CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id cd7b
authors Hopgood, F. and Duce, D.
year 1988
title Future Developments in Graphics and Workstations
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 217-252
summary The application of Computer Aided Design has been fragmented so far due to the lack of standards at the hardware and basic software level. The most impressive products have been turn-key systems using custom-built hardware with large software suites developed over a number of years. Such systems have often been difficult to modify and maintain. The very nature of such systems is that they are expensive to produce, have a limited market and, consequently, are expensive. Hardware and software advances over the last few years point to a change in this environment. The trend is towards hardware and software compatibility from the computer suppliers allowing software suppliers to target their offerings at a wider range of products. This produces a competitive market and the downward trend in hardware costs gives the possibility for systems of much lower cost and, consequently, opens up the market to a larger customer base. This paper will concentrate on the developments in single user workstations and graphics standards which should provide a firm base for this new environment.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id cf2005_2_22_193
id cf2005_2_22_193
authors HSIEH Chun-Yu
year 2005
title A Preliminary Model of Creativity in Digital Development of Architecture
source Learning from the Past a Foundation for the Future [Special publication of papers presented at the CAAD futures 2005 conference held at the Vienna University of Technology / ISBN 3-85437-276-0], Vienna (Austria) 20-22 June 2005, pp. 63-74
summary Research into the various forms and processes of creativity has been a topic of great interest in the design field for many years. Part of the view is personality, and part of the answer is behavioural. Creativity is also explained through the identity of social values and the whole creative process. This paper proposes to use the interacting creativity model of Csikszentmihalyi as the basic structure, to establish the major criteria of testing creativity in the digital era. This paper demonstrates two facts: first, it confirms that creativity in architecture is truly valuable in the digital age; second, it proves that in the digital era, individuals, cultures and societies are all under the impact of digital technologies, a fact which transforms the model of interacting creativity proposed by Csikszentmihalyi in 1988 into a new model of digital interacting creativity.
keywords creativity, digital media, society, culture
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2005/05/05 05:06

_id f65d
authors Kalisperis, L.N.
year 1988
title A Conceptual Framework for Computing in Architectural Design
source Pennsylvania State University
summary A brief historical overview of architectural design reveals that there has been a slow development in the conceptualization of the scope of architectural design. Advancing our understanding of the architectural design process reveals new directions for computing in architectural design. This study proposes a conceptual framework for an integrated computing environment. Design disciplines have embarked on a rigorous search for theoretical perspectives and methods that encompass a comprehensive view of architecture. Architectural design has been seen as a sequential process similar to that of industrial design. Attempts to formalize this process based on industrial design methods solved only a fraction of the overall integration problem. The resultant models are inadequate to deal with the complexity of architectural design. Emerging social problem-solving paradigms seek to construct a cognitive psychology of problem solving and have a direct relevance to architectural design. These problem-solving activities include structured, semi-structured, and ill-defined problems, which are included to varying degrees in each problem situation across a continuum of difficulty. Problem solving in architectural design involves the determination of certain objectives and also whether or not it is possible to accomplish them. Developments in computing in architecture have paralleled developments in architectural methodologies. The application of computing in architectural design has predominantly focused only on sequential process, optimum solutions, and quantifiable tasks of the design process. Qualitative, generative, tasks of architectural design were dealt with through the introduction of paradigms from linguistics and knowledge-based systems borrowed from engineering applications. Although the application of such paradigms resulted in some success, this reductionist approach to computing in architecture fragmented its integration into the design process. What is required, therefore, is a unified approach to computing in architecture based on a holistic view of the architectural design process. The model proposed in this study provides such a conceptual framework. This model shifts the focus from product to process and views the design problem as a goal-oriented problem-solving activity that allows a design team to identify strategies and methodologies in the quest for design solutions.  
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 67ac
authors Koivunen, Marja-Riitta and Mantyla, Martti
year 1988
title Hut Windows : An Improved Architecture for a User Interface Management System
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. January, 1988. vol. 8: pp. 43-52 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The design of Hut Windows, a user interface management system intended for applications in mechanical CAD, is the subject of this article. Hut Windows features a three-layered internal architecture, where the presentation, dialogue- control, and application processing layers are clearly separated from each other. This leads to increased simplicity and flexibility in user interface design over the more traditional situation where all of these layers are closely coupled
keywords user interface, CAD, windowing, mechanical engineering
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 4904
authors Lapre, L. and Hudson, P.
year 1988
title Talking about Design: Supporting the Design Process with Different Goals
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 127-136
summary The architectural design process has more than one participant. Each participant has his own way of approaching the information embedded in a design. In the future the CAAD systems of these participants must be able to communicate and exchange information. For a communication of this kind there must be a common ground, a frame of reference, in which these different points of view can be expressed. This frame of reference or model must support participants accessing the same information with different objectives and for different purposes. We shall propose such a model based on research results obtained by the analysis of architectural knowledge and designs. The model incorporates certain aspects drawn from AI.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 8fb2
id 8fb2
authors McCall, Raymond, Bennett, Patrick and Johnson, Erik
year 1994
title An Overview of the PHIDIAS II HyperCAD System
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 63-74
summary The PHIDIAS II HyperCAD system combines the functionality of CAD graphics, hypermedia, database management and knowledge-based computation in a single, highly integrated design environment. The CAD functionality includes both 3-D and 2-D vector graphics. The hypermedia includes support for text, raster images, video and sound. The database management enables persistent storage and interlinking of large collections of text, images, video, sound and vector graphics, i.e., thousands of vector graphic objects and drawings in a single database. Retrieval is provided both through use of "associative indexing" based on hyperlinks and through use of an advanced query language. The knowledge- based computation includes both inference and knowledgebased critiquing.

