CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 171

_id eb5f
authors Al-Sallal, Khaled A. and Degelman, Larry 0.
year 1994
title A Hypermedia Model for Supporting Energy Design in Buildings
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 39-49
summary Several studies have discussed the limitations of the available CAAD tools and have proposed solutions [Brown and Novitski 1987, Brown 1990, Degelman and Kim 1988, Schuman et al 1988]. The lack of integration between the different tasks that these programs address and the design process is a major problem. Schuman et al [1988] argued that in architectural design many issues must be considered simultaneously before the synthesis of a final product can take place. Studies by Brown and Novitski [1987] and Brown [1990] discussed the difficulties involved with integrating technical considerations in the creative architectural process. One aspect of the problem is the neglect of technical factors during the initial phase of the design that, as the authors argued, results from changing the work environment and the laborious nature of the design process. Many of the current programs require the user to input a great deal of numerical values that are needed for the energy analysis. Although there are some programs that attempt to assist the user by setting default values, these programs distract the user with their extensive arrays of data. The appropriate design tool is the one that helps the user to easily view the principal components of the building design and specify their behaviors and interactions. Data abstraction and information parsimony are the key concepts in developing a successful design tool. Three different approaches for developing an appropriate CAAD tool were found in the literature. Although there are several similarities among them, each is unique in solving certain aspects of the problem. Brown and Novitski [1987] emphasize the learning factor of the tool as well as its highly graphical user interface. Degelman and Kim [1988] emphasize knowledge acquisition and the provision of simulation modules. The Windows and Daylighting Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) emphasizes the dynamic structuring of information, the intelligent linking of data, the integrity of the different issues of design and the design process, and the extensive use of images [Schuman et al 19881, these attributes incidentally define the word hypermedia. The LBL model, which uses hypermedia, seems to be the more promising direction for this type of research. However, there is still a need to establish a new model that integrates all aspects of the problem. The areas in which the present research departs from the LBL model can be listed as follows: it acknowledges the necessity of regarding the user as the center of the CAAD tool design, it develops a model that is based on one of the high level theories of human-computer interaction, and it develops a prototype tool that conforms to the model.

series ACADIA
email l-degelman@neo.tamu.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id e820
authors Armstrong, W.W., Green, M. and Lake, R.
year 1987
title Near- Real-Time Control of Human Figure Models
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. June, 1987. vol. 7: pp. 52-60 : ill
summary Includes bibliography. Animating human figures is one of the major problems in computer animation. A recent approach is the use of dynamic analysis to compute the movement of a human figure, given the forces and torques operating within and upon the body. One of the problems with this technique is computing the forces and torques required for particular motions: this has been called the control problem of dynamic analysis. To develop a better understanding of this problem, an interactive interface to a dynamics package has been produced. This interface, along with a collection of low-level motion processes, can be used to control the motion of a human figure model. This article describes both the user interface and the motion processes, along with experiences with this approach
keywords computer graphics, animation, user interface
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id 016a
authors Balachandran, M. B. and Gero, John S.
year 1987
title A Knowledge-based Approach to Mathematical Design Modeling and Optimization
source engineering Optimization. 1987. vol. 12: pp. 91-115
summary Optimization is a well understood process in design domains. Designers formulate their design problems as single criterion or multicriteria optimization problems and then select an appropriate optimization algorithm to search for the optimal values for the design variables. The formulation and algorithm selection procedures have been considered to be activities which relied on substantive human knowledge. This paper describes a computer system, OPTIMA, which formulates design optimization problems from a pseudo-English description into canonical algebraic expressions. It then recognizes the formulation and selects appropriate algorithm(s) for its solution. Finally, it runs the selected algorithm(s) and sends the results back to the original descriptions. Areas of expert knowledge involved in carrying out the above tasks are identified. Such knowledge is explicitly encoded in the system. The basic philosophy and key features of the system are described and are illustrated with examples
keywords structures, algorithms, knowledge base, systems, optimization, engineering
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 05c2
authors Balachandran, M. B. and Gero, John S.
