CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 27e8
authors Rasdorf, William J. and High, Stacey L.
year 1987
title Simplified Steel Compression Member Design
source Dynamics of Structures ASCE Structures Congress Proceedings. 1987. American Society of Civil Engineers, vol. D: pp. 352-367. CADLINE has abstract only
summary The American Institute of Steel Construction 'Specification for the Design, Fabrication, and Erection of Structural Steel Buildings' has made manual steel column design exceedingly time consuming and difficult. The objective of this paper is to present a simplified method of designing steel columns subjected to axial loads and moments for use in situations where automated design methods are inappropriate. Steel column design is based on the interaction equations of the AISC Specification. These equations are presented in terms of actual and allowable stresses and much time is required by a designer to manually determine the stresses and solve the equations. To simplify their solution, the interaction equations were reformulated and a set of parameters (multipliers) was introduced into them. The parameters were investigated to determine their validity, limits, and ranges of significant influence. They were then tabulated to provide quick and easy access for use. The modified interaction equations and the tabulated parameters constitute the results of this study. They are the physical tools that enable a designer to rapidly select initial steel column sections to satisfy design requirements and specification constraints. The analysis confirms that these tools can realistically and accurately be determined. The equations were algebraically derived and the tables were generated as a function of the properties of the sections. Thus, a new design method, combining the use of tabulated parameters with algebraically modified interaction equations, has been developed. This method greatly simplifies and speeds up the column section selection process
keywords civil engineering, structures, synthesis, design, methods
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8eb4
authors Athithan, G. and Patnaik, L.M.
year 1987
title Geometric Searching In Extended CSG Models : Application to Solid Modeling and Viewing
source February, 1987. 30 p. : ill
summary In this paper, the CSG representation scheme is augmented with the 'cartesian product.' The sweep method of generating solids is encompassed by this 'Extended CSG' formalism. The point inclusion problem encountered in the area of geometric searching in computational geometry is discussed in the context to solid models represented by 'extended CSG.' A simple algorithm to solve it that has a time complexity O(n), where n is the number of primitives, is presented. Allowing for preprocessing and extra storage, a second efficient algorithm, having a time complexity O(log n), is developed. The relevance of point inclusion problem in solid modelling techniques is indicated. An extended CSG based solid modeling method is proposed. A solution to the problem of hidden line removal, that uses the faster algorithm for the point inclusion problem, is also presented in the paper
keywords point inclusion, computational geometry, data structures, solid modeling, CSG, computer graphics, hidden lines
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id 266d
authors Badler, Norman I., Manoochehri, Kamran H. and Walters, Graham
year 1987
title Articulated Figure Positioning by Multiple Constraints
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. June, 1987. vol. 7: pp. 28-38 : ill. Includes bibliography
summary A problem that arises in positioning an articulated figures is the solution of 3D joint positions (kinematics), when joint angles are given. If more than one such goal is to be achieved, the problem is often solved interactively by positioning or solving one component of the linkage, then adjusting another, then redoing the first, and so on. This iterative process is slow and tedious. The authors present a method that automatically solves multiple simultaneous joint position goals. The user interface offers a six-degree-of freedom input device to specify joint angles and goal positions interactively. Examples are used to demonstrate the power and efficiency of this method for key-position animation
keywords animation, constraints, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ea89
authors Brown, John L.
year 1987
title Integrating Computers into the Design Studio - A Critical Evaluation
source Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Raleigh (North Carolina / USA) 1987, pp. 29-38
summary This paper presents a critical evaluation of two years of experience in using computer aided design as the primary graphic tool in an architectural design studio. In addition to significant benefits being realized, it was found that in a number of circumstances the graphic tool seemed to place unnecessary or inappropriate constraints on the designer. A critical examination of this tendency revealed that there may be a discrepancy between the theoretical framework in which computer aided design systems are developed and used, and the conceptual framework of contemporary architectural thought. These issues arising from the studio experience, are discussed and placed within the context of current theoretical concerns in architecture.

