CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 143

_id 4d3b
authors Archea, John
year 1987
title Puzzle-Making : What Architects Do When No One is Looking
source New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1987. pp. 37-52. includes bibliography
summary The thesis of this paper is that architects work in a manner that is antithetical to problem-solving because they cannot explicate desired effects prior to their realization through the design process. In an attempt to clarify architecture's uncommon mode of action the author suggests that instead of specifying what they are trying to accomplish prior to their attempts to accomplish it as problem-solver do, architects treat design as a search for the most appropriate effects that can be attained in a unique context. They seek sets of combinatorial rules that will result in an internally consistent fit between a kit of parts and the effects that are achieved when those parts are assembled in a certain way
keywords puzzle making, problem solving, architecture, design process
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 696c
authors Beheshti, M. and Monroy, M.
year 1988
title Requirements for Developing an Information System for Architecture
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 149-170
summary This paper discusses possibilities of developing new tools for architectural design. It argues that architects should meet the challenge of information technology and computer-based design techniques. One such attempt has been the first phase of the development of an architectural design information system (ADIS), also an architectural design decision support system. The system should benefit from the developments of the artificial intelligence to enable the architect to have access to information required to carry out design work. In other words: the system functions as a huge on-line electronic library of architecture, containing up-to-date architectural design information, literature, documents, etc. At the same time, the system offers necessary design aids such as computer programs for design process, drawing programs, evaluation programs, cost calculation programs, etc. The system also provides data communication between the architect and members of the design coalition team. This is found to be of vital importance in the architectural design process, because it can enable the architect to fit in changes, brought about in the project by different parties. Furthermore, they will be able, to oversee promptly the consequences of changes or decisions in a comprehensive manner. The system will offer advantages over the more commonly applied microcomputer based CAAD and IGDM (integrated graphics database management) systems, or even larger systems available to an architect. Computer programs as well as hardware change rapidly and become obsolete. Therefore, unrelenting investment pressure to up-date both software and hardware exists. The financial burden of this is heavy, in particular for smaller architectural practices (for instance an architect working for himself or herself and usually with few or no permanent staff). ADIS, as an on-line architectural design aid, is constantly up-dated by its own organisation. This task will be co-ordinated by the ADIS data- base administrator (DBA). The processing possibilities of the system are faster, therefore more complex processing tasks can be handled. Complicated large graphic data files, can be easily retrieved and manipulated by ADIS, a large system. In addition, the cost of an on-line system will be much less than any other system. The system is based on one model of the architectural design process, but will eventually contain a variety of design models, as it develops. The development of the system will be an evolutionary process, making use of its users' feed-back system. ADIS is seen as a step towards full automation of architectural design practices. Apart from being an architectural design support system, ADIS will assist the architect in his/her administrative and organisational activities.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 8cff
authors Fridqvist, Sverker
year 1989
title Computers as a Creative Tool in Architecture
source CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4] Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989, pp. 9.6.1-9.6.4
summary The School of Architecture at Lund Institute of Technology was augmented by the establishment of the Computer Studio in 1987. As a result the school now has a device for teaching and research in the architects' use of computers. We are now conducting several research projects as well as courses and an education project. The third and fourth years of the education at the school of architecture are arranged as education projects instead of traditional lecturing. The students choose from projects that are organised by different departments at the School of Architecture. The issue is that the students will ask for instruction when felt needed, and that learning will therefore be more efficient. The Computer Studio has conducted such a project during the first half of 1989. We have tried to encourage the students to use our different computers and programs in new and creative ways. One of the issues of the computer project is to teach the students how computers are used at the architects offices today as well as expected future developments. The students shall be acquainted well enough with present and future possibilities to make good choices when deciding upon buying computers for architectural use. Another issue is to develop new ways of making and presenting architecture by using computers. As a group the teachers at the school of architecture have a very restrictive attitude towards the use of computers. We hope that our project will open their minds for the possibilities of computers, and to engage them in the development of new ways to use computers creatively in architecture. An interesting question is if the use of computers will yield different outcomes of he students' work than traditional methods. An object for research is whether the added possibilities of considering different aspects of he design by using a computer will make for higher quality of the results.

