, S.
year 1988
title Expert Systems for Detail Design in Building
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 117-126
summary Computer-Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) requires detailed knowledge of the construction of building elements to be effective as a complete design aid. Knowledge-based systems provide the tools for both encapsulating the "rules" of construction - i.e. the knowledge of good construction practice gained from experience - and relating those rules to geometric representation of building spaces and elements. The "rules" of construction are based upon the production and performance implications of building elements and how these satisfy various functional criteria. These building elements in turn may be related to construction materials, components and component assemblies. This paper presents two prototype knowledge-based systems, one dealing with the external envelope and the other with the internal space division of buildings. Each is "component specific" and is based upon its own model of the overall construction. This paper argues that "CAAD requires component specific knowledge bases and that integration of these knowledge bases into a knowledge-based design system for complete buildings can only occur if every knowledge base relates to a single coordinated construction model".
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 0748
authors Coyne, R.D., Rosenman, M.A. and Radford, A.D. (et.al.)
year 1987
title Innovation and Creativity in Knowledge-based CAD
source Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1987. pp. 435-465
summary The authors examine the creativity of knowledge-based design systems from a narrow information processing perspective. As a property of the design process innovation and creativity can be identified by observing both the quality of the product, and also the characteristics of the process itself. The key theme running through the discussion is the acquisition of knowledge as the key to understanding creativity. This involves not only the ability of a system to acquire knowledge, but also its ability to control its own processes and change its own structure. In order to discuss this view a model of design systems is put forward in which a distinction between interpretative and syntactic subsystems for innovation and creativity is made
keywords design process, knowledge base, systems, creativity, knowledge acquisition, representation
series CADline
email Richard.Coyne@ed.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/17 08:13

_id e7a8
authors Emde, H.
year 1988
title Geometrical Fundamentals for Design and Visualization of Spatial Objects
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 171-178
summary Every architectural object is a 3-dimensional entity of the human environment, haptically tangible and optically visible. During the architectural process of planning every object should be designed as a body and should be visualized in pictures. Thus the parts of construction get an order in space and the steps of construction get an order in time. The ideal planning object is a simulated anticipation of the real building object, which is to be performed later on. The possibility to relate the planning object immediately to the building object relies on the fact that they both have the same "geometry" This means: both can be described in the same geometric manner. Creating and visualizing spatial objects is based on geometrical fundamentals. Theoretical knowledge and practical control of these fundamentals is essential for the faultless construction and the realistic presentation of architectural objects. Therefore they have to be taught and learned thoroughly in the course of an architectural education. Geometrical design includes the forming of object- models (geometry of body boundaries), the structuring of object-hierarchies (geometry of body combinations) and the colouring of objects. Geometrical visualization includes controlling the processes of motion, of the bodies (when moving objects) and of the center of observation (when moving subjects) as well as the representation of 3-dimensional objects in 2- dimensional pictures and sequences of pictures. All these activities of architects are instances of geometrical information processing. They can be performed with the aid of computers. As for the computer this requires suitable hardware and software, as for the architect it requires suitable knowledge and capabilities to be able to talk about and to recall the perceivable objects and processes of the design with logic abstracts (language of geometry). In contrast to logical, numerical and textual informations the geometric informations concerning spatial objects are of much higher complexity. Usually these complexes of information are absorbed, processed and transmitted by the architect in a perceptive manner. The computer support in the field of geometry assumes that the processing of perceptions of the human consciousness can be converted by the computer as a framework of logical relations. Computer aided construction and representation require both suited devices for haptical and optical communication and suitable programs in particular.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 68cb
authors Fenves, Stephen J. and Baker, Nelson C.
year 1987
title Spatial and Functional Representation Language for Structural Design
source 21 p. : ill. Pittsburgh: Engineering Design Research Center, CMU, December, 1987. includes bibliography
summary Knowledge-based systems for structural design developed to date have used simple geometric representations which have not provided adequate spatial reasoning. Shape grammars are suggested as a representation for a knowledge-based system capable of performing spatial and functional reasoning. The representation needs to serve all disciplines involved in the design process, where different semantics of each discipline are associated with the same spatial information about design objects. The representation is demonstrated in the building design environment, where possible structural systems can be generated dependent upon the building's spatial layout
keywords representation, shape grammars, structures, design, problem solving, planning, civil engineering, architecture
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id cd8d
authors Herbert, Daniel M.
year 1987
title Study Drawings in Architectural Design: Applications for CAD Systems
source Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Raleigh (North Carolina / USA) 1987, pp. 157-168
summary To guide their future development, research and teaching in computer-aided design must look beyond the technical capabilities of computer systems to establish a theoretical foundation based on known processes in design. This paper suggests that such a theoretical foundation can be derived by analyzing architectural study drawings -- defined as the rough drawings that architects make in the exploratory stages of design -- to determine their epistemelogical properties. The analysis brings forward concepts from a number of disciplines related to the structure of human knowledge to identify five properties of study drawings. Based on these properties, the paper proposes strategies for application to the next generation of research and teaching in CAD systems.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/01/01 18:13