series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/15 19:17

_id e861
authors Burnham, G.T.
year 1987
title Microcomputer-Based Expert System for the Design of Operational Military Airfields
source Department of Architectural Science, University of Sydney
summary This thesis develops a number of prototypical expert systems on a microcomputer to assist the military designer or engineer with facets of military operational airfield design. An existing expert system shell BUILD written in PROLOG-1 was altered to provide a more permanent record of the results of the system execution. The individual knowledge base includes production rules which conform to the BUILD syntax requirements. A number of additional clauses related to the knowledge base are written in PROLOG-1. The expert system consists of some 200 rules and an additional 36 clauses. The rules contain knowledge on soil characteristics pertinent to airfields, factors involved in calculating lengths of runways and factors for determining the effort involved in construction. The knowledge for the expert systems was gathered from a combination of civilian and military literature sources, the author's own experience, and discussions with military and air force personnel currently engaged in the design, planning and construction of these facilities. Development of these prototypical expert systems demonstrates the feasibility of implementing expert systems on microcomputers in this domain. Furthermore, it demonstrates their possible application to military engineering design particularly where the design process relies on a large amount of tabulated data and heuristic knowledge. It is this type of knowledge that is often used by the military engineer to find a timely problem solution when provided with a range of options. [Unpublished. -- CADLINE has abstract only.]
keywords Applications, Military Engineering, Expert Systems, Design, Planning
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2002/12/14 18:15

_id a1a1
authors Cornick, T. and Bull, S.
year 1988
title Expert Systems for Detail Design in Building
source CAAD futures 87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 117-126
summary Computer-Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) requires detailed knowledge of the construction of building elements to be effective as a complete design aid. Knowledge-based systems provide the tools for both encapsulating the "rules" of construction - i.e. the knowledge of good construction practice gained from experience - and relating those rules to geometric representation of building spaces and elements. The "rules" of construction are based upon the production and performance implications of building elements and how these satisfy various functional criteria. These building elements in turn may be related to construction materials, components and component assemblies. This paper presents two prototype knowledge-based systems, one dealing with the external envelope and the other with the internal space division of buildings. Each is "component specific" and is based upon its own model of the overall construction. This paper argues that "CAAD requires component specific knowledge bases and that integration of these knowledge bases into a knowledge-based design system for complete buildings can only occur if every knowledge base relates to a single coordinated construction model".
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 9999
authors Coxe, W., Hartung, N.F., Hochberg, H.H., Lewis, B.J., Maister, D.H., Mattox, R.F. and Piven, P.A.
year 1987
title Success Strategies for Design Professionals
source New York, McGraw-Hill
summary As consultants with the opportunity to analyze literally hundreds of professional design firms, we have found the search for ideal management methods challenging. Each time we've observed a format that appears to work well for some or many firms, an exception has soon appeared, contradicting what looked like a good rule to follow. For example, some firms do outstanding work organized as project teams, others are very successful with a departmentalized project structure, and still others get good results with a studio format. One of the major puzzles for observers has been finding a relation between the project delivery system used by firms (that is, "how we do our work") and how the organization itself is operated (that is, "how we structure and run the firm"). After years of study and trial and error, a model has begun to emerge that holds promise for creating some order among these issues. At the heart of this model is the recognition that although no one strategy fits all firms, there is a family of understandable principles from which almost any firm of design professionals can devise its own best strategy. We call these the SuperPositioning principles. This book sets forth the theory, a set of master strategies derived from it, and some thoughts on how to put the principles to use. We look forward to further learning in the years ahead from the experience of professionals who apply the principles in their own firms.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 2f5a
authors Gero, John S. and Coyne, Richard D.
year 1987
title Knowledge-based Planning as a Design Paradigm
source Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1987. pp. 289-323 : tables. includes bibliography
summary The application of sequential planning to the design process is discussed, considering design as a search through a space of states. The procedures which transform states utilize a kind of design knowledge. Planning is considered as a method of controlling the design process. Various paradigms of planning are discussed along with their application to design. The authors discuss forward deduction and backtracking, backward deduction hierarchical planning and constructive approaches to planning. These lead to the view that control in design is a multi-level process. The paradigms are illustrated with examples implemented in PROLOG. With this it is shown that knowledge-based planning is a good design paradigm
keywords control, design process, planning, PROLOG, knowledge base
series CADline
last changed 2003/05/17 08:17

_id 43a9
authors Goldman, Glenn and Zdepski, Stephen
year 1987
title Form, Color & Movement
source Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Raleigh (North Carolina / USA) 1987, pp. 39-50
summary Computer generated three dimensional architectural modeling is a fundamental transformation of the traditional architectural design process.