series eCAADe
email Sverker.Fridqvist@caad.lth.se
more http://www.caad.lth.se/
last changed 1998/08/24 10:13

_id ascaad2006_paper20
id ascaad2006_paper20
authors Chougui, Ali
year 2006
title The Digital Design Process: reflections on architectural design positions on complexity and CAAD
source Computing in Architecture / Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2006), 25-27 April 2006, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
summary These instructions are intended to guide contributors to the Second Architecture is presently engaged in an impatient search for solutions to critical questions about the nature and the identity of the discipline, and digital technology is a key agent for prevailing innovations in architectural design. The problem of complexity underlies all design problems. With the advent of CAD however, Architect’s ability to truly represent complexity has increased considerably. Another source that provides information about dealing with complexity is architectural theory. As Rowe (1987) states, architectural theory constitutes “a corpus of principles that are agreed upon and therefore worthy of emulation”. Architectural theory often is a mixed reflection on the nature of architectural design, design processes, made in descriptive and prescriptive terms (see Kruft 1985). Complexity is obviously not a new issue in architectural theory. Since it is an inherent characteristic of design problems, it has been dealt with in many different ways throughout history. Contemporary architects incorporate the computer in their design process. They produce architecture that is generated by the use of particle systems, simulation software, animation software, but also the more standard modelling tools. The architects reflect on the impact of the computer in their theories, and display changes in style by using information modelling techniques that have become versatile enough to encompass the complexity of information in the architectural design process. In this way, architectural style and theory can provide directions to further develop CAD. Most notable is the acceptance of complexity as a given fact, not as a phenomenon to oppose in systems of organization, but as a structuring principle to begin with. No matter what information modelling paradigm is used, complex and huge amounts of information need to be processed by designers. A key aspect in the combination of CAD, complexity, and architectural design is the role of the design representation. The way the design is presented and perceived during the design process is instrumental to understanding the design task. More architects are trying to reformulate this working of the representation. The intention of this paper is to present and discuss the current state of the art in architectural design positions on complexity and CAAD, and to reflect in particular on the role of digital design representations in this discussion. We also try to investigate how complexity can be dealt with, by looking at architects, in particular their styles and theories. The way architects use digital media and graphic representations can be informative how units of information can be formed and used in the design process. A case study is a concrete architect’s design processes such as Peter Eisenman Rem Koolhaas, van Berkel, Lynn, and Franke gehry, who embrace complexity and make it a focus point in their design, Rather than viewing it as problematic issue, by using computer as an indispensable instrument in their approaches.
series ASCAAD
email ali_chougui@yahoo.fr
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id 9999
authors Coxe, W., Hartung, N.F., Hochberg, H.H., Lewis, B.J., Maister, D.H., Mattox, R.F. and Piven, P.A.
year 1987
title Success Strategies for Design Professionals
source New York, McGraw-Hill
summary As consultants with the opportunity to analyze literally hundreds of professional design firms, we have found the search for ideal management methods challenging. Each time we've observed a format that appears to work well for some or many firms, an exception has soon appeared, contradicting what looked like a good rule to follow. For example, some firms do outstanding work organized as project teams, others are very successful with a departmentalized project structure, and still others get good results with a studio format. One of the major puzzles for observers has been finding a relation between the project delivery system used by firms (that is, "how we do our work") and how the organization itself is operated (that is, "how we structure and run the firm"). After years of study and trial and error, a model has begun to emerge that holds promise for creating some order among these issues. At the heart of this model is the recognition that although no one strategy fits all firms, there is a family of understandable principles from which almost any firm of design professionals can devise its own best strategy. We call these the SuperPositioning principles. This book sets forth the theory, a set of master strategies derived from it, and some thoughts on how to put the principles to use. We look forward to further learning in the years ahead from the experience of professionals who apply the principles in their own firms.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 2ac0
