CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 0748
authors Coyne, R.D., Rosenman, M.A. and Radford, A.D. (et.al.)
year 1987
title Innovation and Creativity in Knowledge-based CAD
source Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1987. pp. 435-465
summary The authors examine the creativity of knowledge-based design systems from a narrow information processing perspective. As a property of the design process innovation and creativity can be identified by observing both the quality of the product, and also the characteristics of the process itself. The key theme running through the discussion is the acquisition of knowledge as the key to understanding creativity. This involves not only the ability of a system to acquire knowledge, but also its ability to control its own processes and change its own structure. In order to discuss this view a model of design systems is put forward in which a distinction between interpretative and syntactic subsystems for innovation and creativity is made
keywords design process, knowledge base, systems, creativity, knowledge acquisition, representation
series CADline
email Richard.Coyne@ed.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/17 08:13

_id ec19
authors Dhar, Vasant and Pople, Harry E.
year 1987
title Rule-Based Versus Structure- Base Models for Explaining Generating Expert Behavior
source Communications of the ACM. June, 1987. vol. 30: pp. 542-554 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Flexible representations are required in order to understand and generate expert behavior. In this article the authors argue for a representation that contains partial model components that are synthesized into qualitative models containing entities and relationships relevant to the domain. The model components can be replaced and arranged in response to changes in the task environment. The authors have found this 'model constructor' to be useful in synthesizing models that explain and generate expert behavior, and have explored its ability to support decision making in the problem domain of business resource planning, where reasoning is based on models that evolve in response to changing external conditions or internal policies
keywords AI, cognition, modeling, expert systems, knowledge base, representation
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 73aa
authors Duelund Mortensen, Peder and Zahle, Karen (ed.)
year 1987
title Proceedings of the 1st European Full-Scale Workshop Conference
source Proceedings of the 1st European Full-Scale Workshop Conference / ISBN 87-88373-20-7 / Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-16 January 1987, 67 p.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2003/08/25 08:12

_id 0faa
authors Duelund Mortensen, Peder
year 1991
title THE FULL-SCALE MODEL WORKSHOP
source Proceedings of the 3rd European Full-Scale Modelling Conference / ISBN 91-7740044-5 / Lund (Sweden) 13-16 September 1990, pp. 10-11
summary The workshop is an institution, available for use by the public and established at the Laboratory of Housing in the Art Academy's school of Architecture for a 3 year trial period beginning April 1985. This resumé contains brief descriptions of a variety of representative model projects and an overview of all projects carried out so far, including the pilot projects from 1983 and planned projects to and including January 1987. The Full Scale Model Workshop builds full size models of buildings, rooms and parts of buildings. The purpose of the Full Scale Model Workshop is to promote communication among building's users. The workshop is a tool in an attempt to build bridges between theory and practice in research, experimentation and communication of research results. New ideas and experiments of various sorts can be tried out cheaply, quickly and efficiently through the building of full scale models. Changes can be done on the spot as a planned part of the project and on the basis of ideas and experiments achieved through the model work itself. Buildings and their space can thus be communicated directly to all involved persons, regardless of technical background or training in evaluation of building projects.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 13:23