year 1987
title Use of Knowledge in Selection and Control of Optimization Algorithms
source engineering Optimization. 1987. vol. 12: pp. 163-173
summary Computers have been widely used in optimization based problem solving processes to assist with the numerical computations. The widespread availability of symbolic computational tools and recent developments in artificial intelligence now make it feasible to expand the role of computers in this area. Various classes of knowledge used to improve the efficiency of the optimization processes are presented in this paper. A prototype system developed in the domain of multicriteria decision making is demonstrated. The system contains knowledge needed to select appropriate optimization algorithms, to control the solution process, and to select alternate algorithms if needed
keywords multicriteria, algorithms, knowledge base, systems, problem solving, optimization
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 696c
authors Beheshti, M. and Monroy, M.
year 1988
title Requirements for Developing an Information System for Architecture
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 149-170
summary This paper discusses possibilities of developing new tools for architectural design. It argues that architects should meet the challenge of information technology and computer-based design techniques. One such attempt has been the first phase of the development of an architectural design information system (ADIS), also an architectural design decision support system. The system should benefit from the developments of the artificial intelligence to enable the architect to have access to information required to carry out design work. In other words: the system functions as a huge on-line electronic library of architecture, containing up-to-date architectural design information, literature, documents, etc. At the same time, the system offers necessary design aids such as computer programs for design process, drawing programs, evaluation programs, cost calculation programs, etc. The system also provides data communication between the architect and members of the design coalition team. This is found to be of vital importance in the architectural design process, because it can enable the architect to fit in changes, brought about in the project by different parties. Furthermore, they will be able, to oversee promptly the consequences of changes or decisions in a comprehensive manner. The system will offer advantages over the more commonly applied microcomputer based CAAD and IGDM (integrated graphics database management) systems, or even larger systems available to an architect. Computer programs as well as hardware change rapidly and become obsolete. Therefore, unrelenting investment pressure to up-date both software and hardware exists. The financial burden of this is heavy, in particular for smaller architectural practices (for instance an architect working for himself or herself and usually with few or no permanent staff). ADIS, as an on-line architectural design aid, is constantly up-dated by its own organisation. This task will be co-ordinated by the ADIS data- base administrator (DBA). The processing possibilities of the system are faster, therefore more complex processing tasks can be handled. Complicated large graphic data files, can be easily retrieved and manipulated by ADIS, a large system. In addition, the cost of an on-line system will be much less than any other system. The system is based on one model of the architectural design process, but will eventually contain a variety of design models, as it develops. The development of the system will be an evolutionary process, making use of its users' feed-back system. ADIS is seen as a step towards full automation of architectural design practices. Apart from being an architectural design support system, ADIS will assist the architect in his/her administrative and organisational activities.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id a820
authors Bjerg, Kresten
year 1987
title FULL-SCALE IN ANOTHER SENSE
source Proceedings of the 1st European Full-Scale Workshop Conference / ISBN 87-88373-20-7 / Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-16 January 1987, pp. 31-35
summary My point of departure is a long standing interest in close human communication. I have been much interested in the multiplicities of communicative levels between persons sharing daily life, e.g. spouses in a household. In the mid-sixties I was working with the first videotapings of marital dyads in a laboratory setting. The "interplay- analysis" which I developed at that time, however, was hampered by the lack of contextual naturalism in the setting. Since - working in the field of "altered states of consciousness" - I came to question the adequacy of studies of extra-ordinary states, in view of the lacking methodology for dealing even with the ranges of the variable ordinary states of mind over the 24-hour cycle in everyday life, and their potential relation to the micro-structure of the habitual ongoing activities of members of a household.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 13:08

_id e861
authors Burnham, G.T.
