CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 43a9
authors Goldman, Glenn and Zdepski, Stephen
year 1987
title Form, Color & Movement
source Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Raleigh (North Carolina / USA) 1987, pp. 39-50
summary Computer generated three dimensional architectural modeling is a fundamental transformation of the traditional architectural design process.

Viewing a three dimensional computer model from many vantage points and through animation sequences, presents buildings and their surrounding environments as a sequence of spaces and events, rather than as static objects or graphic abstractions. Three dimensional modeling at the earliest stages of design tends to increase the spatial and formal properties of early building design studies, and diminishes the dominance of plan as the form giver.

The following paper is based upon the work of second, third and fifth year architectural students who have engaged in architectural design through the use of microcomputer graphics. In each case they entered the architectural studio with virtually no computer experience. Although the assigned architectural projects were identical to those of other "conventional" architectural studios, their design work was accomplished, almost solely, using four different types of graphic software: Computer-Aided Drafting, 3-Dimensional Modeling, Painting and Animation programs. Information presented is based upon student surveys, semester logs, interviews, impressions of external design critics, and the comparison of computer based and conventional studio final presentations.

series ACADIA
email goldman@njit.edu
last changed 2003/04/17 13:40

_id 34be
authors Johnson, M.
year 1987
title The Body in the Mind: The Bodily Basis of Meaning, Imagination, and Reason
source University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois
summary This is the first work which systematically put together a sensible story about the intermodal structures (image schemata) linking high-level cognition, like langauge, with the body-rich information of perceptual processing. Johnson's image schemata was the first proposal for this project which was both neurally plausible, given the organization of the cortex into topology preserving maps (contradicting Fodor and Pylshyn's mistaken view), and supported by the evidence from development, in language and conceptual structure. This book spawned debates on schematization in fields ranging from developmental psychology, cognitive psychology, linguistics, philosophy, neurocomputational modeling, and neuroscience. When the st century cognitive neuroscience writes its chapter on the way semantic processing works at a neural level, it will need to refute those 20th century philosophers of language who thought that language was primarily referential, truth-conditional, and operated on symbols formed independently of bodily perception. This book will be the touchstone for that project.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 0a09
authors Akin, O., Dave, B. and Pithavadian, S.
year 1987
title Problem Structuring in Architectural Design
source February, 1987. [4], 15 p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary The purpose of this research is to describe in operational terms the process of problem structuring while solving spatial problems in architectural design. The designer's behavior is described in terms of problem structuring, when problem parameters are established or transformed, and in terms of problem solving when these parameters are satisfied in a design solution. As opposed to problem solving, the structuring of problems is an under-studied but crucial aspect of complex tasks such as design. This work is based on observations derived from verbal protocol studies. To consider various levels of skill, the research subjects range from professional architects to novice designers. Subjects are given space planning problems which require them to develop solutions in accordance with individually established constraints and criteria, the majority of which are not explicit stated in the problem description. Based on the results of the protocol analysis, a framework is developed which explains how information processing characteristics, problem structure and different levels of expertise interact to influence the designer behavior
keywords architecture, design process, problem solving, protocol analysis, problem definition
series CADline
email oa04@andrew.cmu.edu
last changed 2003/05/17 08:09

_id ae05
authors Akin, Omer
year 1987
title Expertise of the Architect
source November, 1987. [13] p. unevenly numbered : ill. includes bibliography
summary One of the areas where the expertise of the seasoned architect comes out is in the initial structuring of design problems. During problem structuring the parameters and processes used in design are defined. Experienced architects modify these parameters both in global and local levels as a function of the success of their research process. Experienced architects also rely on 'scenarios' acquired through pervious experiences with similar problems to initialize their problem structures or to redefined them
keywords design, architecture, methods
series CADline
email oa04@andrew.cmu.edu
last changed 2003/05/17 08:09

