CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 8e02
authors Brown, A.G.P. and Coenen, F.P.
year 2000
title Spatial reasoning: improving computational efficiency
source Automation in Construction 9 (4) (2000) pp. 361-367
summary When spatial data is analysed the result is often very computer intensive: even by the standards of contemporary technologies, the machine power needed is great and the processing times significant. This is particularly so in 3-D and 4-D scenarios. What we describe here is a technique, which tackles this and associated problems. The technique is founded in the idea of quad-tesseral addressing; a technique, which was originally applied to the analysis of atomic structures. It is based on ideas concerning Hierarchical clustering developed in the 1960s and 1970s to improve data access time [G.M. Morton, A computer oriented geodetic database and a new technique on file sequencing, IBM Canada, 1996.], and on atomic isohedral (same shape) tiling strategies developed in the 1970s and 1980s concerned with group theory [B. Grunbaum, G.C. Shephard, Tilings and Patterns, Freeman, New York, 1987.]. The technique was first suggested as a suitable representation for GIS in the early 1980s when the two strands were brought together and a tesseral arithmetic applied [F.C. Holdroyd, The Geometry of Tiling Hierarchies, Ars Combanitoria 16B (1983) 211–244.; S.B.M. Bell, B.M. Diaz, F.C. Holroyd, M.J.J. Jackson, Spatially referenced methods of processing raster and vector data, Image and Vision Computing 1 (4) (1983) 211–220.; Diaz, S.B.M. Bell, Spatial Data Processing Using Tesseral Methods, Natural Environment Research Council, Swindon, 1986.]. Here, we describe how that technique can equally be applied to the analysis of environmental interaction with built forms. The way in which the technique deals with the problems described is first to linearise the three-dimensional (3-D) space being investigated. Then, the reasoning applied to that space is applied within the same environment as the definition of the problem data. We show, with an illustrative example, how the technique can be applied. The problem then remains of how to visualise the results of the analysis so undertaken. We show how this has been accomplished so that the 3-D space and the results are represented in a way which facilitates rapid interpretation of the analysis, which has been carried out.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id e861
authors Burnham, G.T.
year 1987
title Microcomputer-Based Expert System for the Design of Operational Military Airfields
source Department of Architectural Science, University of Sydney
summary This thesis develops a number of prototypical expert systems on a microcomputer to assist the military designer or engineer with facets of military operational airfield design. An existing expert system shell BUILD written in PROLOG-1 was altered to provide a more permanent record of the results of the system execution. The individual knowledge base includes production rules which conform to the BUILD syntax requirements. A number of additional clauses related to the knowledge base are written in PROLOG-1. The expert system consists of some 200 rules and an additional 36 clauses. The rules contain knowledge on soil characteristics pertinent to airfields, factors involved in calculating lengths of runways and factors for determining the effort involved in construction. The knowledge for the expert systems was gathered from a combination of civilian and military literature sources, the author's own experience, and discussions with military and air force personnel currently engaged in the design, planning and construction of these facilities. Development of these prototypical expert systems demonstrates the feasibility of implementing expert systems on microcomputers in this domain. Furthermore, it demonstrates their possible application to military engineering design particularly where the design process relies on a large amount of tabulated data and heuristic knowledge. It is this type of knowledge that is often used by the military engineer to find a timely problem solution when provided with a range of options. [Unpublished. -- CADLINE has abstract only.]
