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Hits 1 to 20 of 153

_id a62c
authors Flemming, Ulrich, Coyne, Robert F. and Glavin, Timothy J. (et al)
year 1988
title A Generative Expert System for the Design of Building Layouts -- Version 2
source Artificial Intelligence in Engineering: Design. editor. John J. Gero. Elsevier (Computational Mechanics Publications), 1988. PP. 445-464 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The paper describes an attempt to increase the intelligence of a CAD system by adding capabilities (1) to systematically enumerate alternative solutions to a design problem, and (2) to take, at the same time, a broad spectrum of criteria or concerns into account. These capabilities are intended to complement the designer's abilities and performance. In connection with such attempts, fundamental problems arise when the objects to be designed have shape and are located in space. These problems are identified, and an approach to solve them is outlined. This approach is currently being tested over a range of domains all of which deal with the design of layouts of rectangles subject to constraints and criteria. The search for alternatives takes place in a state space with properties that make it possible to systematically explore and evaluate the power of various search strategies or planning paradigms. The state space is established through a domain-independent generator, while the evaluation of points in that space is carried out by a domain-dependent tester built up through a process of knowledge acquisition familiar from work with expert systems
keywords design, expert systems, CAD, enumeration, shape grammars,architecture, intelligence, synthesis, space allocation, layout, floor plans
series CADline
email ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 0833
authors Gero, John S.
year 1988
title Expert systems in Engineering Design : the Concept of Prototypes and their Application
source Symposium on Knowledge Based Systems in Civil Engineering. 1988. pp. 37-45
summary CADLINE has abstract only. This paper addresses the question of what sort of schemata do experts in engineering design use to allow the commencement and continuation of a design. It is suggested that a conceptual schema labelled prototype can be used to capture this expertise. Prototypes are generalizations at different levels of design experience and provide the bases of an approach to designing with computers. They structure design experience to make it applicable in similar situations. The paper elaborates the concept and briefly describes an application
keywords structures, engineering, expert systems, prototypes, design, knowledge
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 252a
authors Reich, Yoram
year 1988
title Machine Learning for Expert Systems : Motivation and Techniques
source i-iii, 51 p. : some ill Pittsburgh, PA: Engineering Design Research Center, CMU, June, 1988. EDRC 12-27-88. includes bibliography. First generation expert systems suffer from two major problems: they are brittle and their development is a long, effortful process. Few successful expert systems for real world problems have been demonstrated. In this paper, learning, the key to intelligent behavior and expertise, is described as the answer to both expert systems deficiencies. Machine learning techniques are described, with their applicability to expert systems. A framework to organize machine learning techniques is provided. The description is followed by examples taken from the structural design domain. AI / learning / expert systems / structures / techniques. 37. Requicha, Aristides A. G. 'Mathematical Models of Rigid Solid Objects -- Production Automation Project.' Rochester, NY: College of Engineering & Applied Science, University of Rochester, November, 1977. [3], 37 p. : ill.
summary Computational models of solid objects are potentially useful in a variety of scientific and engineering fields, and in particular in the field of design and manufacturing automation for the mechanical industries. In recent years a multitude of modelling systems have been implemented both by research laboratories and commercial vendors, but little attention has been paid to the fundamental theoretical issues in geometric modelling. This has led to severe difficulties in assessing current and proposed systems, and in distinguishing essential capabilities and limitations from user conveniences and efficiency considerations. This paper seeks a sharp mathematical characterization of 'rigid solids' in a manner that is suitable for studies in design and production automation. It draws heavily on established results in modern geometry and topology. Relevant results scattered throughout the mathematical literature are placed in a coherent framework and presented in a form accessible to engineers and computer scientists. A companion paper is devoted to a discussion of representational issues in the context set forth by this paper
keywords solid modeling, geometric modeling
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id 4034
authors Rosenman, Michael A., Balachandran, M.B. and Gero, John S.