Viewing a three dimensional computer model from many vantage points and through animation sequences, presents buildings and their surrounding environments as a sequence of spaces and events, rather than as static objects or graphic abstractions. Three dimensional modeling at the earliest stages of design tends to increase the spatial and formal properties of early building design studies, and diminishes the dominance of plan as the form giver.

The following paper is based upon the work of second, third and fifth year architectural students who have engaged in architectural design through the use of microcomputer graphics. In each case they entered the architectural studio with virtually no computer experience. Although the assigned architectural projects were identical to those of other "conventional" architectural studios, their design work was accomplished, almost solely, using four different types of graphic software: Computer-Aided Drafting, 3-Dimensional Modeling, Painting and Animation programs. Information presented is based upon student surveys, semester logs, interviews, impressions of external design critics, and the comparison of computer based and conventional studio final presentations.

series ACADIA
last changed 2003/04/17 13:40

_id 6f4d
authors Hall, Theodore W.
year 1987
title Space Stations, Computers and Architectural Design
source Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Raleigh (North Carolina / USA) 1987, pp. 7-18
summary In the winter semester of 1987, I had the opportunity to work with a group of aerospace engineering students on the design of an artificial-gravity rotating space habitat. This was an interesting project in its own right, but of particular relevance to ACADIA was the role of the computer in the design process. Because of its unusual nature, this project forced me to reconsider several issues. This paper addresses the following: (-) The computer as a medium for communication. (-) The need for special tools for special tasks. (-) The pros and cons of computer models vs. cardboard models. (-) The designer's reliance on technology and technocrats. (-) The role of the guru. // Since it was the experience with the space habitat design project that raised these issues, the discussion starts there. The paper then looks for similar experiences in other, more "typical" studio projects. The conclusions are personal opinions about software design, computer literacy, and the teaching of CAD skills to non-programmers.

series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 0740
authors Herman, M. Jackson, N. and Pomerenke, S.
year 1987
title Four-D Architectural Exploration Through CAD: Applications of the Computer to Architectural History
source Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Raleigh (North Carolina / USA) 1987, pp. 55-64
summary This paper, which is based on ongoing research, demonstrates methods of utilizing Computer-Aided Design (CAD) to explore objects of architectural significance in relation to time and space. The paper shows how the use of animated walk-through allows these objects to be experienced with the realism of built form which no other means of recording can achieve.

The paper argues that, through the use of the computer, the whole nature of Architectural History, as it is currently taught in schools of architecture, will need to be changed and that a more pragmatic, hands- on approach to the subject will have to be adopted. Thus we advocate that the computer, the tool of today and the future, will allow students to experience architecture in the way they did in the past, from the Grand Tour to the architectural apprenticeship, aU before the introduction of architectural academies.