A highly unusual feature of PHIDIAS II is that it implements all of its functions using only hypermedia mechanisms. Complex vector graphic drawings and objects are represented as composite hypermedia nodes. Inference and critiquing are implemented through use of what are known as virtual structures [Halasz 1988], including virtual links and virtual nodes. These nodes and links are dynamic (computed) rather than static (constant). They are defined as expressions in the same language used for queries and are computed at display time. The implementation of different kinds of functions using a common set of mechanisms makes it easy to use them in combination, thus further augmenting the system's functionality.

PHIDIAS supports design by informing architects as they develop a solution's form. The idea is thus not to make the design process faster or cheaper but rather to improve the quality of the things designed. We believe that architects can create better buildings for their users if they have better information. This includes information about buildings of given types, user populations, historical and modern precedents, local site and climate conditions, the urban and natural context and its historical development, as well as local, state and federal regulations.

series ACADIA
last changed 2004/03/18 08:34

_id cb88
authors Novak, Marcos J.
year 1988
title Computational Composition in Architecture
source Computing in Design Education [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Ann Arbor (Michigan / USA) 28-30 October 1988, pp. 5-30
summary The impact of computers on architectural design, manifested through the creation of architectural designs that equal or surpass in quality and sophistication architecture generated using traditional means, has yet to be demonstrated. Computer-aided design is conspicuously absent from theoretical discussions of architectural design per se, and there exist no major built or published buildings that have been designed using the computer in a true design capacity. Most prominent architects continue to ignore computer-aided design. This paper argues that the issues of architectural theory and composition must be addressed directly by the computer-aided design field, and that until this occurs computer-aided architectural design will necessarily be peripheral to architecture because it does not address the central problems of architecture as an expressive medium. To this end, it proposes a shift to the paradigm of computational composition, and discusses recent work in this direction.

