CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 27e8
authors Rasdorf, William J. and High, Stacey L.
year 1987
title Simplified Steel Compression Member Design
source Dynamics of Structures ASCE Structures Congress Proceedings. 1987. American Society of Civil Engineers, vol. D: pp. 352-367. CADLINE has abstract only
summary The American Institute of Steel Construction 'Specification for the Design, Fabrication, and Erection of Structural Steel Buildings' has made manual steel column design exceedingly time consuming and difficult. The objective of this paper is to present a simplified method of designing steel columns subjected to axial loads and moments for use in situations where automated design methods are inappropriate. Steel column design is based on the interaction equations of the AISC Specification. These equations are presented in terms of actual and allowable stresses and much time is required by a designer to manually determine the stresses and solve the equations. To simplify their solution, the interaction equations were reformulated and a set of parameters (multipliers) was introduced into them. The parameters were investigated to determine their validity, limits, and ranges of significant influence. They were then tabulated to provide quick and easy access for use. The modified interaction equations and the tabulated parameters constitute the results of this study. They are the physical tools that enable a designer to rapidly select initial steel column sections to satisfy design requirements and specification constraints. The analysis confirms that these tools can realistically and accurately be determined. The equations were algebraically derived and the tables were generated as a function of the properties of the sections. Thus, a new design method, combining the use of tabulated parameters with algebraically modified interaction equations, has been developed. This method greatly simplifies and speeds up the column section selection process
keywords civil engineering, structures, synthesis, design, methods
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8a38
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Parks, Linda M.
year 1987
title Natural Language Prototypes for Analyzing Design Standards
source Southampton, U.K: Computational Mechanics Publications, 1987. pp. 147-160
summary CADLINE has abstract only. This paper addresses the use of natural language processing for acquiring, processing, and representing knowledge from design standards. A standard is a set of provisions providing principles, models, rules, limits, and particulars that are established by some authority for some purpose. In their textual form as written documents, design standards cannot directly be used in computer-aided design (CAD) systems. This paper demonstrates how standards can be transformed, using natural language processing techniques, from their textual form to alternative representations that more readily lend themselves to use in computer-aided design systems, supporting a variety of design applications. The language being transformed is the Building Officials and Code Administrators Building Code, one set of requirements that govern the design of buildings. Prototype computer subsystems have been developed that transform natural language sentences to case-grammar format and finally to subject-relationship- object triplets. The three prototypes that achieve these transformations are described: a parser, a semantic analyzer, and a query system. During one processing cycle, the system identifies that data items in a provision and the relationships between the data items. It also interacts with the user to add new data items to its knowledge bases, to verify data items found, and to add to its vocabulary. Alternatively, it responds to natural-language questions about the contents of the standard by identifying the relevant provisions within the standards. Processing formal documents requires knowledge about vocabulary, word-order, time, semantics, reference, and discourse. Despite the relative clarity of formal writing as it occurs in standards, the difficulties of implied responsibility, multiple meanings, and implied data items remain. A long-term research program at North Carolina State University has been defined that builds on these prototypes to further investigate knowledge acquisition and representation for standards
keywords design, standards, analysis, AI, natural languages
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 66e5
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Wang, TsoJen E.
year 1987
title Generic Design Standards Processing in a Knowledge-based expert system Environment
source Design Process, National Science Foundation Workshop Proceedings. 1987. pp. 267-291. CADLINE has abstract only
summary Standards, codes, and specifications play an important role in the design of buildings, bridges, and other engineering systems. A design configuration must be checked against all standards to ensure that it is acceptable. This process of design conformance checking using standards is often very tedious. The successful automation of conformance checking is one of the components of a comprehensive computer-aided design system. In the past, standards were interpreted and converted into application program written in procedural programming languages such as FORTRAN. This approach is extremely inflexible and often error prone. To support a fully automated computer-aided design system, standards must be incorporated into the design process in a more generic and flexible manner. This paper investigates the feasibility of alternatively casting standards in a form suitable for processing in a knowledge-based expert system environment. The emergence of expert systems from artificial intelligence research has provided a technology that readily lends itself to the automation of design standards. Knowledge-based expert systems have become a powerful tool in tackling domains like design where some of the problem-solving knowledge is diverse and ill-structured. Using an expert system tool, a standard can be represented and processed independent of a CAD application program. Two prototype standards processing systems utilizing the production system approach have been constructed and are presented herein. Although the obvious direct translation casting the provisions of a standard as rules in a production system has its advantages, a more generic and flexible representation scheme is proposed herein. The approach advocated in this paper is to represent standards as databases of facts which can be readily and generically processed by an expert system. The database representation is derived from a unified view of standards obtained by using the standards modeling tools proposed by previous researchers in this field during the past decade. Building on this existing technology resulted in a knowledge- based standards processing architecture which is generic, modular, and flexible. An implementation of this architecture is presented and described