keywords Applications, Military Engineering, Expert Systems, Design, Planning
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2002/12/14 18:15

_id 2ac0
authors Galle, Per
year 1987
title A Formalized Concept of Sketching in Automated Floor Plan Design
source 177 p. 1987. DIKO Research Report No.87/3
summary CADLINE has abstract only. Automated floor plan design, though originally motivated by the difficulties encountered by architects manually designing building layouts, raise several questions that may be of relevance to related application areas as well. e.g. design of electronic circuitry. One such question is, 'how do we come from a given set of constraints on size and placement of rooms (components) to a set of floor plans (circuit layouts) that satisfy these constraints?' In manual architectural design, sketches are used as an intermediate step. The present work is a study of a number of formalizations of the sketch concept which have been or could be used in computer- generation of architectural floor plans. A particular type of sketch, called the 'delta-derivative', is suggested and developed. The delta-derivative of a desired solution plan is an approximation of that solution plan and usually several other similar or 'equivalent' solutions. The idea is to generate sketches ('abstract' plans) before solutions ('concrete' plans), because they are simpler to compute, weeding out sketches that are not 'promising', and trying to refine the remaining sketches into solutions proper, thus limiting the amount of combinatorial search. Several abstraction levels of sketches may be used in this process. However, constraints as specified by the user of an automated design system are assumed to apply to the solutions; therefore a major theoretical problem which is addressed in the report is the derivation of sketch-level constraints that define which sketches to be generated. A comprehensive floor plan design system based on these ideas has been implemented, and empirical results are reported which confirms certain predicted advantages of delta-derivatives but also shows that the sketch-level constraints based on the developed theory are too weak if used alone; they allow generation of too many sketches which cannot possibly be refined into solutions. The report finally conjectures a solution to this problem
keywords CAD, planning, architecture, floor plans, design, combinatorics, programming, abstraction
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id 2f5a
authors Gero, John S. and Coyne, Richard D.
year 1987
title Knowledge-based Planning as a Design Paradigm
source Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1987. pp. 289-323 : tables. includes bibliography
summary The application of sequential planning to the design process is discussed, considering design as a search through a space of states. The procedures which transform states utilize a kind of design knowledge. Planning is considered as a method of controlling the design process. Various paradigms of planning are discussed along with their application to design. The authors discuss forward deduction and backtracking, backward deduction hierarchical planning and constructive approaches to planning. These lead to the view that control in design is a multi-level process. The paradigms are illustrated with examples implemented in PROLOG. With this it is shown that knowledge-based planning is a good design paradigm
keywords control, design process, planning, PROLOG, knowledge base
series CADline
last changed 2003/05/17 08:17

_id ee8f
authors Rasdorf, William J.
year 1987
title Extending Database Management Systems for Engineering Applications
source Computers in Mechanical Engineering (CIME). American Society of Mechanical Engineers, March, 1987. vol. 5: pp. 62-69
summary During the design of a manufactured component, large amounts of information pertaining to all aspects of the design must be stored, accessed, and operated upon. A database management system (DBMS), composed of a central repository of data and the associated software for controlling accesses to it and operations on it, provides one way to uniformly store, manage, and use this information. This paper presents a framework for an extension to relational database management systems that combines a set of engineering constraints with a database of engineering data items. The representation requires a database that is able to store all of the data normally associated with engineering design as well as the constraints imposed upon the engineering design process. A powerful and flexible constraint processing system is needed to adequately ensure that engineering data conforms to the limitations imposed upon it by the design process. Such a system must be capable of allowing constraints to be invoked at a variety of times, and provide numerous options for the user when violations are detected. This paper introduces a concept called structured constraints that integrates state- of-the-art advances in DBMSs and current research in engineering constraint processing to further enhance CAD system capabilities. It discusses the extensions to relational database theory that are needed to achieve such a constraint handling capability for mechanical engineering applications. The goal sought is a managed repository of data supporting interfaces to a wide variety of application programs and supporting processing capabilities for maintaining data integrity by incorporating engineering constraints. The Structured Constraint model is a general method for classifying semantic integrity constraints. It is based on the structure of the relational model and is therefore independent of any particular query language. In addition, it is a formalism that possesses conceptual clarity and generality which make it useful for representing and communicating arbitrary constraints. The key contribution of this formalism is its basis for a completely definable implementation of an engineering integrity system
keywords civil engineering, relational database, constraints management, management, DBMS
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 0a09
authors Akin, O., Dave, B. and Pithavadian, S.