The paper is divided into four parts. Part I identifies fundamental theoretical problems, contrasts the application of computation to architecture and to music, and draws upon several different areas for insight into the nature of making; Part II reviews particular architectural implications of these considerations, introduces the concept of computational composition in architecture, and presents a brief overview of important precedents; Part III proposes new goals for computer-aided architectural design and presents a framework for computational composition; finally, Part IV presents recent work directly related to the ideas presented in the previous parts and leads to the Conclusion. The appendices contain a pseudo-Prolog expression of Alvar Aalto's architectural language and notes on features of the PADL-2 solid modeler that are architecturally interesting.

series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id eaea2005_151
id eaea2005_151
authors Ohno, Ruyzo
year 2006
title Seat preference in public squares and distribution of the surrounding people: An examination of the validity of using visual simulation
source Motion, E-Motion and Urban Space [Proceedings of the 7th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN-10: 3-00-019070-8 - ISBN-13: 978-3-00-019070-4], pp. 151-163
summary Public squares are shared by people who use them for various purposes. When people choose seats in a square, they unconsciously evaluate not only the physical characteristics of the space but also the distribution of others already present (Hall, 1966; Sommer, 1969; Whyte, 1988). Knowing the hidden rules of this behaviour will be important in designing squares that remain comfortable even in crowded situations. Most past studies of seat choice preference have reported on statistical tendencies derived from observations of subject behavior in actually existing sites (i.e., Abe, 1997; Imai, 1999; Kawamoto, 2003). However, they provide no clear theoretical model for explaining the basic mechanisms regulating such behaviour. The present study conducts a series of experiments in both real and virtual settings in order to extract quantitative relationships between subjects’ seat preferences and the presence of nearby strangers and to clarify what factors influence their seat choices.
series EAEA
type normal paper
last changed 2008/04/29 18:46

_id 45b7
authors Oxman, R.E.
year 1988
title Expert System for Generation and Evaluation in Architectural Design
source Technion, Faculty of Architecture and Town Planing, Haifa
summary The research field, focuses on a new research area of Knowledge Based Systems for Architectural Design. The research deals with concepts and tools emerging from Artificial Intelligence, Knowledge Based Systems and Expert Systems. The research is involved with the construction of a theoretical basis for the development of approaches and methods for the representation and control of design knowledge as a reasoning process. Key questions which attempt to reconsider representation and control in design are formulated. The following questions serve as a research framework out of which new approaches, methods and tools were developed. (1.)What are the existing ideas, methods and tools in Expert Systems? (2.) What are the performance characteristics of Expert Systems in Architectural Design ? (3.) What are the desired operative characteristics and interactions for Expert Systems in design ? (4.) How is it possible to formulate and apply the diverse forms of Architectural Knowledge in Expert Systems for design? (5.) What are the problems of implementation in the development of Expert Systems for design ? The state of the art in knowledge based systems is surveyed, while emphasizing the differences between conventional systems and knowledge based systems. Representation and control methods and the components of expert systems are reviewed. Expert systems for diagnosis, interpretation, planning and design are analysed with respect to their performance characteristics. Techniques and technologies of existing tools are defined. An expert system for the generation and evaluation of ill defined architectural design problems is develped. A formalization of the concept of 'design interpretation' is proposed and developed. It is applied in the process of defining and classifying the performance characteristics of expert systems for design. This concept is based upon two sets of reasoning processes: those which enable a mapping between design requirements and solution descriptions in the generation stage of design and those between solution descriptions and performance evaluation in the evaluation stage of design. On the basis of the formalization of this concept, an expert system capable of integrating various modes of performance is proposed and developed. The system functions as a 'design generator', a 'design critic', or a' design critic-generator'. These modes, which integrate generation and evaluation in the same system, operate by employing both forward chaining and backward chaining inference mechanisms. As a result of the examination of desired forms of interactions, a new approach for dual direction interpretation between graphic and verbal modes is developed. This approach reflects the importance of both graphical and verbal expression in design. The approach is based upon a simultaneous mapping between symbolic-verbal interpretation and graphic interpretation. The work presents the mapping process through the concept of design interpretation, employing geometrical knowledge, typological knowledge and evaluation knowledge. A tool which provides communication between an expert system and a graphic system was developed and is presented. The importance of such a tool in expert systems for design resides in the provision of free choice to the user for interacting with the system either graphically or verbally during the design process. An additional component in the development of knowledge-based systems for design is related to the important question of knowledge definition and the representational schemata of design knowledge. A new representational scheme for complex architectural knowledge, termed 'The generation and refinement scheme of a design prototype' is proposed and developed. Its operation as part of a total integrated design system is demonstrated. The scheme is based upon the structures of knowledge of design precedents which constitute typical situations and solutions in architectural design. This scheme provides an appropriate representation for the two types of knowledge which operate in a refinement process of a design prototype. Generative knowledge describes the solution space by predefined refinement stages; interpretive knowledge enables their selection. The examination of representational methods for the proposed scheme indicated that employing a single representational method lacked enough generalization and expressive power for the needs of the design knowledge structures. It was found that a way to represent complex structures is through the integration of multiple methods of representation, each one according to the knowledge characteristics. In order to represent the proposed scheme of design knowledge, a unique method was developed which integrates both rules and frames. The method consists of a rules-frames-rules structure for the representation of a design prototype. An approach is developed for the implementation of these concepts in an expert system for design. PRODS: A prototype based expert system shell for design is developed and demonstrated. The system consists of three basic components: a rule-based expert system shell, a frame system, and a knowledge base interface. All system interactions are controlled by the inference engine. It passes control between the rule-base and the frame-base inference engines, and provides communications between the rule-based and frame-based representations. It is suggested that expert system can interface with external CAD systems including graphics, communicating through a central representation. These concepts and developments are demonstrated in two implementations. The PREDIKT system for the preliminary design of the residential kitchen; the PROUST system for the selection and refinement of dwelling types. PREDIKT demonstrates the integration of rules and a graphical-verbal interpreter; in addition, PROUST demonstrates the significance of hybrid representation in the generation and refinement processes. The results and conlusions are summarized. Future research agenda within the field of knowledge-based systems for design is discussed, and potential research areas are defined.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id cdc5
id cdc5
authors Richens, P.
year 1988
title Automation of Drafting and Building Modelling – Historical Review of Commercial Development since the Seventies
source CIB-W78 Conference, Lund
summary The present day GDS system has its roots in BDS, started in 1970, BDS was a 3D data-centered system for design, analysis and documentation of system-built buildings. GDS started as a 2D drafting system, and proved more effective and marketable. Specialized applications and 3D capabilities were added gradually. Current interest is in simplifying the software, especially its user interface.
series other
last changed 2003/12/03 07:33