authors Galle, Per
year 1987
title A Formalized Concept of Sketching in Automated Floor Plan Design
source 177 p. 1987. DIKO Research Report No.87/3
summary CADLINE has abstract only. Automated floor plan design, though originally motivated by the difficulties encountered by architects manually designing building layouts, raise several questions that may be of relevance to related application areas as well. e.g. design of electronic circuitry. One such question is, 'how do we come from a given set of constraints on size and placement of rooms (components) to a set of floor plans (circuit layouts) that satisfy these constraints?' In manual architectural design, sketches are used as an intermediate step. The present work is a study of a number of formalizations of the sketch concept which have been or could be used in computer- generation of architectural floor plans. A particular type of sketch, called the 'delta-derivative', is suggested and developed. The delta-derivative of a desired solution plan is an approximation of that solution plan and usually several other similar or 'equivalent' solutions. The idea is to generate sketches ('abstract' plans) before solutions ('concrete' plans), because they are simpler to compute, weeding out sketches that are not 'promising', and trying to refine the remaining sketches into solutions proper, thus limiting the amount of combinatorial search. Several abstraction levels of sketches may be used in this process. However, constraints as specified by the user of an automated design system are assumed to apply to the solutions; therefore a major theoretical problem which is addressed in the report is the derivation of sketch-level constraints that define which sketches to be generated. A comprehensive floor plan design system based on these ideas has been implemented, and empirical results are reported which confirms certain predicted advantages of delta-derivatives but also shows that the sketch-level constraints based on the developed theory are too weak if used alone; they allow generation of too many sketches which cannot possibly be refined into solutions. The report finally conjectures a solution to this problem
keywords CAD, planning, architecture, floor plans, design, combinatorics, programming, abstraction
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id a1f8
authors Bijl, Aart
year 1987
title Making Drawings Talk : Pictures in Minds and Machines
source Eurographics '87. August, 1987. 16 p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary Interactions between human minds and machine systems is discussed, drawing on experience of CAD and focusing on modes of expression. Free forms of text and drawings pose deep questions when interpretations have to be 'meaningful' to different knowledge representations - especially in loosely defined application fields
keywords What should we expect from technology? CAD, knowledge, representation, architecture, natural languages, semantic networks, user interface
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 0e62
authors Lansdown, John
year 1987
title Some Notes on the Impact of Computing on Design
source Architectural Education and the Information Explosion [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Zurich (Switzerland) 5-7 September 1987.
summary Computers have been potentially able to assist designers in their work for almost thirty years. A few pioneers have been using them for this purpose for more than twenty years but it is only in the last seven or so that use has become really widespread. Undoubtedly, the most widespread use of computers in architectural practice is for making production drawings - which they can do with an accuracy, speed and reliability difficult to achieve by manual means. But this use does not even begin to exploit the full possibilities that computer aided design opens up. What I want to do here is to introduce these possibilities and discuss what impact they might have on the way we design in the immediate future.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/18 06:57