year 1987
title Problem Structuring in Architectural Design
source February, 1987. [4], 15 p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary The purpose of this research is to describe in operational terms the process of problem structuring while solving spatial problems in architectural design. The designer's behavior is described in terms of problem structuring, when problem parameters are established or transformed, and in terms of problem solving when these parameters are satisfied in a design solution. As opposed to problem solving, the structuring of problems is an under-studied but crucial aspect of complex tasks such as design. This work is based on observations derived from verbal protocol studies. To consider various levels of skill, the research subjects range from professional architects to novice designers. Subjects are given space planning problems which require them to develop solutions in accordance with individually established constraints and criteria, the majority of which are not explicit stated in the problem description. Based on the results of the protocol analysis, a framework is developed which explains how information processing characteristics, problem structure and different levels of expertise interact to influence the designer behavior
keywords architecture, design process, problem solving, protocol analysis, problem definition
series CADline
last changed 2003/05/17 08:09

_id 8eb4
authors Athithan, G. and Patnaik, L.M.
year 1987
title Geometric Searching In Extended CSG Models : Application to Solid Modeling and Viewing
source February, 1987. 30 p. : ill
summary In this paper, the CSG representation scheme is augmented with the 'cartesian product.' The sweep method of generating solids is encompassed by this 'Extended CSG' formalism. The point inclusion problem encountered in the area of geometric searching in computational geometry is discussed in the context to solid models represented by 'extended CSG.' A simple algorithm to solve it that has a time complexity O(n), where n is the number of primitives, is presented. Allowing for preprocessing and extra storage, a second efficient algorithm, having a time complexity O(log n), is developed. The relevance of point inclusion problem in solid modelling techniques is indicated. An extended CSG based solid modeling method is proposed. A solution to the problem of hidden line removal, that uses the faster algorithm for the point inclusion problem, is also presented in the paper
keywords point inclusion, computational geometry, data structures, solid modeling, CSG, computer graphics, hidden lines
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id 266d
authors Badler, Norman I., Manoochehri, Kamran H. and Walters, Graham
year 1987
title Articulated Figure Positioning by Multiple Constraints
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. June, 1987. vol. 7: pp. 28-38 : ill. Includes bibliography
summary A problem that arises in positioning an articulated figures is the solution of 3D joint positions (kinematics), when joint angles are given. If more than one such goal is to be achieved, the problem is often solved interactively by positioning or solving one component of the linkage, then adjusting another, then redoing the first, and so on. This iterative process is slow and tedious. The authors present a method that automatically solves multiple simultaneous joint position goals. The user interface offers a six-degree-of freedom input device to specify joint angles and goal positions interactively. Examples are used to demonstrate the power and efficiency of this method for key-position animation
keywords animation, constraints, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id cf2011_p170
id cf2011_p170
authors Barros, Mário; Duarte José, Chaparro Bruno
year 2011
title Thonet Chairs Design Grammar: a Step Towards the Mass Customization of Furniture
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 181-200.
summary The paper presents the first phase of research currently under development that is focused on encoding Thonet design style into a generative design system using a shape grammar. The ultimate goal of the work is the design and production of customizable chairs using computer assisted tools, establishing a feasible practical model of the paradigm of mass customization (Davis, 1987). The current research step encompasses the following three steps: (1) codification of the rules describing Thonet design style into a shape grammar; (2) implementing the grammar into a computer tool as parametric design; and (3) rapid prototyping of customized chair designs within the style. Future phases will address the transformation of the Thonet’s grammar to create a new style and the production of real chair designs in this style using computer aided manufacturing. Beginning in the 1830’s, Austrian furniture designer Michael Thonet began experimenting with forming steam beech, in order to produce lighter furniture using fewer components, when compared with the standards of the time. Using the same construction principles and standardized elements, Thonet produced different chairs designs with a strong formal resemblance, creating his own design language. The kit assembly principle, the