_id eb5f
authors Al-Sallal, Khaled A. and Degelman, Larry 0.
year 1994
title A Hypermedia Model for Supporting Energy Design in Buildings
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 39-49
summary Several studies have discussed the limitations of the available CAAD tools and have proposed solutions [Brown and Novitski 1987, Brown 1990, Degelman and Kim 1988, Schuman et al 1988]. The lack of integration between the different tasks that these programs address and the design process is a major problem. Schuman et al [1988] argued that in architectural design many issues must be considered simultaneously before the synthesis of a final product can take place. Studies by Brown and Novitski [1987] and Brown [1990] discussed the difficulties involved with integrating technical considerations in the creative architectural process. One aspect of the problem is the neglect of technical factors during the initial phase of the design that, as the authors argued, results from changing the work environment and the laborious nature of the design process. Many of the current programs require the user to input a great deal of numerical values that are needed for the energy analysis. Although there are some programs that attempt to assist the user by setting default values, these programs distract the user with their extensive arrays of data. The appropriate design tool is the one that helps the user to easily view the principal components of the building design and specify their behaviors and interactions. Data abstraction and information parsimony are the key concepts in developing a successful design tool. Three different approaches for developing an appropriate CAAD tool were found in the literature. Although there are several similarities among them, each is unique in solving certain aspects of the problem. Brown and Novitski [1987] emphasize the learning factor of the tool as well as its highly graphical user interface. Degelman and Kim [1988] emphasize knowledge acquisition and the provision of simulation modules. The Windows and Daylighting Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) emphasizes the dynamic structuring of information, the intelligent linking of data, the integrity of the different issues of design and the design process, and the extensive use of images [Schuman et al 19881, these attributes incidentally define the word hypermedia. The LBL model, which uses hypermedia, seems to be the more promising direction for this type of research. However, there is still a need to establish a new model that integrates all aspects of the problem. The areas in which the present research departs from the LBL model can be listed as follows: it acknowledges the necessity of regarding the user as the center of the CAAD tool design, it develops a model that is based on one of the high level theories of human-computer interaction, and it develops a prototype tool that conforms to the model.