_id 831d
authors Seebohm, Thomas
year 1992
title Discoursing on Urban History Through Structured Typologies
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 157-175
summary How can urban history be studied with the aid of three-dimensional computer modeling? One way is to model known cities at various times in history, using historical records as sources of data. While such studies greatly enhance the understanding of the form and structure of specific cities at specific points in time, it is questionable whether such studies actually provide a true understanding of history. It can be argued that they do not because such studies only show a record of one of many possible courses of action at various moments in time. To gain a true understanding of urban history one has to place oneself back in historical time to consider all of the possible courses of action which were open in the light of the then current situation of the city, to act upon a possible course of action and to view the consequences in the physical form of the city. Only such an understanding of urban history can transcend the memory of the actual and hence the behavior of the possible. Moreover, only such an understanding can overcome the limitations of historical relativism, which contends that historical fact is of value only in historical context, with the realization, due to Benedetto Croce and echoed by Rudolf Bultmann, that the horizon of "'deeper understanding" lies in "'the actuality of decision"' (Seebohm and van Pelt 1990).

One cannot conduct such studies on real cities except, perhaps, as a point of departure at some specific point in time to provide an initial layout for a city knowing that future forms derived by the studies will diverge from that recorded in history. An entirely imaginary city is therefore chosen. Although the components of this city at the level of individual buildings are taken from known cities in history, this choice does not preclude alternative forms of the city. To some degree, building types are invariants and, as argued in the Appendix, so are the urban typologies into which they may be grouped. In this imaginary city students of urban history play the role of citizens or groups of citizens. As they defend their interests and make concessions, while interacting with each other in their respective roles, they determine the nature of the city as it evolves through the major periods of Western urban history in the form of threedimensional computer models.

My colleague R.J. van Pelt and I presented this approach to the study of urban history previously at ACADIA (Seebohm and van Pelt 1990). Yet we did not pay sufficient attention to the manner in which such urban models should be structured and how the efforts of the participants should be coordinated. In the following sections I therefore review what the requirements are for three-dimensional modeling to support studies in urban history as outlined both from the viewpoint of file structure of the models and other viewpoints which have bearing on this structure. Three alternative software schemes of progressively increasing complexity are then discussed with regard to their ability to satisfy these requirements. This comparative study of software alternatives and their corresponding file structures justifies the present choice of structure in relation to the simpler and better known generic alternatives which do not have the necessary flexibility for structuring the urban model. Such flexibility means, of course, that in the first instance the modeling software is more timeconsuming to learn than a simple point and click package in accord with the now established axiom that ease of learning software tools is inversely related to the functional power of the tools. (Smith 1987).

series ACADIA
email tseebohm@fes.uwaterloo.ca
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id a158
authors Turner, James A.
year 1987
title Graphic Standards: IGES and PDES in an AEC Environment
source Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Raleigh (North Carolina / USA) 1987, pp. 195-
summary The idea made a lot of sense: many diverse CAD systems communicating a common project data-base through a neutral format translator. The "Initial Graphics Exchange Specification", kindly known as IGES (pronounced "I guess" by its proponents, and "I guess not" by its opponents) was the the initial effort, and is either loved or hated; there is no "neutral" ground. Has it succeeded? Has it failed? Is there a future in this neutral format business? Was CAD meant to be "design" or "drafting"? Does industry support it? What does it mean for architecture? Is a "one-to-many" translator a wonderful idea, but impossible to implement? Is a complete set of "one-to-one" translators a better idea?

This paper will give a short history of IGES, discuss its reason for being, list its strengths and weaknesses, examine its inner workings, and introduce the current effort of the IGES committee: a total "Product Design Exchange Specification", PDES (and internationally as STEP). It will also discuss the techniques used by the PDES application committees to model their various products, and give a case study of the effort of the AEC committee in modeling an architectural "product".

The paper will conclude with the opinions on the future of IGES by the author (a four year member of the IGES/PDES organization).

series ACADIA
email turner@umich.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id d007
authors Day, Christopher
year 1987
title BUILDING AS A HEALING PROCESS
source Proceedings of the 1st European Full-Scale Workshop Conference / ISBN 87-88373-20-7 / Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-16 January 1987, pp. 37-43
summary The work process is predominantly one-sided, involving little more than the intellect for the managerial - and often the architectural-side, and physical strength and manual skills on the building workers' side. Characteristically the buildings that result are sterile. The whole process is one of materialisation of ideas - often too fast and too far. Too fast - because the idea often becomes concrete and inflexible before -it has met, and conversed with the requirements of the surroundings, and people. The buildings that typically result are imposed on and damaging to the environment and social fabric. Too far - because decisions become dominated by monetary considerations. So do relationships - indeed conventional relationships in the, building industry are governed by the principle of gain. There is a tendency therefore to try to get the best bargain out of any situation, to get as much out of it as possible - in other words, relationships are exploitive. Nobody likes being exploited, and it does no one any good. If we wish to develop a healing building process it must start with a recognition that a healthy human being must be meaningful, whole, and nourished.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 13:08