keywords knowledge base, standards, expert systems, civil engineering
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ddss9846
id ddss9846
authors Rigatti, Decio
year 1998
title Rubem Berta Housing Estate: Order and Structure, Designand Use
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary The main goal of this paper is to investigate, through some space configurational based tools, a quite common phenomenon found in many different locations in Brazil, concerning the process of urban changes individually introduced by dwellers of public housing estates. A significant number of housing estates, particularly those designed according to rationalist concepts, seem to be unable to support space related social requirements and are then widely transformed when compared to the original layouts. Beyond the quantitative features, the morphological changes that take place in those housing estates mean a fundamental new approach to understand how completely new urban structures can arisefrom the space produced by a comprehensive urban design, took as a starting point for the transformations made by the dwellers of those settlements. As a case study is analysed the Rubem Berta Housing Estate which was built in Porto Alegre/RS, Brazil, for 20,000 people in the late 70s. Since the begining of its occupation in 1986 and the invasion that took place in 1987, the urban transformations there have never stopped. Its possible to realize that the dwellers individually use some constant physical rules to define the new settlement which are very similar within the estate itself and, at the same time, very similar to those found in other transformed housing estates of this sort. The physical rules introduced change the features of the entire settlement in two different levels: a) locally, through the transformations introduced in order to solve individual needs; b) globally, the local rules of physical transformations produce a new overall structure for the whole urban complex. The knowledge of this process makes it possible to bring to the surface of architectural theory some generic configurational codes that can be used as a tool for designing public housing estates in Brazil.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 2622
authors Schmitt, G.
year 1988
title Expert Systems and Interactive Fractal Generators in Design and Evaluation
source CAAD futures 87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 91-106
summary Microcomputer based interactive programmable drafting programs and analysis packages are setting new standards for design support, systems in architectural offices. These programs allow the representation and performance simulation of design proposals with one tool, but they lack the ability to represent knowledge concerning relations between design and artifact. While they can expediate the traditional design and analysis process, they do not fundamentally improve it. We shall describe three computationally related approaches which could be a step towards a necessary paradigm change in developing design software. These approaches deal with expert design generators and evaluators, function oriented programming, and fractal design machines.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 2fac
authors Schmitt, Gerhard
year 1987
title ARCHPLAN - An Architectural Planning Front End to Engineering Design Expert Systems
source ii, 22 p. : ill
summary Engineering Design Research Center, CMU, 1987. EDRC-48-04-87. ARCHPLAN is a knowledge-based ARCHitectural PLANning front end to a set of vertically integrated engineering expert systems. ARCHPLAN is part of a larger project to explore the principles of parallel operation of expert systems in an Integrated Building Design Environment. It is designed to h)0*0*0* Ԍ operate in conjunction with HIRISE, a structural design expert system; with CORE and SPACER, two expert systems for the spatial layout of buildings; and with other knowledge based systems dealing with construction planning, specification, and foundation design. ARCHPLAN operates either in connection with these expert systems or as a stand- alone program. It consists of three major parts: the application, the user interface, and the graphics package
keywords The application offers a knowledge based approach towards the
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id 8e25
authors Smeltzer, Geert T.A.
year 1987
title Implications of Expert Systems, Data Management and Data Communication for Architectural Education
source Architectural Education and the Information Explosion [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Zurich (Switzerland) 5-7 September 1987.
summary The availability of computersystems for processing, managing and communicating data and expertise, does not mean that the results of these processes, will improve automatically. It also shows to much optimism if you expect that the use of process management and communication tools will enlarge the possibilities of the processes themselves. First of all we will have to face the limitations and we will have to accept them, at the cost of the traditional or ordinary architectural education. Mainly we will have to settle for less and worse design results in the beginning of the use of the new tools. In later stages, however, we will have to be able to deal with higher design quality for more aspects at the same time, in stead of the average quality, for mainly only the visual aspect. To meet the limitations of tools like computersystems, we will have to limit and structure the data and expertise, until we will have reached an absolute minimum quantity and a maximum quality of data and expertise. In fact we should strive, at first, for an implosion of data and expertise. Then, by adding more and more expertise and necessary data of the same quality, we can control an information explosion.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/05/16 19:36