series ACADIA
email l-degelman@neo.tamu.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id sigradi2013_234
id sigradi2013_234
authors Alencar, Viviane; Gabriela Celani
year 2013
title The Art of Computer Graphics Programming: Translating Pioneer Programs
source SIGraDi 2013 [Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-956-7051-86-1] Chile - Valparaíso 20 - 22 November 2013, pp. 500 - 504
summary Considering the importance of the use of programming languages for teaching computational design to architects, this paper proposes the translation of computer programs from a pioneer work in this field into a more contemporary programming language. The book The Art of Computer Graphics Programming: A Structured Introduction for Architects and Designers was published in 1987 by William J. Mitchell, Robin Ligget and Thomas Kvan, and remains an important reference for architects. The original Pascal codes in the book were translated into Processing, and made available through an Internet website, along with images and comments, in order to give late Prof. Mitchell’s work the consideration it deserves.
keywords Processing; Pascal; Computer graphics
series SIGRADI
email vivisalencar@gmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 4d3b
authors Archea, John
year 1987
title Puzzle-Making : What Architects Do When No One is Looking
source New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1987. pp. 37-52. includes bibliography
summary The thesis of this paper is that architects work in a manner that is antithetical to problem-solving because they cannot explicate desired effects prior to their realization through the design process. In an attempt to clarify architecture's uncommon mode of action the author suggests that instead of specifying what they are trying to accomplish prior to their attempts to accomplish it as problem-solver do, architects treat design as a search for the most appropriate effects that can be attained in a unique context. They seek sets of combinatorial rules that will result in an internally consistent fit between a kit of parts and the effects that are achieved when those parts are assembled in a certain way
keywords puzzle making, problem solving, architecture, design process
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id e820
authors Armstrong, W.W., Green, M. and Lake, R.
year 1987
title Near- Real-Time Control of Human Figure Models
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. June, 1987. vol. 7: pp. 52-60 : ill
summary Includes bibliography. Animating human figures is one of the major problems in computer animation. A recent approach is the use of dynamic analysis to compute the movement of a human figure, given the forces and torques operating within and upon the body. One of the problems with this technique is computing the forces and torques required for particular motions: this has been called the control problem of dynamic analysis. To develop a better understanding of this problem, an interactive interface to a dynamics package has been produced. This interface, along with a collection of low-level motion processes, can be used to control the motion of a human figure model. This article describes both the user interface and the motion processes, along with experiences with this approach
keywords computer graphics, animation, user interface
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id 8eb4
authors Athithan, G. and Patnaik, L.M.
year 1987
title Geometric Searching In Extended CSG Models : Application to Solid Modeling and Viewing
source February, 1987. 30 p. : ill
summary In this paper, the CSG representation scheme is augmented with the 'cartesian product.' The sweep method of generating solids is encompassed by this 'Extended CSG' formalism. The point inclusion problem encountered in the area of geometric searching in computational geometry is discussed in the context to solid models represented by 'extended CSG.' A simple algorithm to solve it that has a time complexity O(n), where n is the number of primitives, is presented. Allowing for preprocessing and extra storage, a second efficient algorithm, having a time complexity O(log n), is developed. The relevance of point inclusion problem in solid modelling techniques is indicated. An extended CSG based solid modeling method is proposed. A solution to the problem of hidden line removal, that uses the faster algorithm for the point inclusion problem, is also presented in the paper
keywords point inclusion, computational geometry, data structures, solid modeling, CSG, computer graphics, hidden lines
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id 266d
authors Badler, Norman I., Manoochehri, Kamran H. and Walters, Graham
year 1987
title Articulated Figure Positioning by Multiple Constraints
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. June, 1987. vol. 7: pp. 28-38 : ill. Includes bibliography
summary A problem that arises in positioning an articulated figures is the solution of 3D joint positions (kinematics), when joint angles are given. If more than one such goal is to be achieved, the problem is often solved interactively by positioning or solving one component of the linkage, then adjusting another, then redoing the first, and so on. This iterative process is slow and tedious. The authors present a method that automatically solves multiple simultaneous joint position goals. The user interface offers a six-degree-of freedom input device to specify joint angles and goal positions interactively. Examples are used to demonstrate the power and efficiency of this method for key-position animation
keywords animation, constraints, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id a60d
authors Bairstow, Jeffrey N.
year 1987
title Personal Workstations Redefine Desktop Computing
source high Technology. March, 1987. pp. 18-23 : ill. includes bibliography: p. 64
summary Becoming an essential tool in any creative activity, the personal workstations were successfully adopted by software developers for designing both system and application software, by electronics engineers for computer-aided design, and by a wide range of businesses for technical publishing. The rapid adoption of networking and file standards by the workstation manufacturers will undoubtedly put them in a good position to install large networks of both PCs and workstations linked to existing corporate mainframe computers
keywords hardware, technology, business
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 0cd8
authors Baker, Nelson C. and Fenves, Stephen J.
year 1987
title A Knowledge Acquisition Study of Structural Engineers Performing Preliminary Design
source 92 p. : ill. Pittsburgh, PA: Engineering Design Research Center, CMU, December, 1987. EDRC-12-19-87
summary This paper describes interviews with experts in structural engineering. Video recordings of the experts performing preliminary structural design for three buildings were obtained. The knowledge acquisition process is described and the conclusions reached are presented. The conclusions are discussed in terms of level of design detail, solution time, distribution of process and domain activities, the use of previous information in the design process, and the use of sketches
keywords knowledge acquisition, civil engineering, design process, design methods, drafting, systems, protocol analysis
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 016a
authors Balachandran, M. B. and Gero, John S.
year 1987
title A Knowledge-based Approach to Mathematical Design Modeling and Optimization
source engineering Optimization. 1987. vol. 12: pp. 91-115
summary Optimization is a well understood process in design domains. Designers formulate their design problems as single criterion or multicriteria optimization problems and then select an appropriate optimization algorithm to search for the optimal values for the design variables. The formulation and algorithm selection procedures have been considered to be activities which relied on substantive human knowledge. This paper describes a computer system, OPTIMA, which formulates design optimization problems from a pseudo-English description into canonical algebraic expressions. It then recognizes the formulation and selects appropriate algorithm(s) for its solution. Finally, it runs the selected algorithm(s) and sends the results back to the original descriptions. Areas of expert knowledge involved in carrying out the above tasks are identified. Such knowledge is explicitly encoded in the system. The basic philosophy and key features of the system are described and are illustrated with examples
keywords structures, algorithms, knowledge base, systems, optimization, engineering
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 05c2
authors Balachandran, M. B. and Gero, John S.
year 1987
title Use of Knowledge in Selection and Control of Optimization Algorithms
source engineering Optimization. 1987. vol. 12: pp. 163-173
summary Computers have been widely used in optimization based problem solving processes to assist with the numerical computations. The widespread availability of symbolic computational tools and recent developments in artificial intelligence now make it feasible to expand the role of computers in this area. Various classes of knowledge used to improve the efficiency of the optimization processes are presented in this paper. A prototype system developed in the domain of multicriteria decision making is demonstrated. The system contains knowledge needed to select appropriate optimization algorithms, to control the solution process, and to select alternate algorithms if needed
keywords multicriteria, algorithms, knowledge base, systems, problem solving, optimization
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c568
authors Balachandran, M.B. and John S. Gero
year 1987
title A Model for Knowledge Based Graphical Interfaces
source AI '87: Proceedings of the Australian Joint Artificial Intelligence Conference. 1987. pp. 505-521. Also published in Artificial Intelligence Developments and Applications edited by J. S. Gero and R Stanton, North-Holland Pub. 1988. -- CADLINE has abstract only.
summary This paper describes a model for knowledge-based graphical interface which incorporates a variety of knowledge of the domain of application. The key issues considered include graphics interpretation, extraction of features of graphics objects and identification of prototype objects. The role of such knowledge-based interfaces in computer-aided design is discussed. A prototype system developed in Prolog and C is described and its application in the domain of structural engineering is demonstrated
keywords user interface, computer graphics, knowledge base, systems, civil engineering, structures
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c89d
authors Bancroft, Pamela J.
year 1987
title The Integration of Computing into Architectural Education Through Computer Literate Faculty
source Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Raleigh (North Carolina / USA) 1987, pp. 109-120
summary This paper discusses the apparent correlation between faculty computer literacy and the success of integrating computing into architectural education. Relevant questions of a 1985 national survey which was conducted to study the historical development of faculty computer utilization are analyzed and interpreted. The survey results are then used as the basis for a series of recommendations given for increasing computer literacy among faculty in architectural schools, thus increasing the integration of computing.

