CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 101 to 120 of 162

_id 98bd
authors Pea, R.
year 1993
title Practices of Distributed Intelligence and Designs for Education
source Distributed Cognitions, edited by G. Salomon. New York, NY: CambridgeUniversity Press
summary v Knowledge is commonly socially constructed, through collaborative efforts... v Intelligence may also be distributed for use in designed artifacts as diverse as physical tools, representations such as diagrams, and computer-user interfaces to complex tasks. v Leont'ev 1978 for activity theory that argues forcibly for the centrality of people-in-action, activity systems, as units of analysis for deepening our understanding of thinking. v Intelligence is distributed: the resources that shape and enable activity are distributed across people, environments, and situations. v Intelligence is accomplished rather than possessed. v Affordance refers to the perceived and actual properties of a thing, primarily those functional properties that determine how the thing could possibly be used. v Norman 1988 on design and psychology - the psychology of everyday things" v We deploy effort-saving strategies in recognition of their cognitive economy and diminished opportunity for error. v The affordances of artifacts may be more or less difficult to convey to novice users of these artifacts in the activities to which they contribute distributed intelligence. v Starts with Norman's seven stages of action Ø Forming a goal; an intention § Task desire - clear goal and intention - an action and a means § Mapping desire - unable to map goal back to action § Circumstantial desire - no specific goal or intention - opportunistic approach to potential new goal § Habitual desire - familiar course of action - rapidly cycle all seven stages of action v Differentiates inscriptional systems from representational or symbol systems because inscriptional systems are completely external, while representational or symbol systems have been used in cognitive science as mental constructs. v The situated properties of everyday cognition are highly inventive in exploiting features of the physical and social situation as resources for performing a task, thereby avoiding the need for mental symbol manipulations unless they are required by that task. v Explicit recognition of the intelligence represented and representable in design, specifically in designed artifacts that play important roles in human activities. v Once intelligence is designed into the affordances properties of artifacts, it both guides and constrains the likely contributions of that artifact to distributed intelligence in activity. v Culturally valued designs for distributed intelligence will change over time, especially as new technology becomes associated with a task domain. v If we treat distributed intelligence in action as the scientific unit of analysis for research and theory on learning and reasoning... Ø What is distributed? Ø What constraints govern the dynamics of such distributions in different time scales? Ø Through what reconfigurations of distributed intelligence might the performance of an activity system improve over time? v Intelligence is manifest in activity and distributed in nature. v Intelligent activities ...in the real world... are often collaborative, depend on resources beyond an individual's long-term memory, and require the use of information-handling tools... v Wartofsky 1979 - the artifact is to cultural evolution what the gene is to biological evolution - the vehicle of information across generations. v Systems of activity - involving persons, environment, tools - become the locus of developmental investigation. v Disagrees with Salomon et al.'s entity-oriented approach - a language of containers holding things. v Human cognition aspires to efficiency in distributing intelligence - across individuals, environment, external symbolic representations, tools, and artifacts - as a means of coping with the complexity of activities we often cal "mental." "
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 7d26
authors Pearson, D.G., Alexander, C. and Webster, Robin
year 2001
title Working Memory and Expertise Differences in Design.
source J. S. Gero, B. Tversky and T. Purcell (eds), 2001, Visual and Spatial Reasoning in Design, II - Key Centre of Design Computing and Cognition, University of Sydney, Australia
summary The Creative Synthesis task devised by Finke and Slayton(1988) has been widely used as an experimental measure of mentalsynthesis, but previous studies have often failed to demonstrate anysignificant benefits of external support on participants’ performance.This paper discusses a study that examined novice and expert drawers’performance of synthesis using a modified stimuli set that was designedto increase the load on visuo-spatial working memory. The resultsshowed a significant increase in Transformational Complexity(Anderson & Hesltrup, 1993) of patterns produced by the expert groupwhile using sketching. It is argued that experts are more effective atusing sketching interactively to increase complexity, while novices relymore on using it as a simple memory aid.
series other
email d.g.pearson@abdn.ac.uk
more http://www.arch.usyd.edu.au/kcdc/conferences/vr01/
last changed 2003/05/02 09:14