year 1988
title The Place of Expert Systems in Civil Engineering
source Symposium on Knowledge Based Systems in Civil Engineering. 1988. pp. 19-36 CADLINE has abstract only.
summary --- Also printed in 1989 Civil Engineering Systems 6(1&2):11-20. Engineering is concerned with much more than calculation and numeric analysis. It is concerned with ideas, concepts, judgement and deploying experience which cannot be represented numerically. All of these appear to be outside the realm of traditional engineering computing. Engineers make use of knowledge about objects, events and processes and make declarative statements about them which are often written down symbolically. These limitations of traditional computing in civil engineering can be overcome by expert systems. In this paper a number of expert systems dealing with analysis, design and knowledge acquisition in the field of civil engineering are presented
keywords analysis, design, civil engineering, expert systems, knowledge acquisition
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 887e
authors Belajcic, N. D.
year 1988
title Computer Implementation of Shape Grammars
source Department of Architectural Science, University of Sydney
summary An approach is taken that shape grammars can be used as a possible vehicle for automated design generation. Historical background of shape grammars is discussed with emphasis on vocabulary/syntax aspect of the design process and significance of class solutions to problems. Similarities with expert system mechanics and structure is highlighted and advantages and disadvantages of rule-based and frame-based systems are considered. These concepts are implemented in a computer program written in LISP employing icon driven graphic interface with tools for creating shapes and rules. Finally, problems associated with adopted reasoning strategies are reported and areas of further development and improvement suggested. [UNPUBLISHED. CADLINE has abstract only]
keywords Shape Grammars, Design Process
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2002/12/14 18:10

_id a1a1
authors Cornick, T. and Bull, S.
year 1988
title Expert Systems for Detail Design in Building
source CAAD futures 87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 117-126
summary Computer-Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) requires detailed knowledge of the construction of building elements to be effective as a complete design aid. Knowledge-based systems provide the tools for both encapsulating the "rules" of construction - i.e. the knowledge of good construction practice gained from experience - and relating those rules to geometric representation of building spaces and elements. The "rules" of construction are based upon the production and performance implications of building elements and how these satisfy various functional criteria. These building elements in turn may be related to construction materials, components and component assemblies. This paper presents two prototype knowledge-based systems, one dealing with the external envelope and the other with the internal space division of buildings. Each is "component specific" and is based upon its own model of the overall construction. This paper argues that "CAAD requires component specific knowledge bases and that integration of these knowledge bases into a knowledge-based design system for complete buildings can only occur if every knowledge base relates to a single coordinated construction model".
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 5f4b
authors Coyne, R.D.
year 1988
title Logic Models of Design
source Pitman, London
summary This monograph places design in a theoretical context which applies developments in knowledge-based systems, logic programming and planning to design. It addresses two important design issues: the interpretation of designs, which concerns the discovery of implicit design attributes, a key activity in design evaluation that can be modelled by deductive inference in logic programming; and the process of generation, whereby a design description is produced which exhibits these implicit design attributes. Implicit attributes can be seen as analogous to the semantic content of natural language utterances. The work presented here is mainly concerned with design generation, and an operational model of design is investigated in which operations on processes are treated in a similar way to operations on form. It is argued that there are advantages in representing control knowledge as rules in a design system, and that logic is an effective medium for this purpose. This is demonstrated by means of programs developed in Prolog and C using the example of spatial layout in buildings. Primarily, this book is directed at those in artificial intelligence (AI) involved in logic programming, planning and expert systems. However, since AI techniques are finding widespread application in industry, the use of an architectural design example makes this work relevant to architects, designers, engineers and developers of intelligent architectural design software.