year 1987
title Microcomputer-Based Expert System for the Design of Operational Military Airfields
source Department of Architectural Science, University of Sydney
summary This thesis develops a number of prototypical expert systems on a microcomputer to assist the military designer or engineer with facets of military operational airfield design. An existing expert system shell BUILD written in PROLOG-1 was altered to provide a more permanent record of the results of the system execution. The individual knowledge base includes production rules which conform to the BUILD syntax requirements. A number of additional clauses related to the knowledge base are written in PROLOG-1. The expert system consists of some 200 rules and an additional 36 clauses. The rules contain knowledge on soil characteristics pertinent to airfields, factors involved in calculating lengths of runways and factors for determining the effort involved in construction. The knowledge for the expert systems was gathered from a combination of civilian and military literature sources, the author's own experience, and discussions with military and air force personnel currently engaged in the design, planning and construction of these facilities. Development of these prototypical expert systems demonstrates the feasibility of implementing expert systems on microcomputers in this domain. Furthermore, it demonstrates their possible application to military engineering design particularly where the design process relies on a large amount of tabulated data and heuristic knowledge. It is this type of knowledge that is often used by the military engineer to find a timely problem solution when provided with a range of options. [Unpublished. -- CADLINE has abstract only.]
keywords Applications, Military Engineering, Expert Systems, Design, Planning
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2002/12/14 18:15

_id 7767
authors Danahy, John W.
year 1987
title Sophisticated Image Rendering in Environmental Design Review Graphics Systems
source Proceedings of ACM CHI+GI'87 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems and Graphics Interface 1987 p.211-217
summary The Landscape Architecture Programme and the Computer Systems Research Institute at the University of Toronto undertook two studies using advanced rendering tools pioneered in the areas of computer animation and graphic art. Through two professional landscape architectural design studies we explored the potential role and impact of computer simulation in the initial, more creative phases of the design work. Advanced image rendering hardware and software were used to produce high quality computer drawings of design concepts. The techniques employed in this study are unique in their application to environmental design where they dramatically improve the designer's opportunities to simulate realistic images of proposed design alternatives and to consider the visual and spatial implications of such alternatives. The case studies represented in the paper were undertaken for the National Capital Commission in Ottawa, Canada. The first project is an urban design massing study called the "Parliamentary Precinct Study" and the second project is a detailed design of the "Ceremonial Routes" in Ottawa.
keywords Image Rendering; Design Review; System Specification
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id e7a8
authors Emde, H.
year 1988
title Geometrical Fundamentals for Design and Visualization of Spatial Objects
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 171-178
summary Every architectural object is a 3-dimensional entity of the human environment, haptically tangible and optically visible. During the architectural process of planning every object should be designed as a body and should be visualized in pictures. Thus the parts of construction get an order in space and the steps of construction get an order in time. The ideal planning object is a simulated anticipation of the real building object, which is to be performed later on. The possibility to relate the planning object immediately to the building object relies on the fact that they both have the same "geometry" This means: both can be described in the same geometric manner. Creating and visualizing spatial objects is based on geometrical fundamentals. Theoretical knowledge and practical control of these fundamentals is essential for the faultless construction and the realistic presentation of architectural objects. Therefore they have to be taught and learned thoroughly in the course of an architectural education. Geometrical design includes the forming of object- models (geometry of body boundaries), the structuring of object-hierarchies (geometry of body combinations) and the colouring of objects. Geometrical visualization includes controlling the processes of motion, of the bodies (when moving objects) and of the center of observation (when moving subjects) as well as the representation of 3-dimensional objects in 2- dimensional pictures and sequences of pictures. All these activities of architects are instances of geometrical information processing. They can be performed with the aid of computers. As for the computer this requires suitable hardware and software, as for the architect it requires suitable knowledge and capabilities to be able to talk about and to recall the perceivable objects and processes of the design with logic abstracts (language of geometry). In contrast to logical, numerical and textual informations the geometric informations concerning spatial objects are of much higher complexity. Usually these complexes of information are absorbed, processed and transmitted by the architect in a perceptive manner. The computer support in the field of geometry assumes that the processing of perceptions of the human consciousness can be converted by the computer as a framework of logical relations. Computer aided construction and representation require both suited devices for haptical and optical communication and suitable programs in particular.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 68cb
authors Fenves, Stephen J. and Baker, Nelson C.