reduced number of elements, industrial efficiency, and the modular approach to furniture design as a system of interchangeable elements that may be used to assemble different objects enable him to become a pioneer of mass production (Noblet, 1993). The most paradigmatic example of the described vision of furniture design is the chair No. 14 produced in 1858, composed of six structural elements. Due to its simplicity, lightness, ability to be stored in flat and cubic packaging for individual of collective transportation, respectively, No. 14 became one of the most sold chairs worldwide, and it is still in production nowadays. Iconic examples of mass production are formally studied to provide insights to mass customization studies. The study of the shape grammar for the generation of Thonet chairs aimed to ensure rules that would make possible the reproduction of the selected corpus, as well as allow for the generation of new chairs within the developed grammar. Due to the wide variety of Thonet chairs, six chairs were randomly chosen to infer the grammar and then this was fine tuned by checking whether it could account for the generation of other designs not in the original corpus. Shape grammars (Stiny and Gips, 1972) have been used with sucesss both in the analysis as in the synthesis of designs at different scales, from product design to building and urban design. In particular, the use of shape grammars has been efficient in the characterization of objects’ styles and in the generation of new designs within the analyzed style, and it makes design rules amenable to computers implementation (Duarte, 2005). The literature includes one other example of a grammar for chair design by Knight (1980). In the second step of the current research phase, the outlined shape grammar was implemented into a computer program, to assist the designer in conceiving and producing customized chairs using a digital design process. This implementation was developed in Catia by converting the grammar into an equivalent parametric design model. In the third phase, physical models of existing and new chair designs were produced using rapid prototyping. The paper describes the grammar, its computer implementation as a parametric model, and the rapid prototyping of physical models. The generative potential of the proposed digital process is discussed in the context of enabling the mass customization of furniture. The role of the furniture designer in the new paradigm and ideas for further work also are discussed.
keywords Thonet; furniture design; chair; digital design process; parametric design; shape grammar
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id b915
authors Carpenter, L., Catmull, E. and Cook, R.L.
year 1987
title The REYES image rendering architecture
source Computer Graphics, 21 4, 95-102
summary In 1987, Robert Cook, Loren Carpenter, and Edwin Catmull released an article about the Reyes (Renders Everything You Ever Saw) image rendering pipeline [1]. This pipeline formed the basis for PRMan (Photo-realistic RenderMan), Pixar's ground-breaking image renderer. The basic Reyes pipeline proceeds in several steps: For each primitive in the scene: 1. Transform to Camera-Space 2. Bound - Eye-space bound of the primitive that will help cull primitives that are outside of the viewing area. 3. Split - A primitive can split itself into one or more smaller primitives. This will help to reduce the total number of polygons when the primitive gets diced. It will also allow parts of a primitive to be culled. 4. Dice - Convert the primitive into a grid of micropolygons. Each micropolygon is about the size of half of a pixel. 5. Shade - Perform lighting and shading calculations on each vertex in the micropolygon grid. 6. Draw - Scan convert and perform z-buffer calculations on the micropolygons of each primitive.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 7767
authors Danahy, John W.
year 1987
title Sophisticated Image Rendering in Environmental Design Review Graphics Systems
source Proceedings of ACM CHI+GI'87 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems and Graphics Interface 1987 p.211-217
summary The Landscape Architecture Programme and the Computer Systems Research Institute at the University of Toronto undertook two studies using advanced rendering tools pioneered in the areas of computer animation and graphic art. Through two professional landscape architectural design studies we explored the potential role and impact of computer simulation in the initial, more creative phases of the design work. Advanced image rendering hardware and software were used to produce high quality computer drawings of design concepts. The techniques employed in this study are unique in their application to environmental design where they dramatically improve the designer's opportunities to simulate realistic images of proposed design alternatives and to consider the visual and spatial implications of such alternatives. The case studies represented in the paper were undertaken for the National Capital Commission in Ottawa, Canada. The first project is an urban design massing study called the "Parliamentary Precinct Study" and the second project is a detailed design of the "Ceremonial Routes" in Ottawa.