series ACADIA
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 2832
authors Baraniak, David W.
year 1987
title Automatic Data Capture: Scanners Offer a Cost-effective Solution
source computer Graphics World November, 1987. vol. 10: pp. 93-94, 97 : ill.
summary table. In order to decide whether today's scanner deliver the price and performance a particular CAAD application demand, the author lists vendors, scanner type, raster to vector conversion editing raster vector, data exchange format and compares them
keywords hardware, CAD, scanning, business
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id b9d1
authors Barlas, Adnan
year 1987
title STAGED BUILDING IN HIGH RISE HOUSING
source Proceedings of the 1st European Full-Scale Workshop Conference / ISBN 87-88373-20-7 / Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-16 January 1987, pp. 53-56
summary Since 1950s Turkey is experiencing a high rate of urbanization as a result of the inflow of Iarge number of rural immigrants to the urban areas, in addition to the natural urban population growth. This high level of urbanization gave rise to various burdens and problems within the urban areas. One of these problems.and the most important,is seen in the housing sector. The increasing level of housing need of the urban society could not be met by, the available urban housing a stock. Thus, there emerged a different type of production at the fringes of the urban areas, which is called as "squatter"; being completely unauthorized. In addition to the rapid urbanization -he general deficiencies in the Turkish economy have also effected the urban case. The rents and the prices of the dwelling units in the authorized stock increased to such level that, a great portion of the urban households with low and lower middle incomes could not afford to buy or rent a dwelling unit from the authorized stock. The situation is still the same now.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 13:07