_id 65d7
authors Yessios, Chris I.
year 1987
title The Computability of Void Architectural Modeling
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1987. pp. 141-172 : ill. includes a short bibliography
summary Solid modeling has proven inefficient as a computational aid to architectural design. A theory and computational method called Void Modeling has been developed to accommodate a class of objects that are containers for other objects. Examples include space enclosures, which are the primitive elements in architectural compositions. The basic computational techniques of void modeling are presented. They show void modeling to be highly efficient in addressing the syntactic and semantic requirements of architectural design
keywords solid modeling, architecture, representation, methods
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id e820
authors Armstrong, W.W., Green, M. and Lake, R.
year 1987
title Near- Real-Time Control of Human Figure Models
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. June, 1987. vol. 7: pp. 52-60 : ill
summary Includes bibliography. Animating human figures is one of the major problems in computer animation. A recent approach is the use of dynamic analysis to compute the movement of a human figure, given the forces and torques operating within and upon the body. One of the problems with this technique is computing the forces and torques required for particular motions: this has been called the control problem of dynamic analysis. To develop a better understanding of this problem, an interactive interface to a dynamics package has been produced. This interface, along with a collection of low-level motion processes, can be used to control the motion of a human figure model. This article describes both the user interface and the motion processes, along with experiences with this approach
keywords computer graphics, animation, user interface
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id 0a9c
authors Ozel, Filiz
year 1987
title The Computer Model "BGRAF": A Cognitive Approach to Emergency Egress Simulation
source University of Michigan
summary During the past decade, fire safety researchers have come to the understanding that human factors in fires play an important role in controlling the spread of fire; and in decreasing the number of fire casualties in buildings. With the current developments in computer technology, computer modeling of human behavior in fires emerged as an effective method of research. Such computer modeling techniques offered the advantage of being able to experiment with hypothetical fires in buildings without Note endangering human life. Consequently, a study to develop a computer model that will simulate the emergency egress behavior of people in fires was undertaken. Changes in the information processing capacity of the individual as a result of time pressure and stress was considered as part of the emergency egress decision process. Theories from environmental psychology identified a range of cognitive factors, such as visual access in buildings, architectural differentiation, signage and plan configuration that affect way finding and route selection in buildings. These factors needed to be incorporated into emergency egress models. The model was based on the integrated building data base of the CAD system developed at the University of Michigan, Architecture and Planning Lab., which provided a comprehensive building definition, and allowed both graphic and tabular output. Two actual fire incidences were simulated as part of the validation study. These studies have stressed the importance of the cognitive aspects of the physical environment as a factor in emergency egress. A goal structure that represented the total decision process during fires was incorporated into the model. This structure allowed the inputting and testing of a variety of goal structures by using actions as model blocks. The objectives of the model developed in this study can best be summarized as to study and eventually to predict the route selection and exiting behavior in fires, with the purpose of using such information in making building design and code development decisions, and in suggesting action sequences that will best support the safety of the occupants of a building under different emergency conditions.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id e304
authors Porada, M.
year 1988
title Digital Image: A Bridge Towards Mental Images?
source CAAD futures 87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 209-216
summary How we see things depends on our education and our cultural pre-suppositions. This does not allow to convey some logical form, but nevertheless makes possible a more global and less formalized understanding of the objects, their environment and their physical proprieties. In architecture, the digital image acts according to two directions: (-) representation: the fine images are a means of communication between the different parties implementing building projects. (-) modelization: in addition to its iconic qualities the layers of different models simulate the most different aspects of the ,image and the environment characteristics. // At this level our vision is directly concerned with the design of the studied object; it acts both in the design process and in the expression of our conceptual images. How does modelization work? Infographical representation deals with a more or less schematic and conceptualized world the reading of which is more typified than particularized. It deals with a schematization nearly "ideographical" of the mental image thus is produced "synthetism", a neologism similar to such expressions as realism or abstractionism.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 831d
authors Seebohm, Thomas
year 1992
title Discoursing on Urban History Through Structured Typologies
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 157-175
summary How can urban history be studied with the aid of three-dimensional computer modeling? One way is to model known cities at various times in history, using historical records as sources of data. While such studies greatly enhance the understanding of the form and structure of specific cities at specific points in time, it is questionable whether such studies actually provide a true understanding of history. It can be argued that they do not because such studies only show a record of one of many possible courses of action at various moments in time. To gain a true understanding of urban history one has to place oneself back in historical time to consider all of the possible courses of action which were open in the light of the then current situation of the city, to act upon a possible course of action and to view the consequences in the physical form of the city. Only such an understanding of urban history can transcend the memory of the actual and hence the behavior of the possible. Moreover, only such an understanding can overcome the limitations of historical relativism, which contends that historical fact is of value only in historical context, with the realization, due to Benedetto Croce and echoed by Rudolf Bultmann, that the horizon of "'deeper understanding" lies in "'the actuality of decision"' (Seebohm and van Pelt 1990).