_id aa0b
authors Fenves, Stephen J.
year 1987
title Role of Artificial Intelligence and Knowledge-Base Expert System Methods in Civil Engineering
source 20, [21] p. Pittsburgh: Engineering Design Research Center, Carnegie Mellon University, December, 1987. includes bibliography
summary Present use of computers in civil engineering is largely devoted to numeric, algorithmic calculations. This mode is not appropriate for the empirical, heuristic, ill-structured problems of civil engineering practice. The paper reviews recent work in artificial intelligence and expert systems addressing these latter issues, identifies the distinctive features of engineering knowledge based systems, the roles of such systems, and attempts to predict their evolution
keywords AI, expert systems, knowledge base, design, methods, civil engineering
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 224d
authors Fiebrich, Rolf-Dieter
year 1987
title The Connection Machine : A General Purpose Accelerator for VLSI CAD
source COMPCON 87. IEEE Computer Society, Spring, 1987. pp. 211-214 : ill. includes a short bibliography
summary This paper first summarizes the implementation of several computation-intensive CAD algorithms on the Connection Machine, a massively parallel computer. It then discusses parallel operations of a memory resident design data base currently under development. This data base is the central component to which all CAD tools interface. Substantial speedups are obtained for tasks like simulation and placement as well as database operations. Highly interactive capabilities further shorten the design cycle
keywords CAD, algorithms, database, architecture, parallel processing, programming, geometric modeling, integrated circuits, design, electrical engineering, CAE
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id 2389
authors Fischler, Martin A. and Firschein, Oscar
year 1987
title Intelligence : The Eye, The Brain, and the Computer
source xiv, 331 p. [4] p. of plates : ill. ( some col.) Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Pub Co., 1987. includes bibliography: p. 311-323 and index.
summary This book presents a view of intelligence, both human and machine. It provides an understanding of the concept of intelligence, the nature of the cognitive and perceptual capabilities of people and computers and the representations and algorithms used to attain intelligent behavior
keywords AI, learning, cognition, perception, representation, theory
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 476d
authors Gero, J. and Maher, M.
year 1988
title Future Roles of Knowledge-based Systems in the Design Process
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 81-90
summary This paper examines the future roles of knowledge-based systems in the design process. It commences with a brief review of computer-aided design and knowledge-based systems prior to examining the present and future roles of knowledge-based systems in design under the headings of: design analysis/formulation; design synthesis; and design evaluation. The paper concludes with a discussion on design integration, novel design, and detail design.
series CAAD Futures
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 8eb5
authors Gero, John S. (Conference Chairman and Editor)
year 1987
title Expert Systems in Computer-Aided Design
source IFIP WG 5.2 Working Conference on Expert Systems in Computer-Aided Design. proceedings. 1987. 533 p. : ill. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1987. Also published as a book by North Holland (Amsterdam, 1987)
summary The aim of the Expert Systems in Computer-Aided Design conference was to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas and experiences related to expert systems in computer-aided design, to present and explore the state-of-the-art of expert systems in computer-aided design, to delineate future directions in both research and practice and to promote further development. Seventeen of the nineteen papers accepted were presented with each presentation followed by a round table discussion. The discussion was taped, transcribed and edited and forms part of this volume. The authors came from seven countries, whilst the attendees represented some thirteen nationalities. There is an implicit structure in the ordering of the papers, commencing with system architectures, representation tools through applications to specific design concerns. These papers demonstrate the wide variety of knowledge engineering tools needed in computer-aided design. It is interesting to observe the progression over these three conferences in the ratio of computer scientists to design researchers amongst the authors. The balance over the period has swung from a predominance of computer scientists to a predominance of design researchers. We are beginning to see knowledge engineering development driven by designers' needs
keywords CAD, expert systems, AI, design
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 2f5a
authors Gero, John S. and Coyne, Richard D.
year 1987
title Knowledge-based Planning as a Design Paradigm
source Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1987. pp. 289-323 : tables. includes bibliography
summary The application of sequential planning to the design process is discussed, considering design as a search through a space of states. The procedures which transform states utilize a kind of design knowledge. Planning is considered as a method of controlling the design process. Various paradigms of planning are discussed along with their application to design. The authors discuss forward deduction and backtracking, backward deduction hierarchical planning and constructive approaches to planning. These lead to the view that control in design is a multi-level process. The paradigms are illustrated with examples implemented in PROLOG. With this it is shown that knowledge-based planning is a good design paradigm
keywords control, design process, planning, PROLOG, knowledge base
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/17 08:17