series other
email Richard.Coyne@ed.ac.uk
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 88cb
authors Gero, John S. and Oksala, Tarkko (editors)
year 1988
title Knowledge-Based Systems in Architecture
source TIPS'88 - Knowledge Based Design in Architecture, Acta Polytechnica Scandinavica (1988 : Helsinki, Finland). 143 p. 1989
summary The technology of knowledge-based systems can be found in texts on artificial intelligence. There is very little published so far on knowledge-based systems in architecture. To this end an international conference -- TIPS' 88: Knowledge-Based Design in Architecture -- was organized for August 1988 in Finland. Thirteen papers from that conference have been selected and edited for this monograph. They are grouped under five parts: Introduction; Schemas and Models; Processes and Knowledge; Modeling Buildings; and Creativity and Knowledge-Based Systems
keywords knowledge base, architecture, representation, expert systems,building, creativity
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 7e15
authors Kvan, Thomas
year 1997
title Chips, chunks and sauces
source International Journal of Design Computing, 1, 1997 (Editorial)
summary I am sure there is an art in balancing the chunks to use with your chips. Then there is the sauce that envelops them both. I like my chips chunky and not too saucy. Not that I am obsessed with food but I don't think you can consider design computing without chunks. It's the sauce I'm not sure about. The chunks of which I write are not of course those in your salsa picante but those postulated by Chase and Simon (1973) reflecting on good chess players; the chunks of knowledge with which an expert tackles a problem in their domain of expertise. The more knowledge an expert has of complex and large configurations of typical problem situations (configurations of chess pieces), the greater range of solutions the expert can bring a wider to a particular problem. Those with more chunks have more options and arrive at better solutions. In other words, good designs come from having plenty of big chunks available. There has been a wealth of research in the field of computer-supported collaborative work in the contexts of writing, office management, software design and policy bodies. It is typically divided between systems which support decision making (GDSS: group decision support systems) and those which facilitate joint work (CSCW: computer-based systems for co-operative work) (see Dennis et al. (1988) for a discussion of the distinctions and their likely convergence). Most implementations in the world of design have been on CSCW systems, few have looked at trying to make a group design decision support system (GDDSS?). Most of the work in CSCD has been grounded in the heritage of situated cognition - the assumption that collaborative design is an act that is intrinsically grounded in the context within which it is carried out, that is, the sauce in which we find ourselves swimming daily. By sauce, therefore, I am referring to anything that is not knowledge in the domain of expertise, such as modes of interaction, gestures, social behaviours.
series journal paper
email tkvan@arch.hku.hk
last changed 2003/05/15 08:29

_id 45b7
authors Oxman, R.E.
year 1988
title Expert System for Generation and Evaluation in Architectural Design
source Technion, Faculty of Architecture and Town Planing, Haifa
summary The research field, focuses on a new research area of Knowledge Based Systems for Architectural Design. The research deals with concepts and tools emerging from Artificial Intelligence, Knowledge Based Systems and Expert Systems. The research is involved with the construction of a theoretical basis for the development of approaches and methods for the representation and control of design knowledge as a reasoning process. Key questions which attempt to reconsider representation and control in design are formulated. The following questions serve as a research framework out of which new approaches, methods and tools were developed. (1.)What are the existing ideas, methods and tools in Expert Systems? (2.) What are the performance characteristics of Expert Systems in Architectural Design ? (3.) What are the desired operative characteristics and interactions for Expert Systems in design ? (4.) How is it possible to formulate and apply the diverse forms of Architectural Knowledge in Expert Systems for design? (5.) What are the problems of implementation in the development of Expert Systems for design ? The state of the art in knowledge based systems is surveyed, while emphasizing the differences between conventional systems and knowledge based systems. Representation and control methods and the components of expert systems are reviewed. Expert systems for diagnosis, interpretation, planning and design are analysed with respect to their performance characteristics. Techniques and technologies of existing tools are defined. An expert system for the generation and evaluation of ill defined architectural design problems is develped. A formalization of the concept of 'design interpretation' is proposed and developed. It is applied in the process of defining and classifying the performance characteristics of expert systems for design. This concept is based upon two sets of reasoning processes: those which enable a mapping between design requirements and solution descriptions in the generation stage of design and those between solution descriptions and performance evaluation in the evaluation stage of design. On the basis of the formalization of this concept, an