_id cf2011_p170
id cf2011_p170
authors Barros, Mário; Duarte José, Chaparro Bruno
year 2011
title Thonet Chairs Design Grammar: a Step Towards the Mass Customization of Furniture
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 181-200.
summary The paper presents the first phase of research currently under development that is focused on encoding Thonet design style into a generative design system using a shape grammar. The ultimate goal of the work is the design and production of customizable chairs using computer assisted tools, establishing a feasible practical model of the paradigm of mass customization (Davis, 1987). The current research step encompasses the following three steps: (1) codification of the rules describing Thonet design style into a shape grammar; (2) implementing the grammar into a computer tool as parametric design; and (3) rapid prototyping of customized chair designs within the style. Future phases will address the transformation of the Thonet’s grammar to create a new style and the production of real chair designs in this style using computer aided manufacturing. Beginning in the 1830’s, Austrian furniture designer Michael Thonet began experimenting with forming steam beech, in order to produce lighter furniture using fewer components, when compared with the standards of the time. Using the same construction principles and standardized elements, Thonet produced different chairs designs with a strong formal resemblance, creating his own design language. The kit assembly principle, the reduced number of elements, industrial efficiency, and the modular approach to furniture design as a system of interchangeable elements that may be used to assemble different objects enable him to become a pioneer of mass production (Noblet, 1993). The most paradigmatic example of the described vision of furniture design is the chair No. 14 produced in 1858, composed of six structural elements. Due to its simplicity, lightness, ability to be stored in flat and cubic packaging for individual of collective transportation, respectively, No. 14 became one of the most sold chairs worldwide, and it is still in production nowadays. Iconic examples of mass production are formally studied to provide insights to mass customization studies. The study of the shape grammar for the generation of Thonet chairs aimed to ensure rules that would make possible the reproduction of the selected corpus, as well as allow for the generation of new chairs within the developed grammar. Due to the wide variety of Thonet chairs, six chairs were randomly chosen to infer the grammar and then this was fine tuned by checking whether it could account for the generation of other designs not in the original corpus. Shape grammars (Stiny and Gips, 1972) have been used with sucesss both in the analysis as in the synthesis of designs at different scales, from product design to building and urban design. In particular, the use of shape grammars has been efficient in the characterization of objects’ styles and in the generation of new designs within the analyzed style, and it makes design rules amenable to computers implementation (Duarte, 2005). The literature includes one other example of a grammar for chair design by Knight (1980). In the second step of the current research phase, the outlined shape grammar was implemented into a computer program, to assist the designer in conceiving and producing customized chairs using a digital design process. This implementation was developed in Catia by converting the grammar into an equivalent parametric design model. In the third phase, physical models of existing and new chair designs were produced using rapid prototyping. The paper describes the grammar, its computer implementation as a parametric model, and the rapid prototyping of physical models. The generative potential of the proposed digital process is discussed in the context of enabling the mass customization of furniture. The role of the furniture designer in the new paradigm and ideas for further work also are discussed.
keywords Thonet; furniture design; chair; digital design process; parametric design; shape grammar
series CAAD Futures
email m.barros@ipt.pt
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id 963b
authors Bartels, R.H., Beatty, J.C. and Barsky, B.A.
year 1987
title An Introduction to Splines for Use in Computer Graphics and Geometric Modeling
source Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Los Altos, CA
summary The most basic output primitives in every computer graphics library are "lineSegment()" and "Polygon()", ortheir equivalents. These are, of course, sufficent in the sense that any curved line or surface can be arbitrarrily well approximated by straight line segments or planar polygons, but in many contexts that is not enough. Such approximations often require large amounts of data to obtain satifactory smoothness, and they are awkward to manipulate. Then too, even with the the most sophisticated continous shading models, polygonaltechniques can resultin visually ojectionable images. Mach bands may be apparent at the borders between adjacent polygons, and there is always a telltale angularity to polygonal silhouettes. Hence many modeling systems are augmented by circles, spheres, cylinders, etc. and allow such simple primitives to be combined to form quite complex objects.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

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