_id 8385
authors Holtz, Neal M. and Rasdorf, William J.
year 1988
title An Evaluation of Programming Languages and Language Features for Engineering Software Development
source International Journal of Engineering with Computers. Springer-Verlag, 1988. vol. 3: pp. 183-199
summary Also published as 'Procedural Programming Languages for the Development of CAD and CAE Systems Software,' in the proceedings of ASME International Conference on Computers in Engineering (1987 : New York, NY). The scope of engineering software has increased dramatically in the past decade. In its early years, most engineering applications were concerned solely with solving difficult numerical problems, and little attention was paid to man- machine interaction, to data management, or to integrated software systems. Now computers solve a much wider variety of problems, including those in which numerical computations are less predominant. In addition, completely new areas of engineering applications such as artificial intelligence have recently emerged. It is well recognized that the particular programming language used to develop an engineering application can dramatically affect the development cost, operating cost. reliability, and usability of the resulting software. With the increase in the variety, functionality, and complexity of engineering software, with its more widespread use, and with its increasing importance, more attention must be paid to programming language suitability so that rational decisions regarding language selection may be made. It is important that professional engineers be aware of the issues addressed in this paper, for it is they who must design, acquire, and use applications software, as well as occasionally develop or manage its development. This paper addresses the need for engineers to possess a working knowledge of the fundamentals of computer programming languages. In pursuit of this, the paper briefly reviews the history of four well known programming languages. It then attempts to identify and to look critically at the attributes of programming languages that significantly affect the production of engineering software. The four procedural programming languages chosen for review are those intended for scientific and general purpose programming, FORTRAN 77, C, Pascal, and Modula-2. These languages are compared and some general observations are made. As it is felt important that professional engineers should be able to make informed decisions about programming language selection, the emphasis throughout this paper is on a methodology of evaluation of programming languages. Choosing an appropriate language can be a complex task and many factors must be considered. Consequently, fundamentals are stressed
keywords programming, engineering, languages, software, management, evaluation, FORTRAN, C, PASCAL, MODULA-2, CAD, CAE
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c890
authors Hutchinson, Peter J., Rosenman, Michael A. and Gero, John S.
year 1987
title RETWALL : An Expert System for the Selection and Preliminary Design of Earth Retaining Structures
source Knowledge Based Systems. 1987. vol. 1: pp. 11-23
summary This paper describes an expert system for the selection and preliminary design of engineering earth retaining structures. It describes the domain and how the knowledge was acquired from textbooks, questionnaires and interviews. Details of the implementation of RETWALL using the expert system shell BUILD are provided as is a full script of a session
keywords expert systems, knowledge, representation, engineering, applications,knowledge acquisition, software
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id e26f
authors Kalay, Y. (ed.)
year 1987
title Computability of Design
source New York: Wiley & Sons
summary Computer-aided design (CAD) has promised to transform the art and science of architectural design. Yet, despite some significant achievements in the past 3 decades, it has so far failed to do so. This stimulating volume, derived from a symposium held at SUNY, Buffalo in December 1986, explores the reasons why design is so difficult to support by computational means, and what can be done to alleviate this difficulty. Written by an interdisciplinary panel of experts, it presents a varied and comprehensive view of the ways creative design processes can be modelled. The contributors do not all reach the same conclusions, which makes this book lively reading. Topics are arranged into four parts: constructing models of the design process, the computational representation of design knowledge (including spatial information and implicit design intent), methods for computing the design process as a whole (including mathematical programming, expert systems, and shape grammars), and the integration of CAD with traditional design practices.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

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