expert system capable of integrating various modes of performance is proposed and developed. The system functions as a 'design generator', a 'design critic', or a' design critic-generator'. These modes, which integrate generation and evaluation in the same system, operate by employing both forward chaining and backward chaining inference mechanisms. As a result of the examination of desired forms of interactions, a new approach for dual direction interpretation between graphic and verbal modes is developed. This approach reflects the importance of both graphical and verbal expression in design. The approach is based upon a simultaneous mapping between symbolic-verbal interpretation and graphic interpretation. The work presents the mapping process through the concept of design interpretation, employing geometrical knowledge, typological knowledge and evaluation knowledge. A tool which provides communication between an expert system and a graphic system was developed and is presented. The importance of such a tool in expert systems for design resides in the provision of free choice to the user for interacting with the system either graphically or verbally during the design process. An additional component in the development of knowledge-based systems for design is related to the important question of knowledge definition and the representational schemata of design knowledge. A new representational scheme for complex architectural knowledge, termed 'The generation and refinement scheme of a design prototype' is proposed and developed. Its operation as part of a total integrated design system is demonstrated. The scheme is based upon the structures of knowledge of design precedents which constitute typical situations and solutions in architectural design. This scheme provides an appropriate representation for the two types of knowledge which operate in a refinement process of a design prototype. Generative knowledge describes the solution space by predefined refinement stages; interpretive knowledge enables their selection. The examination of representational methods for the proposed scheme indicated that employing a single representational method lacked enough generalization and expressive power for the needs of the design knowledge structures. It was found that a way to represent complex structures is through the integration of multiple methods of representation, each one according to the knowledge characteristics. In order to represent the proposed scheme of design knowledge, a unique method was developed which integrates both rules and frames. The method consists of a rules-frames-rules structure for the representation of a design prototype. An approach is developed for the implementation of these concepts in an expert system for design. PRODS: A prototype based expert system shell for design is developed and demonstrated. The system consists of three basic components: a rule-based expert system shell, a frame system, and a knowledge base interface. All system interactions are controlled by the inference engine. It passes control between the rule-base and the frame-base inference engines, and provides communications between the rule-based and frame-based representations. It is suggested that expert system can interface with external CAD systems including graphics, communicating through a central representation. These concepts and developments are demonstrated in two implementations. The PREDIKT system for the preliminary design of the residential kitchen; the PROUST system for the selection and refinement of dwelling types. PREDIKT demonstrates the integration of rules and a graphical-verbal interpreter; in addition, PROUST demonstrates the significance of hybrid representation in the generation and refinement processes. The results and conlusions are summarized. Future research agenda within the field of knowledge-based systems for design is discussed, and potential research areas are defined.
series thesis:PhD
email arrro01@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id aef1
authors Rosenman, M.A., Gero, J.S. and Coyne, R.D. (et al)
year 1987
title SOLAREXPERT : A Prototype Expert System for Passive Solar Energy Design in Housing
source Canberra: Aust NZ Solar Energy Society, 1987. vol.II: pp. 361-370. Also published in People and Technology - Sun, Climate and Building, edited by V. Szokolay, Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, 1988
summary Passive solar energy design is not an exact science in which a set of analytical procedures can be followed to produce results. Rather it depends heavily on subjective parameters and experience collected over time which is heuristic by nature. At present this knowledge is available in books but while this knowledge is comprehensive, it is unstructured and not always easy to make use of. A computer-based system allows for flexible interactive dialogue and for the incorporation of analytical procedures which may be required. This paper describes work on SOLAREXPERT, a prototype expert system to aid designers in passive solar energy design for single dwellings. The system operates at a strategic level to provide basic advice on the form of construction and types of passive solar systems and at a spatial zone level to provide more detailed advice on sizes and materials. It allows for modification of the information entered so that users may explore several possibilities
keywords applications, experience, housing, expert systems, energy, design, architecture
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/17 08:17

_id 2622
authors Schmitt, G.