One cannot conduct such studies on real cities except, perhaps, as a point of departure at some specific point in time to provide an initial layout for a city knowing that future forms derived by the studies will diverge from that recorded in history. An entirely imaginary city is therefore chosen. Although the components of this city at the level of individual buildings are taken from known cities in history, this choice does not preclude alternative forms of the city. To some degree, building types are invariants and, as argued in the Appendix, so are the urban typologies into which they may be grouped. In this imaginary city students of urban history play the role of citizens or groups of citizens. As they defend their interests and make concessions, while interacting with each other in their respective roles, they determine the nature of the city as it evolves through the major periods of Western urban history in the form of threedimensional computer models.

My colleague R.J. van Pelt and I presented this approach to the study of urban history previously at ACADIA (Seebohm and van Pelt 1990). Yet we did not pay sufficient attention to the manner in which such urban models should be structured and how the efforts of the participants should be coordinated. In the following sections I therefore review what the requirements are for three-dimensional modeling to support studies in urban history as outlined both from the viewpoint of file structure of the models and other viewpoints which have bearing on this structure. Three alternative software schemes of progressively increasing complexity are then discussed with regard to their ability to satisfy these requirements. This comparative study of software alternatives and their corresponding file structures justifies the present choice of structure in relation to the simpler and better known generic alternatives which do not have the necessary flexibility for structuring the urban model. Such flexibility means, of course, that in the first instance the modeling software is more timeconsuming to learn than a simple point and click package in accord with the now established axiom that ease of learning software tools is inversely related to the functional power of the tools. (Smith 1987).

series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id c89d
authors Bancroft, Pamela J.
year 1987
title The Integration of Computing into Architectural Education Through Computer Literate Faculty
source Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Raleigh (North Carolina / USA) 1987, pp. 109-120
summary This paper discusses the apparent correlation between faculty computer literacy and the success of integrating computing into architectural education. Relevant questions of a 1985 national survey which was conducted to study the historical development of faculty computer utilization are analyzed and interpreted. The survey results are then used as the basis for a series of recommendations given for increasing computer literacy among faculty in architectural schools, thus increasing the integration of computing.

series ACADIA
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ea89
authors Brown, John L.
year 1987
title Integrating Computers into the Design Studio - A Critical Evaluation
source Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Raleigh (North Carolina / USA) 1987, pp. 29-38
summary This paper presents a critical evaluation of two years of experience in using computer aided design as the primary graphic tool in an architectural design studio. In addition to significant benefits being realized, it was found that in a number of circumstances the graphic tool seemed to place unnecessary or inappropriate constraints on the designer. A critical examination of this tendency revealed that there may be a discrepancy between the theoretical framework in which computer aided design systems are developed and used, and the conceptual framework of contemporary architectural thought. These issues arising from the studio experience, are discussed and placed within the context of current theoretical concerns in architecture.

series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/15 19:17

_id aa0b
authors Fenves, Stephen J.
year 1987
title Role of Artificial Intelligence and Knowledge-Base Expert System Methods in Civil Engineering
source 20, [21] p. Pittsburgh: Engineering Design Research Center, Carnegie Mellon University, December, 1987. includes bibliography
summary Present use of computers in civil engineering is largely devoted to numeric, algorithmic calculations. This mode is not appropriate for the empirical, heuristic, ill-structured problems of civil engineering practice. The paper reviews recent work in artificial intelligence and expert systems addressing these latter issues, identifies the distinctive features of engineering knowledge based systems, the roles of such systems, and attempts to predict their evolution
keywords AI, expert systems, knowledge base, design, methods, civil engineering
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 43a9
authors Goldman, Glenn and Zdepski, Stephen
year 1987
title Form, Color & Movement
source Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Raleigh (North Carolina / USA) 1987, pp. 39-50
summary Computer generated three dimensional architectural modeling is a fundamental transformation of the traditional architectural design process.