_id cf2011_p170
id cf2011_p170
authors Barros, Mário; Duarte José, Chaparro Bruno
year 2011
title Thonet Chairs Design Grammar: a Step Towards the Mass Customization of Furniture
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 181-200.
summary The paper presents the first phase of research currently under development that is focused on encoding Thonet design style into a generative design system using a shape grammar. The ultimate goal of the work is the design and production of customizable chairs using computer assisted tools, establishing a feasible practical model of the paradigm of mass customization (Davis, 1987). The current research step encompasses the following three steps: (1) codification of the rules describing Thonet design style into a shape grammar; (2) implementing the grammar into a computer tool as parametric design; and (3) rapid prototyping of customized chair designs within the style. Future phases will address the transformation of the Thonet’s grammar to create a new style and the production of real chair designs in this style using computer aided manufacturing. Beginning in the 1830’s, Austrian furniture designer Michael Thonet began experimenting with forming steam beech, in order to produce lighter furniture using fewer components, when compared with the standards of the time. Using the same construction principles and standardized elements, Thonet produced different chairs designs with a strong formal resemblance, creating his own design language. The kit assembly principle, the reduced number of elements, industrial efficiency, and the modular approach to furniture design as a system of interchangeable elements that may be used to assemble different objects enable him to become a pioneer of mass production (Noblet, 1993). The most paradigmatic example of the described vision of furniture design is the chair No. 14 produced in 1858, composed of six structural elements. Due to its simplicity, lightness, ability to be stored in flat and cubic packaging for individual of collective transportation, respectively, No. 14 became one of the most sold chairs worldwide, and it is still in production nowadays. Iconic examples of mass production are formally studied to provide insights to mass customization studies. The study of the shape grammar for the generation of Thonet chairs aimed to ensure rules that would make possible the reproduction of the selected corpus, as well as allow for the generation of new chairs within the developed grammar. Due to the wide variety of Thonet chairs, six chairs were randomly chosen to infer the grammar and then this was fine tuned by checking whether it could account for the generation of other designs not in the original corpus. Shape grammars (Stiny and Gips, 1972) have been used with sucesss both in the analysis as in the synthesis of designs at different scales, from product design to building and urban design. In particular, the use of shape grammars has been efficient in the characterization of objects’ styles and in the generation of new designs within the analyzed style, and it makes design rules amenable to computers implementation (Duarte, 2005). The literature includes one other example of a grammar for chair design by Knight (1980). In the second step of the current research phase, the outlined shape grammar was implemented into a computer program, to assist the designer in conceiving and producing customized chairs using a digital design process. This implementation was developed in Catia by converting the grammar into an equivalent parametric design model. In the third phase, physical models of existing and new chair designs were produced using rapid prototyping. The paper describes the grammar, its computer implementation as a parametric model, and the rapid prototyping of physical models. The generative potential of the proposed digital process is discussed in the context of enabling the mass customization of furniture. The role of the furniture designer in the new paradigm and ideas for further work also are discussed.
keywords Thonet; furniture design; chair; digital design process; parametric design; shape grammar
series CAAD Futures
email m.barros@ipt.pt
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id 0347
authors Maver, T.
year 1988
title Software Tools for the Technical Evaluation of Design Alternatives
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 47-58
summary Designing buildings which 'work' - economically, socially and technically - remains the central challenge for architects. This paper is concerned with the state of development of software tools for the evaluation of the technical issues which are relevant at the conceptual stages, as opposed to the detailed stages, of design decision-making. The technical efficiency of building is of enormous economic importance. The capital investment in building in Europe represents some 12% of the Gross Domestic Product; this capital investment is exceeded by an order of magnitude, however, by the operating costs of buildings over their life span. In turn, these operating costs are exceeded - again by an order of magnitude - by the costs associated with the (human) operations which go on within the building, and on which the design of the building has some impact.
series CAAD Futures
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2001/06/04 15:16