year 1988
title Expert Systems and Interactive Fractal Generators in Design and Evaluation
source CAAD futures 87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 91-106
summary Microcomputer based interactive programmable drafting programs and analysis packages are setting new standards for design support, systems in architectural offices. These programs allow the representation and performance simulation of design proposals with one tool, but they lack the ability to represent knowledge concerning relations between design and artifact. While they can expediate the traditional design and analysis process, they do not fundamentally improve it. We shall describe three computationally related approaches which could be a step towards a necessary paradigm change in developing design software. These approaches deal with expert design generators and evaluators, function oriented programming, and fractal design machines.
series CAAD Futures
email gerhard.schmitt@sl.ethz.ch
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id a81e
authors Van Andel, Joost
year 1988
title Expert Systems in Environmental Psychology
source JAPS10 conference. 1988. includes bibliography
summary The knowledge gathered through research in environmental psychology is not optimally used by designers and other people working in applied settings such as politicians and civil servants. In this paper a number of causes and possible improvements of this situation are discussed. Two aspects are highlighted in particular: the structure and the presentation of information. A recent development to present knowledge from environmental psychology is the use of computerized information systems or expert systems. Limitations and possibilities of expert systems in general and for environmental psychology in particular are discussed. The issue is illustrated with parts of an expert system on the design of children's play environments using the pattern language as a structure to present information efficiently and attractively to designers
keywords expert systems, design process, psychology, patterns, languages
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id 0ee1
authors Veness, R. E.
year 1988
title Bridge Builder: An Expert System for the Design of Non-Equipment Military Bridging
source Department of Architectural Science, University of Sydney
summary This thesis describes an expert system for the selection, design and documentation of non-equipment military bridges. The expert system uses the expert system shell BUILD. Extensive use has been made of interfacing between BUILD and Prolog and then by using Prolog's foreign language interface with Pascal procedures and the graphics interface. The expert system, which consists of rules, Pascal procedures and a graphics package, aims at: (a) the determination of the suitable bridging structure; (b) designing a bridge using material constraints; (c) producing a consistent and sound structural design for the bridge and the necessary support structures; (d) producing the necessary working drawings and a bill of materials for the solution. The graphics interface is used to display and manipulate a three dimensional model of the solution and the hardcopy output. [Unpublished. -- CADLINE has abstract only.]
keywords Military Engineering, Expert Systems, Structures, User Interface, Applications
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2002/12/14 18:13

_id 0697
authors Balachandran, M.B. and Gero, John S.
year 1988
title Development of a Knowledge-Based System for Structural Optimization
source Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1988. pp. 17-24
summary Optimization is a useful and challenging activity in structural design. It provides designers with tools for better designs while saving time in the design process. The features of conventional optimization tools are presented and their limitations are outlined. The impact and role of knowledge-based methodologies in structural optimization processes is discussed. Structural optimization involves a number of tasks which require human expertise, and are traditionally assisted by human designers. These include design optimization formulation, problem recognition and the selection of appropriate algorithm(s). In this representation and processing of constraints are crucial tasks. This paper presents a framework for developing a knowledge-based system to accomplish these tasks. Based on the needs and the nature of the optimization process, a conceptual architecture of an integrated knowledge-based system is presented. The structure and functions of various components of the system are described
keywords knowledge base, systems, integration, optimization, structures, engineering
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c568
authors Balachandran, M.B. and John S. Gero
year 1987
title A Model for Knowledge Based Graphical Interfaces
source AI '87: Proceedings of the Australian Joint Artificial Intelligence Conference. 1987. pp. 505-521. Also published in Artificial Intelligence Developments and Applications edited by J. S. Gero and R Stanton, North-Holland Pub. 1988. -- CADLINE has abstract only.