_id ea5c
authors Purcell, P.
year 1988
title The Role of Media Technology in the Design Studio
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 179-187
summary This paper refers to a program of work, which aims to integrate a range of computer-based multi-media technologies which has the overall goal of enhancing the processes of education in the design studio. The individual projects describe the development of visual information systems and intelligent design systems. The framework of support for much of the work is Project Athena, a campus wide initiative to apply new technology towards enhancing the educational process project.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 2d82
authors Radford, Anthony D., Oxman, Robert and Oxman, Rivka
year 1988
title Design Teaching: The Language of Architectural Plans
source Computing in Design Education [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Ann Arbor (Michigan / USA) 28-30 October 1988, pp. 99-110
summary The aims, operation and student reaction to a design studio course for beginning architecture students on the syntax of architectural plans are described. The course is highly structured and draws from computer graphics templates and a teaching manual which set up a series of exercises. The process of learning comes from execution of the exercises and from associated reading, discussion and debate on architectural planning issues.

series ACADIA
email arrro01@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 0e5d
authors Reed, Raymond D.
year 1988
title The Teaching of Computer Assisted Sustainable Architectural Design
source Computing in Design Education [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Ann Arbor (Michigan / USA) 28-30 October 1988, pp. 111-122
summary Sustainable architecture is high-tech, energy and resource conserving architecture that sustains and increases the human and natural carrying capacity of the host environment. This paper presents a computer assisted design process to teach sustainable architectural design.

The energy performance of a base case building in each of four climates and cultures is presented. The climates are: Phoenix (hotdry), Minneapolis (cold-dry), Boston (cold-humid), and New Orleans ( hot- humid). Keeping the host climate, site, building size and function constant: but varying materials, shape and design concepts, each base case is iterated through a series of computer assisted re-designs to transform each base case building into an architecture representative of its regional climate and culture.

Traditional technologies and concepts produce traditional regional architecture. New technologies and concepts produce forms expressive of an emerging high-tech, high-touch, low energy society.

The paper presents computer generated work by the author and his students. It also presents an interim evaluation of the successes and difficulties of conducting a 'paper free' design studio.

series ACADIA
last changed 1999/01/01 18:27

_id 6c93
authors Rehg, J., Elfes, A. and Talukdar, S.N. (et al)
year 1988
title CASE : Computer-Aided Simultaneous Engineering
source 13 p. : ill
summary Pittsburgh, PA: Engineering Design Research Center, CMU, 1988. EDRC 05-22-88. This paper presents a new system for computer-aided mechanical design known as CASE, which stands for Computer- Aided Simultaneous Engineering. CASE was developed to support mechanical design at the project level, and serve as a means of integrating into the design process concerns from other parts of the lifecycle of a product. CASE is composed of an integrated framework of synthesis, analysis, and translation programs, and is designed to serve as a testbed for research in representation, problem-solving, and systems integration for computer-aided mechanical design. A prototype version of CASE has been applied to the domain of window regulator design, and is capable of automatically synthesizing regulators to meet a set of specifications and performing tolerance and stress analysis on developing designs
keywords representation, problem solving, constraints, reasoning, mechanical engineering
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:42

_id cdc5
id cdc5
authors Richens, P.
year 1988
title Automation of Drafting and Building Modelling – Historical Review of Commercial Development since the Seventies
source CIB-W78 Conference, Lund
summary The present day GDS system has its roots in BDS, started in 1970, BDS was a 3D data-centered system for design, analysis and documentation of system-built buildings. GDS started as a 2D drafting system, and proved more effective and marketable. Specialized applications and 3D capabilities were added gradually. Current interest is in simplifying the software, especially its user interface.
series other
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2003/12/03 07:33