_id 8e02
authors Brown, A.G.P. and Coenen, F.P.
year 2000
title Spatial reasoning: improving computational efficiency
source Automation in Construction 9 (4) (2000) pp. 361-367
summary When spatial data is analysed the result is often very computer intensive: even by the standards of contemporary technologies, the machine power needed is great and the processing times significant. This is particularly so in 3-D and 4-D scenarios. What we describe here is a technique, which tackles this and associated problems. The technique is founded in the idea of quad-tesseral addressing; a technique, which was originally applied to the analysis of atomic structures. It is based on ideas concerning Hierarchical clustering developed in the 1960s and 1970s to improve data access time [G.M. Morton, A computer oriented geodetic database and a new technique on file sequencing, IBM Canada, 1996.], and on atomic isohedral (same shape) tiling strategies developed in the 1970s and 1980s concerned with group theory [B. Grunbaum, G.C. Shephard, Tilings and Patterns, Freeman, New York, 1987.]. The technique was first suggested as a suitable representation for GIS in the early 1980s when the two strands were brought together and a tesseral arithmetic applied [F.C. Holdroyd, The Geometry of Tiling Hierarchies, Ars Combanitoria 16B (1983) 211–244.; S.B.M. Bell, B.M. Diaz, F.C. Holroyd, M.J.J. Jackson, Spatially referenced methods of processing raster and vector data, Image and Vision Computing 1 (4) (1983) 211–220.; Diaz, S.B.M. Bell, Spatial Data Processing Using Tesseral Methods, Natural Environment Research Council, Swindon, 1986.]. Here, we describe how that technique can equally be applied to the analysis of environmental interaction with built forms. The way in which the technique deals with the problems described is first to linearise the three-dimensional (3-D) space being investigated. Then, the reasoning applied to that space is applied within the same environment as the definition of the problem data. We show, with an illustrative example, how the technique can be applied. The problem then remains of how to visualise the results of the analysis so undertaken. We show how this has been accomplished so that the 3-D space and the results are represented in a way which facilitates rapid interpretation of the analysis, which has been carried out.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id e26f
authors Kalay, Y. (ed.)
year 1987
title Computability of Design
source New York: Wiley & Sons
summary Computer-aided design (CAD) has promised to transform the art and science of architectural design. Yet, despite some significant achievements in the past 3 decades, it has so far failed to do so. This stimulating volume, derived from a symposium held at SUNY, Buffalo in December 1986, explores the reasons why design is so difficult to support by computational means, and what can be done to alleviate this difficulty. Written by an interdisciplinary panel of experts, it presents a varied and comprehensive view of the ways creative design processes can be modelled. The contributors do not all reach the same conclusions, which makes this book lively reading. Topics are arranged into four parts: constructing models of the design process, the computational representation of design knowledge (including spatial information and implicit design intent), methods for computing the design process as a whole (including mathematical programming, expert systems, and shape grammars), and the integration of CAD with traditional design practices.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 0b76
authors Kalay, Yehuda E. (editor)
year 1987
title Computability of Design
source xvii, 363 p. : ill New York: Wiley & Sons, 1987. includes bibliographies and index --- (Principle of Computer-aided Design)
summary Computer-aided design has promised to transform the art and science of architectural design. Yet despite some significant achievements, it has so far failed to do so. The book explores reasons why design is so difficult to support by computational means and what can be done to alleviate this difficulty. Written by an interdisciplinary panel of experts the book presents a varied and comprehensive view of the ways creative design processes can be modeled mathematically
keywords CAD, design process, architecture, design methods, knowledge, representation, practice, evaluation, analysis
series CADline
email kalay@socrates.berkeley.edu
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 0a09
authors Akin, O., Dave, B. and Pithavadian, S.
year 1987
title Problem Structuring in Architectural Design
source February, 1987. [4], 15 p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary The purpose of this research is to describe in operational terms the process of problem structuring while solving spatial problems in architectural design. The designer's behavior is described in terms of problem structuring, when problem parameters are established or transformed, and in terms of problem solving when these parameters are satisfied in a design solution. As opposed to problem solving, the structuring of problems is an under-studied but crucial aspect of complex tasks such as design. This work is based on observations derived from verbal protocol studies. To consider various levels of skill, the research subjects range from professional architects to novice designers. Subjects are given space planning problems which require them to develop solutions in accordance with individually established constraints and criteria, the majority of which are not explicit stated in the problem description. Based on the results of the protocol analysis, a framework is developed which explains how information processing characteristics, problem structure and different levels of expertise interact to influence the designer behavior
keywords architecture, design process, problem solving, protocol analysis, problem definition
series CADline
email oa04@andrew.cmu.edu
last changed 2003/05/17 08:09