_id 47e7
authors Segal, Mark and Sequin, Carlo H.
year 1988
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. January, 1988. vol. 8: pp. 53-67 : ill. some col. includes bibliography
summary The article describes an algorithm for partitioning intersecting polyhedrons into disjoint pieces and, more generally, removing intersections from sets of planar polygons embedded in three space. Polygons, or faces, need not be convex and may contain multiple holes. Intersections are removed by considering pairs of faces and slicing the faces apart along their regions of intersection. To reduce the number of face pairs examined, bounding boxes around groups of faces are checked for overlap. The intersection algorithm also computes set theoretic operations on polyhedrons. Information gathered during face cutting is used to determine which portions of the original boundaries may be present in the result of an intersection, a union, or a difference of solids. The method includes provisions to detect, and in some cases overcome, the effects of numerical inaccuracy on the topological decisions that the algorithm must make. The regions in which ambiguous results are possible are flagged so that the user can take appropriate action.
keywords geometric modeling, computer graphics, objects, programming, hidden surfaces, hidden lines, business, practice, systems, user interface, UNIX
series CADline
type normal paper
last changed 2005/10/05 05:39

_id 0051
authors Wastell, D.G. and White, P.
year 1993
title Using Process Technology to Support Cooperative work: Prospects and Design Issues
source CSCW in Practice: An Introduction and Case Studies. pp. 105-126. Edited by Dan Diaper and Colston Sanger, London: Springer-Veriag
summary CSCW is a diverse and eclectic field. The theme which unifies CSCW is the question of group coordination, how it is achieved as a social phenomenon and how it may be actively assisted by computer-based support. The nature of these social processes are variously discussed in many of this book's other chapters. The issue of what is "true" CSCW and what is not is a contentious academic issue. Support for non-routine "professional" work such as collaborative writing would be widely accepted as a paradigm of CSCW (see, in particular, Sharples, Chapter 4; Gilbert, chapter 5; and Diaper, Chapter 6). Electronic mail, however, does not count for some as CSCW, because it is "not really tuned (or tunable) to the needs of the work group" (Greif, 1988). Technologies which support routine work would appear to fall into a particularly controversial category. Traditional office automation systems come under this heading.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 6a1d
authors Woodbury, Robert F.
year 1988
title The knowledge based representation and manipulation of geometry
source Carnegie Mellon University
summary An approach to the integration of geometric information in knowledge based systems is described as an architecture for geometric reasoning. The general requirements for this integration arise from the need for rich geometry representations in engineering domains and the conflicting demands of current geometric modelling and knowledge based systems. Four concepts are used as a basis: (1) Classes of spatial sets, which act by inheritance as a means for incremental definition by specialization, (2) Features, which denote evaluated portions of a geometric model, (3) Abstractions, which provide partial representations of geometric objects, and (4) Constraints through which spatial relationships are expressed. These four concepts combine in a synergistic manner to define the complete architecture. A prototype implementation of the architecture, built using object oriented programming techniques and a boundary based solid modeller, has been achieved and demonstrated through examples in the domains of robot task planning and automotive parts design.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 6ca4
authors Woodbury, Robert F. and Oppenheim, Irving R.
year 1988
title An Approach to Geometric Reasoning
source 20 p. : ill. Pittsburgh, PA: Engineering Design Research Center, CMU, June, 1988. EDRC-48-06-88. includes bibliography
summary An approach to the integration of geometric information in knowledge based CAD systems is described as an architecture for geometric reasoning. The general requirements for this integration arise from the need for rich geometry representations in engineering domains and the conflicting demands of current geometric modelling and knowledge based systems. Four concepts are used as a basis: (1) Classes of spatial sets, which act by inheritance as a means for incremental definition by specialization; (2) features, which denote evaluated portions of a geometric model; (3) abstractions, which provide partial representations of geometric objects; and (4) constraints through which spatial relationships are expressed. These four concepts combine in a synergistic manner to define the complete architecture. A prototype implementation of the architecture, built using object oriented programming techniques and a boundary based solid modeler, has been achieved and demonstrated. In this paper each of the concepts and their integration into a whole are described
keywords geometric modeling, knowledge base, systems, constraints, design, knowledge, architecture, methods, reasoning, integration