_id aef1
authors Rosenman, M.A., Gero, J.S. and Coyne, R.D. (et al)
year 1987
title SOLAREXPERT : A Prototype Expert System for Passive Solar Energy Design in Housing
source Canberra: Aust NZ Solar Energy Society, 1987. vol.II: pp. 361-370. Also published in People and Technology - Sun, Climate and Building, edited by V. Szokolay, Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, 1988
summary Passive solar energy design is not an exact science in which a set of analytical procedures can be followed to produce results. Rather it depends heavily on subjective parameters and experience collected over time which is heuristic by nature. At present this knowledge is available in books but while this knowledge is comprehensive, it is unstructured and not always easy to make use of. A computer-based system allows for flexible interactive dialogue and for the incorporation of analytical procedures which may be required. This paper describes work on SOLAREXPERT, a prototype expert system to aid designers in passive solar energy design for single dwellings. The system operates at a strategic level to provide basic advice on the form of construction and types of passive solar systems and at a spatial zone level to provide more detailed advice on sizes and materials. It allows for modification of the information entered so that users may explore several possibilities
keywords applications, experience, housing, expert systems, energy, design, architecture
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/17 08:17

_id 4034
authors Rosenman, Michael A., Balachandran, M.B. and Gero, John S.
year 1988
title The Place of Expert Systems in Civil Engineering
source Symposium on Knowledge Based Systems in Civil Engineering. 1988. pp. 19-36 CADLINE has abstract only.
summary --- Also printed in 1989 Civil Engineering Systems 6(1&2):11-20. Engineering is concerned with much more than calculation and numeric analysis. It is concerned with ideas, concepts, judgement and deploying experience which cannot be represented numerically. All of these appear to be outside the realm of traditional engineering computing. Engineers make use of knowledge about objects, events and processes and make declarative statements about them which are often written down symbolically. These limitations of traditional computing in civil engineering can be overcome by expert systems. In this paper a number of expert systems dealing with analysis, design and knowledge acquisition in the field of civil engineering are presented
keywords analysis, design, civil engineering, expert systems, knowledge acquisition
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8e77
authors Rubinger, Morton
year 1988
title Drawing Lessons from Word Processing
source Computing in Design Education [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Ann Arbor (Michigan / USA) 28-30 October 1988, pp. 235-245
summary Word processing is universally successful as a computer application whereas computer-aided design is not. What can we learn from word processing? It tells us that, to be successful, an entry-level CAD system should be basic and focus mainly on drawing and manipulation of drawings rather than on sophisticated operations and automation, it should be simple, easy to use and moderate in cost. In architectural education, it should be used in the early stages of design to enhance design quality and design learning. To do this, we need to understand the characteristics of this new drawing and design medium. Software needs to be thoroughly learned in advance of studio use, and computer-based studio projects should take a computational view of design to enhance the effective use of computers in learning to design.

series ACADIA
last changed 1999/01/01 18:34

_id caadria2005_b_4a_b
id caadria2005_b_4a_b
authors Ruchi Choudhary, Jeremy Michalek
year 2005
title Design Optimization in Computer-Aided Architectural Design
source CAADRIA 2005 [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] New Delhi (India) 28-30 April 2005, vol. 2, pp. 149-159
summary The proposition of using design optimization to formalize and add rigor to the decision-making process in building and construction was earlier compiled by Radford et al. in 1988, providing an in-depth demonstration of techniques available at the time. Much has changed since, both in the available solution methods and the nature of the problems themselves. This paper provides an updated insight into past and current trends of using this engineering design paradigm to solve architectural design problems, with an emphasis on continuous nonlinear formulations of simulation-based problems. The paper demonstrates different problem formulations and current techniques for solving them. Examples from recent research are used to demonstrate significant achievements and existing challenges associated with formalizing and solving decision-making tasks in architecture.
series CAADRIA
email ruchi.choudhary@coa.gatech.edu, michalek@umich.edu
last changed 2005/04/30 01:30