_id e3a4
authors Girard, Michael
year 1987
title Interactive Design of 3D Computer-Animated Legged Animal Motion
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. June, 1987. vol. 7: pp. 39-51 : ill. includes bibliography
summary A visually interactive approach to the design of 3D computer- animated legged animal motion in the context of the PODA computer animation system is presented. The design process entails the interactive specification of parameters that drive a computational model for animal movement. The animator incrementally modifies a framework for establishing desired limb and body motion as well as the constraints imposed by physical dynamics (Newtonian mechanical properties) and temporal restrictions. PODA uses the desired motion and constraints specified by the animator to produce motion through an idealized model of the animal's adaptive dynamic control strategies
keywords computer graphics, animation
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id e60d
authors Gross, Mark D., Ervin, Stephen M. and Anderson, James (et al)
year 1987
title Designing with Constraints
source John Wiley & Sons, 1987. pp. 53-83. includes bibliography
summary The constraint model of designing provides a means of demonstrating and exploring the computability of design. Designing is understood as a process of incrementally defining an initially ill-defined question, and concurrently proposing and testing possible answers. That is, not finding THE solution to A problem, but finding A solution to THE problem. Articulating (including inventing and modifying) the question, and exploring possible alternative answers (or designs), are two fundamental activities which can be supported by computers and the constraint model. The authors discuss the use of constraints to explicate design questions, circumscribe feasible regions and specify proposed solutions, and examine the processes of search and scrutiny within a region. Naming, solving history-keeping, block-structuring, identifying and resolving conflicts are among tasks identified that can be rendered to a computer. Questions of knowledge representation and inference making with ambiguity and imprecision are discussed. Examples of the application of the constraint model to design problems in architecture and site planning are illustrated by brief scenarios
keywords constraints, design process, search, knowledge
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id c7ac
authors Hardwick, Martin and Spooner, David L.
year 1987
title Comparison of Some Data Models for Engineering Objects
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. March, 1987. vol. 7: pp. 56-66 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Many proposals using object-oriented data models for engineering objects have appeared in the literature. These data models try to represent the data in engineering systems more naturally by organizing it logically and/or physically into objects relevant to the engineering applications using the database. The article reviews and examines several of these proposed data models to identify important properties of the models. It shows that none of the data models excels in all areas, but each has desirable properties
keywords objects, CAD, design, database, representation, modeling
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 630c
authors Harel, David
year 1987
title Algorithmics: the Spirit of Computing
source x, 425 p. : ill. Reading, Mass.: Addison Wesley Pub. Co., 1987. include bibliography: p. 357-403 and index
summary The preliminary chapters discuss the concept of an algorithmic problem and the algorithm that solves it. Discussions of the structure of algorithms, the data they manipulate and the languages in which they are programmed. Part two of the book turns to some general methods and paradigms for algorithmic design. Part three of the book is devoted to the inherent limitations of effectively executable algorithms and hence of the computers that implement them
keywords algorithms, programming
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id c04d
authors Hauri, H.H.
year 1987
title Expertenprogramm Struktura
source Architectural Education and the Information Explosion [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Zurich (Switzerland) 5-7 September 1987.
summary Das Programm dient dem Architekten als Unterstützung bei seiner Entwurfsarbeit. Es berät ihn bei der Wahl der Tragkonstruktion für Hochbauten und liefert Vorbemessungen für die wichtigsten Bauteile.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/18 06:58