keywords Image Rendering; Design Review; System Specification
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id 0faa
authors Duelund Mortensen, Peder
year 1991
source Proceedings of the 3rd European Full-Scale Modelling Conference / ISBN 91-7740044-5 / Lund (Sweden) 13-16 September 1990, pp. 10-11
summary The workshop is an institution, available for use by the public and established at the Laboratory of Housing in the Art Academy's school of Architecture for a 3 year trial period beginning April 1985. This resumé contains brief descriptions of a variety of representative model projects and an overview of all projects carried out so far, including the pilot projects from 1983 and planned projects to and including January 1987. The Full Scale Model Workshop builds full size models of buildings, rooms and parts of buildings. The purpose of the Full Scale Model Workshop is to promote communication among building's users. The workshop is a tool in an attempt to build bridges between theory and practice in research, experimentation and communication of research results. New ideas and experiments of various sorts can be tried out cheaply, quickly and efficiently through the building of full scale models. Changes can be done on the spot as a planned part of the project and on the basis of ideas and experiments achieved through the model work itself. Buildings and their space can thus be communicated directly to all involved persons, regardless of technical background or training in evaluation of building projects.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2004/05/04 13:23

_id e7a8
authors Emde, H.
year 1988
title Geometrical Fundamentals for Design and Visualization of Spatial Objects
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 171-178
summary Every architectural object is a 3-dimensional entity of the human environment, haptically tangible and optically visible. During the architectural process of planning every object should be designed as a body and should be visualized in pictures. Thus the parts of construction get an order in space and the steps of construction get an order in time. The ideal planning object is a simulated anticipation of the real building object, which is to be performed later on. The possibility to relate the planning object immediately to the building object relies on the fact that they both have the same "geometry" This means: both can be described in the same geometric manner. Creating and visualizing spatial objects is based on geometrical fundamentals. Theoretical knowledge and practical control of these fundamentals is essential for the faultless construction and the realistic presentation of architectural objects. Therefore they have to be taught and learned thoroughly in the course of an architectural education. Geometrical design includes the forming of object- models (geometry of body boundaries), the structuring of object-hierarchies (geometry of body combinations) and the colouring of objects. Geometrical visualization includes controlling the processes of motion, of the bodies (when moving objects) and of the center of observation (when moving subjects) as well as the representation of 3-dimensional objects in 2- dimensional pictures and sequences of pictures. All these activities of architects are instances of geometrical information processing. They can be performed with the aid of computers. As for the computer this requires suitable hardware and software, as for the architect it requires suitable knowledge and capabilities to be able to talk about and to recall the perceivable objects and processes of the design with logic abstracts (language of geometry). In contrast to logical, numerical and textual informations the geometric informations concerning spatial objects are of much higher complexity. Usually these complexes of information are absorbed, processed and transmitted by the architect in a perceptive manner. The computer support in the field of geometry assumes that the processing of perceptions of the human consciousness can be converted by the computer as a framework of logical relations. Computer aided construction and representation require both suited devices for haptical and optical communication and suitable programs in particular.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 801f
authors Galle, Per
year 1987
title Branch & Sample : Systematic Combinatorial Search without Optimization
source 73 p. 1987. DIKU Research Report No. 87/5. CADLINE has abstract only
summary Many constraint satisfaction problems are combinatorically explosive, i.e. have far too many solutions. Optimization techniques may help in selecting solutions for consideration, but a reasonable measure of optimality is not always at hand. The branch & sample algorithm is presented as an alternative to optimization. If the constraints themselves limit the solution set sufficiently, the algorithm finds all solutions, but otherwise a suitable number of solutions (determined by the user) is generated, such that each new solution has a maximal distance to those already generated. The distance measure used is a so called ultrametric distance expressible in terms of the search tree: solutions are viewed as m-tuples of fixed length, each of whose m decision variables corresponds to a level in the search tree. The distance between two solutions is the number of edges from their leaf nodes to the closest common predecessor node in the tree. For problems whose decision variables depend on each other (as is often the case) the set of solutions generated in this way corresponds well to the intuitive notion of a 'representative sample.' The principles of Branch & Sample are first introduced informally, then the algorithm is developed by stepwise refinement, and two examples of its use are given. A fully tested application-independent implementation of the algorithm in C is given as an appendix