_id 24df
authors Saggio, Antonino
year 1998
title HyperArchitecture
source Computerised Craftsmanship [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Paris (France) 24-26 September 1998, pp. 224-227
summary The "Universale d?architettura" is a pocket book series which is now arrived at 40 titles. Printed by Testo&Immagine in Turin it is directed by Bruno Zevi. It has a very large public, being distributed in newstands, in bookstores and mailed to subscribers at a very convenient price (6 dollars each). Many of its titles will soon appear in English, French, Spanish and German. The book series is divided into different sections (monographs, essays, architectural guides, anthologies) and in April 1988 a new section has been introduced. "La rivoluzione informatica" ("The Information revolution") is the title and Antonino Saggio is the curator. Scope of this new section is to bring closer architecture and computers by providing intellectual and cultural tools to orient the reader in a fast growing filed. The first book (Luigi Prestinenza Puglisi, Hyperarchitecture. Spaces in the electronic era) is an essay that combines a critical overview of most recent projects by Ito, Arakama, Koolhaas, Libeskind with epistemological consideration and researches coming from conceptual art. Three key words organized the material: projection, mutation, simulation. The next book (Gerhard Schmitt, Information architecture) deals with foundation and future of Caad systems and it can be seen from one side as an extremely updated manual and from the other as the construction of the developing lines of Caad research. Other forthcoming titles include: Virtual Terragni, How works the Eisenman Office, Design and Build with Computers. "La rivoluzione informatica" is (not only in Italy but also, quite probably, anywhere) the only book series which addresses the theme of architectural design in the electronic era. To better understand its scope, character and goals, it follows the Afterward by Saggio to the first book.
series eCAADe
email Antonino.Saggio@Uniroma1.it
more http://www.paris-valdemarne.archi.fr/archive/ecaade98/html/11saggio/index.htm
last changed 2003/05/16 19:36

_id 2622
authors Schmitt, G.
year 1988
title Expert Systems and Interactive Fractal Generators in Design and Evaluation
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 91-106
summary Microcomputer based interactive programmable drafting programs and analysis packages are setting new standards for design support, systems in architectural offices. These programs allow the representation and performance simulation of design proposals with one tool, but they lack the ability to represent knowledge concerning relations between design and artifact. While they can expediate the traditional design and analysis process, they do not fundamentally improve it. We shall describe three computationally related approaches which could be a step towards a necessary paradigm change in developing design software. These approaches deal with expert design generators and evaluators, function oriented programming, and fractal design machines.
series CAAD Futures
email gerhard.schmitt@sl.ethz.ch
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id e9e7
authors Schoen, D.
year 1988
title Designing: Rules, types and worlds
source Design Studies, Volume 9, Number 3, 1988, pp. 24-38
summary Protocols of seven practised designers, all undertaking a common design exercise, have been analysed for patterns of reasoning and use of design rules. Patterns of reasoning were found to be shared among designers and not significantly different from reasoning in everyday life. Rules were largely implicit, overlapping, diverse, variously applied, contextually dependent, subject to exceptions and to critical modification. It is argued that rules are derived from underlying types - functional building types, references, spatial gestalts and experiential archetypes - that serve as `holding environments' for design knowledge.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id e05e
authors Schon, Donald A. and Wigging, Glenn
year 1988
title Kinds of Seeing and Their Functions in Designing
source November, 1988. 31 p. : ill
summary Architectural designing is described as a kind of experimentation that consists in reflective 'conversation' with the materials of a design situation. A designer sees, moves and sees again. Working in some visual medium -- drawing, in the article examples -- the designer sees what is 'there' in some representation of a site, draws in relation to it, and sees what has been drawn, thereby informing further designing. In all this 'seeing' the designer not only visually registers information but also constructs its meaning -- identifies patterns and gives them meaningsÔ h) 0*0*0*°° ÔŒ beyond themselves. Words like 'recognize,' 'detect,' 'discover' and 'appreciate' denote variants of seeing, as do such terms as 'seeing that,' 'seeing as' and 'seeing in.' The purpose here is to explore the kinds of seeing involved in designing and to describe their various functions. At local and global levels, and in many different ways, designing is an interaction of making and seeing, doing and discovering. On the basis of a few minuscule examples, the authors suggest some of the ways in which this sort of interaction works. Some conditions that enable it to work are described. And some of its consequences for design education and for the development of computer environments useful to designers are drawn
keywords design methods, education, architecture, cognition, perception, design process, semantics, protocol analysis
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 861a
authors Sedas, Sergio W. and Talukdar, Sarosh N.
year 1987
title A Disassembly Planner for Redesign
source The Winter Annual Meeting of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Symposium of Intelligent and Integrated Manufacturing Analysis and Synthesis. December, 1987. Pittsburgh, PA: Engineering Design Research Center, CMU, 1988. [6] p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary This paper describes an algorithm for generating plans for disassembling given objects. The plans are produced by a set of knowledge sources acting on a set of representations for the object. Both sets are arbitrarily expandable, so programs using the approach can grow continually in capability. Our present complement of knowledge sources and representations can tackle relatively difficult problems. Three examples are included. The first requires a good bit of geometric reasoning before appropriate subassemblies can be selected. The second and third require certain movable parts to be repositioned before disassembly can be achieved
keywords algorithms, representation, synthesis, assemblies, knowledge, reasoning, mechanical engineering
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c84f
authors Seebohm, Thomas
year 1988
title Interpreting Takefijmi Aida's Toy Block Houses
source Computing in Design Education [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Ann Arbor (Michigan / USA) 28-30 October 1988, pp. 175-185
summary Three-dimensional modeling projects interpreting Takefumi Aida's Toy block Houses form the basis of a first course in architectural computer graphics described in this paper. Takefumi Aida's houses were chosen for two recent offerings of the course because they form a consistent body of architectural work which is very sculptural, geometrically structured and based on a single vocabulary of shapes. Shaded images produced in the course show the importance of human skill and judgement in computer modeling and rendering. The paper demonstrates the subjective nature of computer interpretations.