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 866f
authors Zelissen, C.
year 1988
title From Drafting to Design: New Programming Tools are Needed
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 253-261
summary The software needed by engineers and architects shows two new aspects. First, these programs get more and more graphic elements, secondly there is a trend from general purpose packages to more problem oriented programs. Comparing several of these application depending programs, a strong similarity appears; a user builds up a representation of a (technical) model by placing, replacing, deleting and so on, representations of objects, belonging to this model. From the programmer's point of view, it must be possible to abstract the several models and the actions on the components of a model, and therefore to build one-program with a model description as parameter. Assuming the existence of such a program, the only remaining part needed to build a complete dedicated package has reference to the specific technical calculations. In this contribution we touch on a number of the problems in developing and implementing such a program.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 696c
authors Beheshti, M. and Monroy, M.
year 1988
title Requirements for Developing an Information System for Architecture
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 149-170
summary This paper discusses possibilities of developing new tools for architectural design. It argues that architects should meet the challenge of information technology and computer-based design techniques. One such attempt has been the first phase of the development of an architectural design information system (ADIS), also an architectural design decision support system. The system should benefit from the developments of the artificial intelligence to enable the architect to have access to information required to carry out design work. In other words: the system functions as a huge on-line electronic library of architecture, containing up-to-date architectural design information, literature, documents, etc. At the same time, the system offers necessary design aids such as computer programs for design process, drawing programs, evaluation programs, cost calculation programs, etc. The system also provides data communication between the architect and members of the design coalition team. This is found to be of vital importance in the architectural design process, because it can enable the architect to fit in changes, brought about in the project by different parties. Furthermore, they will be able, to oversee promptly the consequences of changes or decisions in a comprehensive manner. The system will offer advantages over the more commonly applied microcomputer based CAAD and IGDM (integrated graphics database management) systems, or even larger systems available to an architect. Computer programs as well as hardware change rapidly and become obsolete. Therefore, unrelenting investment pressure to up-date both software and hardware exists. The financial burden of this is heavy, in particular for smaller architectural practices (for instance an architect working for himself or herself and usually with few or no permanent staff). ADIS, as an on-line architectural design aid, is constantly up-dated by its own organisation. This task will be co-ordinated by the ADIS data- base administrator (DBA). The processing possibilities of the system are faster, therefore more complex processing tasks can be handled. Complicated large graphic data files, can be easily retrieved and manipulated by ADIS, a large system. In addition, the cost of an on-line system will be much less than any other system. The system is based on one model of the architectural design process, but will eventually contain a variety of design models, as it develops. The development of the system will be an evolutionary process, making use of its users' feed-back system. ADIS is seen as a step towards full automation of architectural design practices. Apart from being an architectural design support system, ADIS will assist the architect in his/her administrative and organisational activities.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 887e
authors Belajcic, N. D.
year 1988
title Computer Implementation of Shape Grammars
source Department of Architectural Science, University of Sydney
summary An approach is taken that shape grammars can be used as a possible vehicle for automated design generation. Historical background of shape grammars is discussed with emphasis on vocabulary/syntax aspect of the design process and significance of class solutions to problems. Similarities with expert system mechanics and structure is highlighted and advantages and disadvantages of rule-based and frame-based systems are considered. These concepts are implemented in a computer program written in LISP employing icon driven graphic interface with tools for creating shapes and rules. Finally, problems associated with adopted reasoning strategies are reported and areas of further development and improvement suggested. [UNPUBLISHED. CADLINE has abstract only]
keywords Shape Grammars, Design Process
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2002/12/14 18:10