keywords algorithms, combinatorics, search, constraints, floor plans, layout, synthesis, architecture
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id 8eb5
authors Gero, John S. (Conference Chairman and Editor)
year 1987
title Expert Systems in Computer-Aided Design
source IFIP WG 5.2 Working Conference on Expert Systems in Computer-Aided Design. proceedings. 1987. 533 p. : ill. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1987. Also published as a book by North Holland (Amsterdam, 1987)
summary The aim of the Expert Systems in Computer-Aided Design conference was to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas and experiences related to expert systems in computer-aided design, to present and explore the state-of-the-art of expert systems in computer-aided design, to delineate future directions in both research and practice and to promote further development. Seventeen of the nineteen papers accepted were presented with each presentation followed by a round table discussion. The discussion was taped, transcribed and edited and forms part of this volume. The authors came from seven countries, whilst the attendees represented some thirteen nationalities. There is an implicit structure in the ordering of the papers, commencing with system architectures, representation tools through applications to specific design concerns. These papers demonstrate the wide variety of knowledge engineering tools needed in computer-aided design. It is interesting to observe the progression over these three conferences in the ratio of computer scientists to design researchers amongst the authors. The balance over the period has swung from a predominance of computer scientists to a predominance of design researchers. We are beginning to see knowledge engineering development driven by designers' needs
keywords CAD, expert systems, AI, design
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id e60d
authors Gross, Mark D., Ervin, Stephen M. and Anderson, James (et al)
year 1987
title Designing with Constraints
source John Wiley & Sons, 1987. pp. 53-83. includes bibliography
summary The constraint model of designing provides a means of demonstrating and exploring the computability of design. Designing is understood as a process of incrementally defining an initially ill-defined question, and concurrently proposing and testing possible answers. That is, not finding THE solution to A problem, but finding A solution to THE problem. Articulating (including inventing and modifying) the question, and exploring possible alternative answers (or designs), are two fundamental activities which can be supported by computers and the constraint model. The authors discuss the use of constraints to explicate design questions, circumscribe feasible regions and specify proposed solutions, and examine the processes of search and scrutiny within a region. Naming, solving history-keeping, block-structuring, identifying and resolving conflicts are among tasks identified that can be rendered to a computer. Questions of knowledge representation and inference making with ambiguity and imprecision are discussed. Examples of the application of the constraint model to design problems in architecture and site planning are illustrated by brief scenarios
keywords constraints, design process, search, knowledge
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 6f4d
authors Hall, Theodore W.
year 1987
title Space Stations, Computers and Architectural Design
source Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Raleigh (North Carolina / USA) 1987, pp. 7-18
summary In the winter semester of 1987, I had the opportunity to work with a group of aerospace engineering students on the design of an artificial-gravity rotating space habitat. This was an interesting project in its own right, but of particular relevance to ACADIA was the role of the computer in the design process. Because of its unusual nature, this project forced me to reconsider several issues. This paper addresses the following: (-) The computer as a medium for communication. (-) The need for special tools for special tasks. (-) The pros and cons of computer models vs. cardboard models. (-) The designer's reliance on technology and technocrats. (-) The role of the guru. // Since it was the experience with the space habitat design project that raised these issues, the discussion starts there. The paper then looks for similar experiences in other, more "typical" studio projects. The conclusions are personal opinions about software design, computer literacy, and the teaching of CAD skills to non-programmers.

series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 8385
authors Holtz, Neal M. and Rasdorf, William J.