_id ae05
authors Akin, Omer
year 1987
title Expertise of the Architect
source November, 1987. [13] p. unevenly numbered : ill. includes bibliography
summary One of the areas where the expertise of the seasoned architect comes out is in the initial structuring of design problems. During problem structuring the parameters and processes used in design are defined. Experienced architects modify these parameters both in global and local levels as a function of the success of their research process. Experienced architects also rely on 'scenarios' acquired through pervious experiences with similar problems to initialize their problem structures or to redefined them
keywords design, architecture, methods
series CADline
email oa04@andrew.cmu.edu
last changed 2003/05/17 08:09

_id e7a8
authors Emde, H.
year 1988
title Geometrical Fundamentals for Design and Visualization of Spatial Objects
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 171-178
summary Every architectural object is a 3-dimensional entity of the human environment, haptically tangible and optically visible. During the architectural process of planning every object should be designed as a body and should be visualized in pictures. Thus the parts of construction get an order in space and the steps of construction get an order in time. The ideal planning object is a simulated anticipation of the real building object, which is to be performed later on. The possibility to relate the planning object immediately to the building object relies on the fact that they both have the same "geometry" This means: both can be described in the same geometric manner. Creating and visualizing spatial objects is based on geometrical fundamentals. Theoretical knowledge and practical control of these fundamentals is essential for the faultless construction and the realistic presentation of architectural objects. Therefore they have to be taught and learned thoroughly in the course of an architectural education. Geometrical design includes the forming of object- models (geometry of body boundaries), the structuring of object-hierarchies (geometry of body combinations) and the colouring of objects. Geometrical visualization includes controlling the processes of motion, of the bodies (when moving objects) and of the center of observation (when moving subjects) as well as the representation of 3-dimensional objects in 2- dimensional pictures and sequences of pictures. All these activities of architects are instances of geometrical information processing. They can be performed with the aid of computers. As for the computer this requires suitable hardware and software, as for the architect it requires suitable knowledge and capabilities to be able to talk about and to recall the perceivable objects and processes of the design with logic abstracts (language of geometry). In contrast to logical, numerical and textual informations the geometric informations concerning spatial objects are of much higher complexity. Usually these complexes of information are absorbed, processed and transmitted by the architect in a perceptive manner. The computer support in the field of geometry assumes that the processing of perceptions of the human consciousness can be converted by the computer as a framework of logical relations. Computer aided construction and representation require both suited devices for haptical and optical communication and suitable programs in particular.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id bbeb
authors Pena, W., Parshall, S. and Kelly, K.
year 1987
title Problem Seeking: An architectural programming primer
source 3d ed. Washinton, D. C. AIA Press
summary Architectural programming is a team effort that requires close cooperation between architects and their clients. Problem Seeking, Fourth Edition lays out a five-step procedure that teams can follow when programming any building or series of buildings, from a small house to a hospital complex. This simple yet comprehensive process encompasses the entire range of factors that influence the design of buildings. This new edition of the only programming guide appropriate for both architect and client features new ways of thinking about programming, new strategies for effective group action, and new settings in which to explore programming concepts. Supplemented with more than 120 helpful illustrations and diagrams, this indispensable resource provides updated technical information and faster, easier access to explanations, examples, and tools.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

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