series ACADIA
type normal paper
last changed 2006/06/15 12:16

_id 8385
authors Holtz, Neal M. and Rasdorf, William J.
year 1988
title An Evaluation of Programming Languages and Language Features for Engineering Software Development
source International Journal of Engineering with Computers. Springer-Verlag, 1988. vol. 3: pp. 183-199
summary Also published as 'Procedural Programming Languages for the Development of CAD and CAE Systems Software,' in the proceedings of ASME International Conference on Computers in Engineering (1987 : New York, NY). The scope of engineering software has increased dramatically in the past decade. In its early years, most engineering applications were concerned solely with solving difficult numerical problems, and little attention was paid to man- machine interaction, to data management, or to integrated software systems. Now computers solve a much wider variety of problems, including those in which numerical computations are less predominant. In addition, completely new areas of engineering applications such as artificial intelligence have recently emerged. It is well recognized that the particular programming language used to develop an engineering application can dramatically affect the development cost, operating cost. reliability, and usability of the resulting software. With the increase in the variety, functionality, and complexity of engineering software, with its more widespread use, and with its increasing importance, more attention must be paid to programming language suitability so that rational decisions regarding language selection may be made. It is important that professional engineers be aware of the issues addressed in this paper, for it is they who must design, acquire, and use applications software, as well as occasionally develop or manage its development. This paper addresses the need for engineers to possess a working knowledge of the fundamentals of computer programming languages. In pursuit of this, the paper briefly reviews the history of four well known programming languages. It then attempts to identify and to look critically at the attributes of programming languages that significantly affect the production of engineering software. The four procedural programming languages chosen for review are those intended for scientific and general purpose programming, FORTRAN 77, C, Pascal, and Modula-2. These languages are compared and some general observations are made. As it is felt important that professional engineers should be able to make informed decisions about programming language selection, the emphasis throughout this paper is on a methodology of evaluation of programming languages. Choosing an appropriate language can be a complex task and many factors must be considered. Consequently, fundamentals are stressed
keywords programming, engineering, languages, software, management, evaluation, FORTRAN, C, PASCAL, MODULA-2, CAD, CAE
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id eeda
authors Kalay, Yehuda E.
year 1987
title Graphic Introduction to Programming
source xvii, 231 p. : ill. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1987. includes bibliography p.: 215-216 and Index -- (Principles of Computer- Aided Design)
summary Teaching PASCAL programming for graphic applications by using graphics from the very beginning. The book is an introduction to computer-aided design and require no prior computer experience
keywords computer graphics, programming, PASCAL, education
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 889f
authors Krantz, Birgit
year 1987
source Proceedings of the 1st European Full-Scale Workshop Conference / ISBN 87-88373-20-7 / Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-16 January 1987, pp. 7-17
summary An often repeated statement of the nature of the result of our general construction activities in general says that any building and environmental arrangement could be seen as a pure experimental product. The building, in this sense, is nothing but one single full-scale experiment started afresh each time, unfortunately, we could add, without the consistent follow-up measures. In view of this way of understanding the building process you might deduce the interest in a more anticipating attitude.and behaviour, namely the mock-up method or the full-scale design process, based on the philosophy that in a situation of uncertainty you had better try before than after. An underlying presumption is, however, that generally there is a lack of knowledge about the consequences by transferring spatial and design ideas from. drawings to one to one realization. A lack of knowledge not only-among lay, people but also among professionals. The mock-up practice can also to the same extent be derived from a pure investigative interest with the aim to virtually analyze general or specific problems in the* relationship man and the built environment, particularly buildings and spatial settings on the micro level. That means the use of the full-scale method for the search for basic design knowledge. In this sense the mock-up activities started in Sweden.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2004/05/04 13:09

_id 0e62
authors Lansdown, John
year 1987
title Some Notes on the Impact of Computing on Design
source Architectural Education and the Information Explosion [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Zurich (Switzerland) 5-7 September 1987.
summary Computers have been potentially able to assist designers in their work for almost thirty years. A few pioneers have been using them for this purpose for more than twenty years but it is only in the last seven or so that use has become really widespread. Undoubtedly, the most widespread use of computers in architectural practice is for making production drawings - which they can do with an accuracy, speed and reliability difficult to achieve by manual means. But this use does not even begin to exploit the full possibilities that computer aided design opens up. What I want to do here is to introduce these possibilities and discuss what impact they might have on the way we design in the immediate future.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/18 06:57

_id ceb3
authors Lehtonen, Hilkka
year 1987
title Visualization Needs and Tool Kits
source Architectural Education and the Information Explosion [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Zurich (Switzerland) 5-7 September 1987.
summary A well-known Finnish novel characterizes the agrarian way of life by the following words: In the beginning there was a marsh, a hoe and John. John turned the marsh into a fertile corn field by means of the Finnish "sisu" or perseverance. We may draw a parallel to architectural design and say that in the beginning there was the idea of the architect only after that came various tools. Nevertheless, the method of visualization - image in its many forms - is something quintessential in architectural planning and design: it plays a central role as a tool for the designer's own thinking and evaluation, in general communication of planning, and in the communication between the designer and other parties of the planning process. Different sketches give directly visual interpretations to different consequences. The needs for the communication of planning in itself have grown along with the manifold development of public communication. Accordingly, the communication of planning has to compete with the highly-developed commercial communication.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/18 07:04

_id e806
authors Maver, T.W.
year 1987
title The New Studio: CAD and the Workstation - State of the Art
source Architectural Education and the Information Explosion [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Zurich (Switzerland) 5-7 September 1987.
summary This presentation draws on three main sources: (i) reportage of the ATHENA project at MIT, (ii) the experience of the author as a Professor of CAAD, (iii) the work of the eCAADe on the social impacts of CAAD. // Project ATHENA was introduced to MIT in May 1983 as an experiment in the potential uses of advanced computer technology throughout the University curriculum. By the end of the project a network of about 2000 high performance graphics workstations - supplied mainly by IBM and DEC - will have been installed; about half of MIT's $20 million investment is being devoted to the development of new applications software for teaching across almost all the academic Departments, including Architecture.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/04/17 13:57