year 1987
title Spatial and Functional Representation Language for Structural Design
source 21 p. : ill. Pittsburgh: Engineering Design Research Center, CMU, December, 1987. includes bibliography
summary Knowledge-based systems for structural design developed to date have used simple geometric representations which have not provided adequate spatial reasoning. Shape grammars are suggested as a representation for a knowledge-based system capable of performing spatial and functional reasoning. The representation needs to serve all disciplines involved in the design process, where different semantics of each discipline are associated with the same spatial information about design objects. The representation is demonstrated in the building design environment, where possible structural systems can be generated dependent upon the building's spatial layout
keywords representation, shape grammars, structures, design, problem solving, planning, civil engineering, architecture
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 2ac0
authors Galle, Per
year 1987
title A Formalized Concept of Sketching in Automated Floor Plan Design
source 177 p. 1987. DIKO Research Report No.87/3
summary CADLINE has abstract only. Automated floor plan design, though originally motivated by the difficulties encountered by architects manually designing building layouts, raise several questions that may be of relevance to related application areas as well. e.g. design of electronic circuitry. One such question is, 'how do we come from a given set of constraints on size and placement of rooms (components) to a set of floor plans (circuit layouts) that satisfy these constraints?' In manual architectural design, sketches are used as an intermediate step. The present work is a study of a number of formalizations of the sketch concept which have been or could be used in computer- generation of architectural floor plans. A particular type of sketch, called the 'delta-derivative', is suggested and developed. The delta-derivative of a desired solution plan is an approximation of that solution plan and usually several other similar or 'equivalent' solutions. The idea is to generate sketches ('abstract' plans) before solutions ('concrete' plans), because they are simpler to compute, weeding out sketches that are not 'promising', and trying to refine the remaining sketches into solutions proper, thus limiting the amount of combinatorial search. Several abstraction levels of sketches may be used in this process. However, constraints as specified by the user of an automated design system are assumed to apply to the solutions; therefore a major theoretical problem which is addressed in the report is the derivation of sketch-level constraints that define which sketches to be generated. A comprehensive floor plan design system based on these ideas has been implemented, and empirical results are reported which confirms certain predicted advantages of delta-derivatives but also shows that the sketch-level constraints based on the developed theory are too weak if used alone; they allow generation of too many sketches which cannot possibly be refined into solutions. The report finally conjectures a solution to this problem
keywords CAD, planning, architecture, floor plans, design, combinatorics, programming, abstraction
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id e290
authors Kalay, Yehuda E.
year 1987
title Worldview : An Integrated Geometric Modeling/Drafting System
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. February, 1987. vol. 7: pp. 36-46 : ill. (some col.). includes bibliography
summary Worldview is a computer-aided architectural and engineering design system that combines the power of geometric modeling utilities with the intuitive design and communication capabilities of drafting utilities. This article describes the basic design concepts and implementation of the system, achieved by representing the designed artifact nonredundantly in a three-dimensional 'world' and manipulating it through multiple two-dimensional 'views.' The world consists of a collection of shapes that store all the formative information pertinent to the designed artifact, while the views consist of images of selected shapes, generated through particular two-way mapping transforms. Several views that depict the same set of shapes through different transforms can be displayed simultaneously, using multiple, dynamic, user- defined windows, thereby enabling addressability of points in the 3D world. Views also include such design and communication aids as dimension lines, construction lines, annotations, and graphic symbols to enhance the visual content of the images without encumbering the representation of the shapes themselves. Modifications applied to the shapes through any view are immediately apparent in all other views in which the shapes are imaged. The shapes are represented by a data structure based on the Hybrid Edge data model, which facilitates the integration of points, lines, surfaces, and volumetric bodies into one formative hierarchy. The integration of drafting and modeling simplifies the use of powerful modeling utilities by designers, facilitates the communication of the designed artifact, and enhances the integrity of the design as a whole
keywords drafting, systems, geometric modeling, representation, user interface, computer graphics, CAD, architecture, engineering
series CADline
email kalay@socrates.berkeley.edu
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id ed0f
authors Moshe, R. and Shaviv, E.