year 1988
title An Evaluation of Programming Languages and Language Features for Engineering Software Development
source International Journal of Engineering with Computers. Springer-Verlag, 1988. vol. 3: pp. 183-199
summary Also published as 'Procedural Programming Languages for the Development of CAD and CAE Systems Software,' in the proceedings of ASME International Conference on Computers in Engineering (1987 : New York, NY). The scope of engineering software has increased dramatically in the past decade. In its early years, most engineering applications were concerned solely with solving difficult numerical problems, and little attention was paid to man- machine interaction, to data management, or to integrated software systems. Now computers solve a much wider variety of problems, including those in which numerical computations are less predominant. In addition, completely new areas of engineering applications such as artificial intelligence have recently emerged. It is well recognized that the particular programming language used to develop an engineering application can dramatically affect the development cost, operating cost. reliability, and usability of the resulting software. With the increase in the variety, functionality, and complexity of engineering software, with its more widespread use, and with its increasing importance, more attention must be paid to programming language suitability so that rational decisions regarding language selection may be made. It is important that professional engineers be aware of the issues addressed in this paper, for it is they who must design, acquire, and use applications software, as well as occasionally develop or manage its development. This paper addresses the need for engineers to possess a working knowledge of the fundamentals of computer programming languages. In pursuit of this, the paper briefly reviews the history of four well known programming languages. It then attempts to identify and to look critically at the attributes of programming languages that significantly affect the production of engineering software. The four procedural programming languages chosen for review are those intended for scientific and general purpose programming, FORTRAN 77, C, Pascal, and Modula-2. These languages are compared and some general observations are made. As it is felt important that professional engineers should be able to make informed decisions about programming language selection, the emphasis throughout this paper is on a methodology of evaluation of programming languages. Choosing an appropriate language can be a complex task and many factors must be considered. Consequently, fundamentals are stressed
keywords programming, engineering, languages, software, management, evaluation, FORTRAN, C, PASCAL, MODULA-2, CAD, CAE
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 889f
authors Krantz, Birgit
year 1987
source Proceedings of the 1st European Full-Scale Workshop Conference / ISBN 87-88373-20-7 / Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-16 January 1987, pp. 7-17
summary An often repeated statement of the nature of the result of our general construction activities in general says that any building and environmental arrangement could be seen as a pure experimental product. The building, in this sense, is nothing but one single full-scale experiment started afresh each time, unfortunately, we could add, without the consistent follow-up measures. In view of this way of understanding the building process you might deduce the interest in a more anticipating attitude.and behaviour, namely the mock-up method or the full-scale design process, based on the philosophy that in a situation of uncertainty you had better try before than after. An underlying presumption is, however, that generally there is a lack of knowledge about the consequences by transferring spatial and design ideas from. drawings to one to one realization. A lack of knowledge not only-among lay, people but also among professionals. The mock-up practice can also to the same extent be derived from a pure investigative interest with the aim to virtually analyze general or specific problems in the* relationship man and the built environment, particularly buildings and spatial settings on the micro level. That means the use of the full-scale method for the search for basic design knowledge. In this sense the mock-up activities started in Sweden.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2004/05/04 13:09

_id diss_kuo
id diss_kuo
authors Kuo, C.J.
year 1999
title Unsupervised Dynamic Concurrent Computer-Aided Design Assistant
source Los Angeles: UCLA
summary The increasing capability of computer-aided architectural design systems has strengthened the role that the computer plays in the workplace. Due to the complexity of developing new techniques and research, these systems are undertaken mostly by scientists and engineers without significant architectural input (Willey, 1991). The design concept of these systems may be based on a well-defined and well-understood process, which is not yet realized in architectural design (Galle, 1994). The output of such research may not be easily adapted into the design process. Most of the techniques assume a complete understanding of the design space (Gero and Maher, 1987) (Willey, 1991). The description or construction of the design space is always time and space consuming, and the result can never be complete due to the ever-changing nature of architectural design. This research intends to initiate a solution for the above problems. The proposed system is an unsupervised-dynamic-concurrent-computer-aided-design assistant. The “unsupervised” means the learning process is not supervised by the user because it is against the designer's nature to “think-aloud” in the design studio and it also increases the work load. It is dynamic because the size of the knowledge base is constantly changing. Concurrent means that there are multiple procedures active simultaneously. This research focuses on learning the operational knowledge from an individual designer and reapplying it in future designs. A computer system for this experiment is constructed. It is capable of The preliminary result shows a positive feedback from test subjects. The purpose of this research is to suggest a potent computational frame within which future developments may flourish.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/11/28 06:37

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