_id 0a9c
authors Ozel, Filiz
year 1987
title The Computer Model "BGRAF": A Cognitive Approach to Emergency Egress Simulation
source University of Michigan
summary During the past decade, fire safety researchers have come to the understanding that human factors in fires play an important role in controlling the spread of fire; and in decreasing the number of fire casualties in buildings. With the current developments in computer technology, computer modeling of human behavior in fires emerged as an effective method of research. Such computer modeling techniques offered the advantage of being able to experiment with hypothetical fires in buildings without Note endangering human life. Consequently, a study to develop a computer model that will simulate the emergency egress behavior of people in fires was undertaken. Changes in the information processing capacity of the individual as a result of time pressure and stress was considered as part of the emergency egress decision process. Theories from environmental psychology identified a range of cognitive factors, such as visual access in buildings, architectural differentiation, signage and plan configuration that affect way finding and route selection in buildings. These factors needed to be incorporated into emergency egress models. The model was based on the integrated building data base of the CAD system developed at the University of Michigan, Architecture and Planning Lab., which provided a comprehensive building definition, and allowed both graphic and tabular output. Two actual fire incidences were simulated as part of the validation study. These studies have stressed the importance of the cognitive aspects of the physical environment as a factor in emergency egress. A goal structure that represented the total decision process during fires was incorporated into the model. This structure allowed the inputting and testing of a variety of goal structures by using actions as model blocks. The objectives of the model developed in this study can best be summarized as to study and eventually to predict the route selection and exiting behavior in fires, with the purpose of using such information in making building design and code development decisions, and in suggesting action sequences that will best support the safety of the occupants of a building under different emergency conditions.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id ee8f
authors Rasdorf, William J.
year 1987
title Extending Database Management Systems for Engineering Applications
source Computers in Mechanical Engineering (CIME). American Society of Mechanical Engineers, March, 1987. vol. 5: pp. 62-69
summary During the design of a manufactured component, large amounts of information pertaining to all aspects of the design must be stored, accessed, and operated upon. A database management system (DBMS), composed of a central repository of data and the associated software for controlling accesses to it and operations on it, provides one way to uniformly store, manage, and use this information. This paper presents a framework for an extension to relational database management systems that combines a set of engineering constraints with a database of engineering data items. The representation requires a database that is able to store all of the data normally associated with engineering design as well as the constraints imposed upon the engineering design process. A powerful and flexible constraint processing system is needed to adequately ensure that engineering data conforms to the limitations imposed upon it by the design process. Such a system must be capable of allowing constraints to be invoked at a variety of times, and provide numerous options for the user when violations are detected. This paper introduces a concept called structured constraints that integrates state- of-the-art advances in DBMSs and current research in engineering constraint processing to further enhance CAD system capabilities. It discusses the extensions to relational database theory that are needed to achieve such a constraint handling capability for mechanical engineering applications. The goal sought is a managed repository of data supporting interfaces to a wide variety of application programs and supporting processing capabilities for maintaining data integrity by incorporating engineering constraints. The Structured Constraint model is a general method for classifying semantic integrity constraints. It is based on the structure of the relational model and is therefore independent of any particular query language. In addition, it is a formalism that possesses conceptual clarity and generality which make it useful for representing and communicating arbitrary constraints. The key contribution of this formalism is its basis for a completely definable implementation of an engineering integrity system
keywords civil engineering, relational database, constraints management, management, DBMS
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id e01a
authors Rosenman, M.A., Coyne, R.D. and Gero, J.S.
year 1987
title Expert Systems for Design Applications
source pp. 74-91
summary Reprinted in J.R. Quinlan (ed.) Applications of Expert Systems. Sydney, Addison-Wesley, (1987) pp. 66-84. The suitability of expert systems to design is demonstrated through three classes of design applications. These are the interpretation of design codes, the interpretation of design specifications to produce designs and, thirdly, a method for conflict resolution applicable to more general classes of design
keywords design, knowledge, expert systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/05/17 08:17

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