year 1988
title Natural Language Interface for CAAD System
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 137-148
summary This work explores issues involved in the development of a natural interface for man-machine dialogue in architectural design processes. A hand-touch on an interactive surface is suggested as the best natural-language interface for architectural CAD systems. To allow the development of a rich range of hand-touch natural-language for communicating information and commands to the computer, it is proposed to develop a new type of a touch-panel, for which a set of specifications is presented. A conceptual design of an architectural workstation, having the described touch-panel, is presented. This workstation is characterized by the integration of the entire range of control and communication facilities required for any architectural task into a single interactive unit. The conceptual model for this workstation is the standard size drawing board, on which the architect is accustomed to spread documents, drawings, books and tools, shuffle them around and interchange them freely by using the natural-language interface developed in this work. The potential of the suggested hand-touch natural-language and the proposed workstation are demonstrated by a case-study.
series CAAD Futures
email arredna@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 404e
authors Oksala , T.
year 1988
title Logical Models for Rule-based CAAD
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 107-116
summary The aim of this paper is to present the basic results of a theoretic approach to represent architectural individual forms in CAD systems. From the point of view of design methodology and problem solving these descriptions might be conceived' as parts of possible environments satisfying the laws of some design theory in logical sense. This paper describes results in a series of logical studies towards rule and knowledge based systems for design automation. The effective use of programming languages and computers as design aids in architecture presupposes certain capabilities to articulate built environment logically. The use of graphic languages in the description of environmental items e.g. buildings might be theoretically mastered by formal production systems including linguistic, geometric, and spatio-material generation. The combination of the power of formal mechanisms and logical individual calculus offers suitable framework to generate arbitrary e.g. free spatial compositions as types or unique solutions. In this frame it is natural to represent in a coherent way very complex hierarchical parsing of buildings in explicit form as needed in computer implementations. In order to simulate real design work the individual configurations of possible built forms should be designed to satisfy known rules. In the preliminary stage partial solutions to design problems may be discussed in mathematical terms using frameworks like lattices, graphs, or group theoretical considerations of structural, functional, and visual organization of buildings. The capability to produce mathematically sophisticated geometric structures allows us to generalize the approach further. The theoretical design knowhow in architecture can be partly translated in to some logic and represented in a knowledge base. These rules are used as selection criteria for geometric design candidates in the sense of logical model theory and mathematical optimization. The economy of the system can be developed by using suitable conduct mechanisms familiar e.g. from logic programming. The semantics of logic offers a frame to consider computer assisted and formal generation in design. A number of semantic and pragmatic problems, however, remain to be solved. In any case conceptual analyses based on logic are applicable in order to rationally reconstruct architectural goals contributing to the quality of environmental design, which should be the main goal in the development of design systems in near future.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 0a9c
authors Ozel, Filiz
year 1987
title The Computer Model "BGRAF": A Cognitive Approach to Emergency Egress Simulation
source University of Michigan
summary During the past decade, fire safety researchers have come to the understanding that human factors in fires play an important role in controlling the spread of fire; and in decreasing the number of fire casualties in buildings. With the current developments in computer technology, computer modeling of human behavior in fires emerged as an effective method of research. Such computer modeling techniques offered the advantage of being able to experiment with hypothetical fires in buildings without Note endangering human life. Consequently, a study to develop a computer model that will simulate the emergency egress behavior of people in fires was undertaken. Changes in the information processing capacity of the individual as a result of time pressure and stress was considered as part of the emergency egress decision process. Theories from environmental psychology identified a range of cognitive factors, such as visual access in buildings, architectural differentiation, signage and plan configuration that affect way finding and route selection in buildings. These factors needed to be incorporated into emergency egress models. The model was based on the integrated building data base of the CAD system developed at the University of Michigan, Architecture and Planning Lab., which provided a comprehensive building definition, and allowed both graphic and tabular output. Two actual fire incidences were simulated as part of the validation study. These studies have stressed the importance of the cognitive aspects of the physical environment as a factor in emergency egress. A goal structure that represented the total decision process during fires was incorporated into the model. This structure allowed the inputting and testing of a variety of goal structures by using actions as model blocks. The objectives of the model developed in this study can best be summarized as to study and eventually to predict the route selection and exiting behavior in fires, with the purpose of using such information in making building design and code development decisions, and in suggesting action sequences that will best support the safety of the occupants of a building under different emergency conditions.
series thesis:PhD
email ozel@asu.edu
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id c95f
authors Petrovic, Ivan and Svetel, Igor
year 1994
title Conversation on Design Action: By Men or by Machines?