summary This paper describes a model for knowledge-based graphical interface which incorporates a variety of knowledge of the domain of application. The key issues considered include graphics interpretation, extraction of features of graphics objects and identification of prototype objects. The role of such knowledge-based interfaces in computer-aided design is discussed. A prototype system developed in Prolog and C is described and its application in the domain of structural engineering is demonstrated
keywords user interface, computer graphics, knowledge base, systems, civil engineering, structures
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c9e4
authors Birmingham, William P. and Siewiorek, Daniel P.
year 1988
title Automated knowledge Acquisition for a Computer Hardware Synthesis System
source 19 p. : ill. Engineering Design Research Center, CMU, June, 1988. EDRC 18-06-88. includes bibliography
summary The MICON Synthesizer Version 1 (M1) is a rule-based system which produces a complete small computer design from a set of abstract specifications. The ability of M1 to produce designs depends on the encoding of large amounts of domain knowledge. An automated knowledge acquisition tool, CGEN, works symbiotically with M1 by gathering the knowledge required by M1. CGEN acquires knowledge about how to build and when to use various computer structures. This paper overviews the operation of CGEN by providing an example of the types of knowledge acquired and the mechanisms employed. A novel knowledge-intensive generalization scheme is presented. Generalization is a pragmatic necessity for knowledge acquisition in this domain. A series of experiments to test CGEN's capabilities are explained. A description of the architecture and knowledge-base of M1 is also provided
keywords electrical engineering, automation, knowledge acquisition, knowledge base, systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8ac0
authors Birmingham, William P., Gupta, Anurag P. and Siewiorek, Daniel P.
year 1988
title The MICON System for Computer Design
source 11 p. : ill. Pittsburgh, PA: Engineering Design Research Center, CMU, November, 1988. EDRC 18-10-89. includes bibliography
summary The MICON system is an integrated collection of programs which automatically synthesizes small computer systems from high level specifications. The system address multiple levels of design, from logical through physical, providing a rapid prototyping capability. Two programs form MICON's nucleus: a knowledge-based synthesis tool called M1; and, an automated knowledge acquisition tool named CGEN which is used to teach M1 how to design. Other tools in the MICON system are an integrated database and associated data management tools. The system is fully functional, having been used to generate working designs. This paper describes the architecture and operation of the MICON system
keywords integrated circuits, electrical engineering, design, systems, automation, integration
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ab54
authors Coyne, Richard D.
year 1988
title Logic Models of Design
source 317 p. London: Pitman, 1988. CADLINE has abstract only
summary This book constitutes both a theoretical and a technical exploration into modelling design tasks in logic. It provides a framework for describing design processes based on logic, achieved primarily by gathering together various strands evident in theories of reasoning, problem solving, design and knowledge engineering. The book demonstrates the applicability of logic programming and knowledge-based techniques to design, particularly in the area of controlling generative systems. The design task by which this is demonstrated is spatial layout, though the issues reach further than this one application
keywords reasoning, logic, design process
series CADline
email Richard.Coyne@ed.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/17 08:13

_id 56be
authors Dillon, Andrew and Marian, Sweeney
year 1988
title The Application of Cognitive Psychology to CAD Input/Output
source Proceedings of the HCI'88 Conference on People and Computers IV 1988 p.477-488
summary The design of usable human-computer interfaces is one of the primary goals of the HCI specialist. To date however interest has focussed mainly on office or text based systems such as word processors or databases. Computer aided design (CAD) represents a major challenge to the human factors community to provide suitable input and expertise in an area where the users goals and requirements are cognitively distinct from more typical HCI. The present paper is based on psychological investigations of the engineering domain, involving an experimental comparison of designers using CAD and the more traditional drawing board. By employing protocol analytic techniques it is possible to shed light on the complex problem-solving nature of design and to demonstrate the crucial role of human factors in the development of interfaces which facilitate the designers in their task. A model of the cognition of design is proposed which indicates that available knowledge and guidelines alone are not sufficient to aid CAD developers and the distinct nature of the engineering designer's task merits specific attention.
keywords Cognitive Psychology; Interface Design; Protocol Analysis
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

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