Viewing a three dimensional computer model from many vantage points and through animation sequences, presents buildings and their surrounding environments as a sequence of spaces and events, rather than as static objects or graphic abstractions. Three dimensional modeling at the earliest stages of design tends to increase the spatial and formal properties of early building design studies, and diminishes the dominance of plan as the form giver.

The following paper is based upon the work of second, third and fifth year architectural students who have engaged in architectural design through the use of microcomputer graphics. In each case they entered the architectural studio with virtually no computer experience. Although the assigned architectural projects were identical to those of other "conventional" architectural studios, their design work was accomplished, almost solely, using four different types of graphic software: Computer-Aided Drafting, 3-Dimensional Modeling, Painting and Animation programs. Information presented is based upon student surveys, semester logs, interviews, impressions of external design critics, and the comparison of computer based and conventional studio final presentations.

series ACADIA
last changed 2003/04/17 13:40

_id e60d
authors Gross, Mark D., Ervin, Stephen M. and Anderson, James (et al)
year 1987
title Designing with Constraints
source John Wiley & Sons, 1987. pp. 53-83. includes bibliography
summary The constraint model of designing provides a means of demonstrating and exploring the computability of design. Designing is understood as a process of incrementally defining an initially ill-defined question, and concurrently proposing and testing possible answers. That is, not finding THE solution to A problem, but finding A solution to THE problem. Articulating (including inventing and modifying) the question, and exploring possible alternative answers (or designs), are two fundamental activities which can be supported by computers and the constraint model. The authors discuss the use of constraints to explicate design questions, circumscribe feasible regions and specify proposed solutions, and examine the processes of search and scrutiny within a region. Naming, solving history-keeping, block-structuring, identifying and resolving conflicts are among tasks identified that can be rendered to a computer. Questions of knowledge representation and inference making with ambiguity and imprecision are discussed. Examples of the application of the constraint model to design problems in architecture and site planning are illustrated by brief scenarios
keywords constraints, design process, search, knowledge
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 630c
authors Harel, David
year 1987
title Algorithmics: the Spirit of Computing
source x, 425 p. : ill. Reading, Mass.: Addison Wesley Pub. Co., 1987. include bibliography: p. 357-403 and index
summary The preliminary chapters discuss the concept of an algorithmic problem and the algorithm that solves it. Discussions of the structure of algorithms, the data they manipulate and the languages in which they are programmed. Part two of the book turns to some general methods and paradigms for algorithmic design. Part three of the book is devoted to the inherent limitations of effectively executable algorithms and hence of the computers that implement them
keywords algorithms, programming
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id 0740
authors Herman, M. Jackson, N. and Pomerenke, S.
year 1987
title Four-D Architectural Exploration Through CAD: Applications of the Computer to Architectural History
source Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Raleigh (North Carolina / USA) 1987, pp. 55-64
summary This paper, which is based on ongoing research, demonstrates methods of utilizing Computer-Aided Design (CAD) to explore objects of architectural significance in relation to time and space. The paper shows how the use of animated walk-through allows these objects to be experienced with the realism of built form which no other means of recording can achieve.

The paper argues that, through the use of the computer, the whole nature of Architectural History, as it is currently taught in schools of architecture, will need to be changed and that a more pragmatic, hands- on approach to the subject will have to be adopted. Thus we advocate that the computer, the tool of today and the future, will allow students to experience architecture in the way they did in the past, from the Grand Tour to the architectural apprenticeship, aU before the introduction of architectural academies.

series ACADIA
type normal paper
last changed 2006/06/15 12:16

_id 21b9
authors Landsdown, J.
year 1988
title Computers and Visualisation of Design Ideas: Possibilities and Promises
source CAAD futures 87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 71-80
summary Drawing in all its various forms, from freehand sketching to detailed technical layout, is a type of modelling that designers find indispensable. In many cases, indeed, drawing is the only form of external modelling a designer uses. It has two basic functions: to assist in the externalisation and development of mental concepts and to help in the presentation of these concepts to others. The current thrust of work in computer graphics - although valuable - tends to concentrate almost exclusively on the presentation aspects and it is now possible to create images almost resembling photographs of real objects as well as production drawings of great accuracy and consistency. This paper summarises some of this presentation work as well as developments which might go further in assisting the activities and processes of design.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

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