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 15-23
summary A design studio of the future shall be based on dislocated, distributed design services, and feature the ‘design by collaboration’ enabled by the computer transmitted information. However, in a collaborative design process, computer may take an additional role, i.e., as an “ultimately structured dynamic communication medium ... based on the notion of commitment and interpretation” (Winograd and Flores 1987). Various models of ‘intelligent’ design systems based on the ideas of ‘open, distributed, artificial intelligence systems’ have shown that the computer-based design agents which act on the object-to-be-designed model could be involved in a “conversation for action” (Winograd and Flores, Ibid.). The aim of the paper is to illustrate a computer-based design system that enables ‘a-kind-of’ conversations by the design agents before the design decisions were made. After the description of a design experiment and the conversation that went on between the design agents, the traits of the applied ‘design design system’ are discussed.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 07:15

_id 8a38
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Parks, Linda M.
year 1987
title Natural Language Prototypes for Analyzing Design Standards
source Southampton, U.K: Computational Mechanics Publications, 1987. pp. 147-160
summary CADLINE has abstract only. This paper addresses the use of natural language processing for acquiring, processing, and representing knowledge from design standards. A standard is a set of provisions providing principles, models, rules, limits, and particulars that are established by some authority for some purpose. In their textual form as written documents, design standards cannot directly be used in computer-aided design (CAD) systems. This paper demonstrates how standards can be transformed, using natural language processing techniques, from their textual form to alternative representations that more readily lend themselves to use in computer-aided design systems, supporting a variety of design applications. The language being transformed is the Building Officials and Code Administrators Building Code, one set of requirements that govern the design of buildings. Prototype computer subsystems have been developed that transform natural language sentences to case-grammar format and finally to subject-relationship- object triplets. The three prototypes that achieve these transformations are described: a parser, a semantic analyzer, and a query system. During one processing cycle, the system identifies that data items in a provision and the relationships between the data items. It also interacts with the user to add new data items to its knowledge bases, to verify data items found, and to add to its vocabulary. Alternatively, it responds to natural-language questions about the contents of the standard by identifying the relevant provisions within the standards. Processing formal documents requires knowledge about vocabulary, word-order, time, semantics, reference, and discourse. Despite the relative clarity of formal writing as it occurs in standards, the difficulties of implied responsibility, multiple meanings, and implied data items remain. A long-term research program at North Carolina State University has been defined that builds on these prototypes to further investigate knowledge acquisition and representation for standards
keywords design, standards, analysis, AI, natural languages
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 66e5
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Wang, TsoJen E.
year 1987
title Generic Design Standards Processing in a Knowledge-based expert system Environment
source Design Process, National Science Foundation Workshop Proceedings. 1987. pp. 267-291. CADLINE has abstract only
summary Standards, codes, and specifications play an important role in the design of buildings, bridges, and other engineering systems. A design configuration must be checked against all standards to ensure that it is acceptable. This process of design conformance checking using standards is often very tedious. The successful automation of conformance checking is one of the components of a comprehensive computer-aided design system. In the past, standards were interpreted and converted into application program written in procedural programming languages such as FORTRAN. This approach is extremely inflexible and often error prone. To support a fully automated computer-aided design system, standards must be incorporated into the design process in a more generic and flexible manner. This paper investigates the feasibility of alternatively casting standards in a form suitable for processing in a knowledge-based expert system environment. The emergence of expert systems from artificial intelligence research has provided a technology that readily lends itself to the automation of design standards. Knowledge-based expert systems have become a powerful tool in tackling domains like design where some of the problem-solving knowledge is diverse and ill-structured. Using an expert system tool, a standard can be represented and processed independent of a CAD application program. Two prototype standards processing systems utilizing the production system approach have been constructed and are presented herein. Although the obvious direct translation casting the provisions of a standard as rules in a production system has its advantages, a more generic and flexible representation scheme is proposed herein. The approach advocated in this paper is to represent standards as databases of facts which can be readily and generically processed by an expert system. The database representation is derived from a unified view of standards obtained by using the standards modeling tools proposed by previous researchers in this field during the past decade. Building on this existing technology resulted in a knowledge- based standards processing architecture which is generic, modular, and flexible. An implementation of this architecture is presented and described
keywords knowledge base, standards, expert systems, civil engineering
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 6683
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Wang, TsoJen E.