_id 2a36
authors Ben-Moshe, R. and Sorgen, A.
year 1988
title Parametric Shape Definition by Example
source 12, [13] p., [7] p. of ill. Israel: MICROCAD, 1988(?). includes bibliography
summary Incorporation of parametric design facilities into CAD systems presents some serious problems. The major issues are: (1) functionality - the need to cater for a great variety of designs, (2) natural user interface, with no need for the user to acquire programming skills, (3) integration and consistency with the 'host' CAD environment
keywords parametrization, user interface, CAD, geometric modeling, mechanical engineering, CAM
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id cf08
authors Blaha, Michael R., Premerlani, William J. and Rumbaugh, James E.
year 1988
title Relational Database Design Using An Object- Oriented Methodology
source communications of the ACM. April, 1988. vol. 31: pp. 414-427 : ill. includes a short bibliography
summary Object-oriented concepts provide a useful abstraction for relational database design. In this article the authors present a design technique that has been used for several projects at General Electric. The methodology is intuitive, expressive, and extensible. The new approach to relational database design is based on the work of Loomis, Sha, and Rumbaugh
keywords relational database, design, methods, objects, modeling, representation
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id a1a1
authors Cornick, T. and Bull, S.
year 1988
title Expert Systems for Detail Design in Building
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 117-126
summary Computer-Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) requires detailed knowledge of the construction of building elements to be effective as a complete design aid. Knowledge-based systems provide the tools for both encapsulating the "rules" of construction - i.e. the knowledge of good construction practice gained from experience - and relating those rules to geometric representation of building spaces and elements. The "rules" of construction are based upon the production and performance implications of building elements and how these satisfy various functional criteria. These building elements in turn may be related to construction materials, components and component assemblies. This paper presents two prototype knowledge-based systems, one dealing with the external envelope and the other with the internal space division of buildings. Each is "component specific" and is based upon its own model of the overall construction. This paper argues that "CAAD requires component specific knowledge bases and that integration of these knowledge bases into a knowledge-based design system for complete buildings can only occur if every knowledge base relates to a single coordinated construction model".
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

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