_id cd7b
authors Hopgood, F. and Duce, D.
year 1988
title Future Developments in Graphics and Workstations
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 217-252
summary The application of Computer Aided Design has been fragmented so far due to the lack of standards at the hardware and basic software level. The most impressive products have been turn-key systems using custom-built hardware with large software suites developed over a number of years. Such systems have often been difficult to modify and maintain. The very nature of such systems is that they are expensive to produce, have a limited market and, consequently, are expensive. Hardware and software advances over the last few years point to a change in this environment. The trend is towards hardware and software compatibility from the computer suppliers allowing software suppliers to target their offerings at a wider range of products. This produces a competitive market and the downward trend in hardware costs gives the possibility for systems of much lower cost and, consequently, opens up the market to a larger customer base. This paper will concentrate on the developments in single user workstations and graphics standards which should provide a firm base for this new environment.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id c890
authors Hutchinson, Peter J., Rosenman, Michael A. and Gero, John S.
year 1987
title RETWALL : An Expert System for the Selection and Preliminary Design of Earth Retaining Structures
source Knowledge Based Systems. 1987. vol. 1: pp. 11-23
summary This paper describes an expert system for the selection and preliminary design of engineering earth retaining structures. It describes the domain and how the knowledge was acquired from textbooks, questionnaires and interviews. Details of the implementation of RETWALL using the expert system shell BUILD are provided as is a full script of a session
keywords expert systems, knowledge, representation, engineering, applications,knowledge acquisition, software
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id acadia12_239
id acadia12_239
authors Jackson, Jesse ; Stern, Luke
year 2012
title Fabricating Sustainable Concrete Elements: A Physical Instantiation of the Marching Cubes Algorithm
source ACADIA 12: Synthetic Digital Ecologies [Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-1-62407-267-3] San Francisco 18-21 October, 2012), pp. 239-247
summary This paper explores how an algorithm designed to represent form can be made physical, and how this physical instantiation can be made to respond to a set of design imperatives. Specifically, the paper demonstrates how Marching Cubes (Lorensen and Cline 1987), an algorithm that extracts a polygonal mesh from a scalar field, can be used to initiate the design for a system of modular concrete armature elements that permit a large degree of variability using a small number of discrete parts. The design of these elements was developed in response to a close examination of Frank Lloyd Wright's Usonian Automatic system, an architecturally pertinent historical precedent. The fabricated results positively satisfy contemporary design criteria, including maximal formal freedom, optimal environmental performance, and minimal life-cycle costs.
keywords Form-finding Algorithms , Digital Fabrication , Sustainability , Frank Lloyd Wright , Concrete , Tectonic Elements
series ACADIA
type panel paper
email jesse.colin.jackson@gmail.com
last changed 2013/01/09 10:06

_id 489e
authors Jolliet, Aimé and Quincerot, Richard
year 1987
title Video et Architecture
source Architectural Education and the Information Explosion [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Zurich (Switzerland) 5-7 September 1987.
summary L'institution architecturale est organisée à partir du postulat d'une incommunicabilité de l'architecture ("I'espace indicible" de Le Corbusier, par exemple), ce qui ne facilite pas l'enseignement ni l'exercice professionnel. Comme l'ont montré divers travaux théoriques, ce postulat n'a rien de nécessaire, bien qu'il joue un rôle institutionnel historiquement situé. Une activité pratique de communication de l'architecture par la vidéo conduit à la même conclusion: bien des opportunités existent d'exploiter les techniques médiatiques contemporaines pour les mettre au service de l'architecture, de son enseignement et des pratiques professionnelles. La présentation s'appuie sur quinze ans d'expérience d'enseignement et de production de vidéos dans l'Ecole d'architecture de l'Université de Genève ayant permis la réalisation d'une centaine d'émissions sur l'architecture, la construction et l'urbanisme.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/18 07:05

_id 671c
authors Kalay, Yehuda E., Swerdloff, Lucien M. and Harfmann, Anton C.
year 1987
title A Knowledge-Based Approach to Dynamic Computer-Aided Design Task Allocation
source Expert Systems in Computer-Aided Design: Proceeding of the IFIP WG 5.2 Working Conference on Expert system in Computer-Aided Design --- edited by Gero, John S Sydney: North-Holland, 1987. pp. 203-224 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary A model of the design process control that supports dynamic allocation of tasks between a designer and a computer is presented. The model is discussed theoretically, and is demonstrated through a Prolog implementation for the participatory design of single family houses. Its utility and universal applicability are established, as well as its relationship to other computational approaches to design automation
keywords expert systems, design process, knowledge base, architecture, control, housing, applications
series CADline
email kalay@socrates.berkeley.edu
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

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