year 1987
title Spike : A Generic Design Standards Processing Expert System
source Southampton, UK: Computational Mechanics Publications, pp. 241-257. Also published in : Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Engineering International Conference Proceedings (2nd. : 1987 : Boston, MA.)
summary Standards, codes, and specifications play an important role in the design of buildings, bridges, and other engineering systems. A design configuration must be checked against all standards to ensure that it is acceptable. This process of design conformance checking using standards is often very tedious. The successful automation of conformance checking is one of the components of a comprehensive computer-aided design system. In that past, standards were interpreted and converted into application programs written in procedural programming languages such as FORTRAN. This approach is extremely inflexible and often error-prone. To support a fully automated computer-aided design system, standards must be incorporated into the design process in a more generic and flexible manner. This paper investigates the feasibility of alternatively casting standards in a form suitable for processing in a knowledge-based expert system environment. The emergence of expert systems from artificial intelligence research has provided a technology that readily lends itself to the automation of design standards. Knowledge-based expert systems have become a powerful tool in tackling domains like design where some of the problem-solving knowledge is diverse and ill-structured. Using an expert system tool, a standard can be represented and processed independent of a CAD application program. Two prototype standards processing systems utilizing the production system approach have been constructed and are presented herein. Although the obvious direct translation casting the provisions of a standard as rules in a production system has its advantages, a more generic and flexible representation scheme is proposed herein. The approach advocated in this paper is to represent standards as databases of facts which can be readily and generically processed by an expert system. The database representation is derived from a unified view of standards obtained by using the standards modeling tools proposed by previous researchers in this field during the past decade. Building on this existing technology resulted in a knowledge- based standards processing architecture which is generic, modular, and flexible. An implementation of this architecture is presented and described
keywords standards, civil engineering, expert systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 4910
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Watson, Bruce R.
year 1987
title A Knowledge-Based Approach to Engineering Information Retrieval and Management
source London, UK: Chapman and Hall Ltd., 1987. pp. 267-295
summary Building design, construction, operation, maintenance, and control are all processes that have achieved various levels of computer use. Although the degree of computerization varies significantly, one common aspect of the computing needs of each process is an abundance of data in the form of tables, standards, project definition information, catalogs, etc. In most cases this data is stored in files which are independently used for input to stand-alone single-process application programs, such as a structural analysis application. The utility of these independent files is therefore limited to a single application. As concepts of integration of engineering applications evolved, the use of databases and database management systems (DBMS) increased. A number of issues of significant concern emerged. First, there is a need to retrieve data from many independent, possibly widely distributed databases. Second, there is a need for a uniform means of doing so. Third, such databases routinely undergo dynamic change. Changes in a database schema commonly result from the evolution of a design, from changes in the design process itself, and from changes in other subsequent downstream processes. Such continuing changes must be reflected in the database schemas and they subsequently require that application programs be updated and that online users be educated on a continuing basis. This chapter describes a knowledge-based expert system that provides access to and integration of the many underlying databases needed to support the building design/construction process. The unique aspect of the expert system presented in this chapter is its capture of the knowledge that an experienced human user incorporates in his search for data in a database, i.e., it seeks to identify and use the generic knowledge needed to operate a DBMS to retrieve data. This knowledge is used by the interface to enable both the online users and the application programs to request data without knowing the data's location or precisely how to ask for it. Further, the interface makes use of mechanisms that allow the user to request data without knowing the exact name by which it is stored in the database. In doing so it formalizes the levels of complexity of that knowledge and points out the multidisciplinary applications of the research results
keywords civil engineering, knowledge base, database, expert systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

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