series ACADIA
email tseebohm@fes.uwaterloo.ca
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id fbe9
authors Sharit, Joseph and Cuomo, Donna L.
year 1988
title A Cognitively Based Methodology for Evaluating Human Performance in the Computer-Aided Design Task Domain
source Behaviour and Information Technology 1988 v.7 n.4 p.373-397
summary This article describes a methodology for evaluating human performance in the computer aided design (CAD) task environment. The methodology is based primarily on cognitive theoretic frameworks that are consistent with processes presumed to underlie human design activities. The motivation for its development stems from rapid software and hardware advances in CAD systems and our relative lack of understanding of how these enhancements affect human design performance for (1) fundamentally different types of tasks and (2) different levels of complexity for a particular task. This methodology is currently being applied to computer aided architectural design, an area where artificial intelligence (AI), enhanced geometric modelling and other system features are being debated in terms of their usefulness in aiding the human's design activities.
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id avocaad_2001_19
id avocaad_2001_19
authors Shen-Kai Tang, Yu-Tung Liu, Yu-Sheng Chung, Chi-Seng Chung
year 2001
title The visual harmony between new and old materials in the restoration of historical architecture: A study of computer simulation
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the research of historical architecture restoration, scholars respectively focus on the field of architectural context and architectural archeology (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000) or on architecture construction and the procedure of restoration (Shi, 1988, 1989; Chiu, 1990). How to choose materials and cope with their durability becomes an important issue in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998).In the related research of the usage and durability of materials, some scholars deem that, instead of continuing the traditional ways that last for hundreds of years (that is to replace new materials with old ones), it might be better to keep the original materials (Dasser, 1990). However, unavoidably, some of the originals are much worn. Thus we have to first establish the standard of eliminating components, and secondly to replace identical or similar materials with the old components (Lee, 1990). After accomplishing the restoration, we often unexpectedly find out that the renewed historical building is too new that the sense of history is eliminated (Dasser, 1990; Fu, 1997). Actually this is the important factor that determines the accomplishment of restoration. In the past, some scholars find out that the contrast and conflict between new and old materials are contributed to the different time of manufacture and different coating, such as antiseptic, pattern, etc., which result in the discrepancy of the sense of visual perception (Lee, 1990; Fu, 1997; Dasser, 1990).In recent years, a number of researches and practice of computer technology have been done in the field of architectural design. We are able to proceed design communication more exactly by the application of some systematic softwares, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and so on (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The application of computer technology to the research of the preservation of historical architecture is comparatively late. Continually some researchers explore the procedure of restoration by computer simulation technology (Potier, 2000), or establish digital database of the investigation of historical architecture (Sasada, 2000; Wang, 1998). How to choose materials by the technology of computer simulation influences the sense of visual perception. Liu (2000) has a more complete result on visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA) about the research of urban design projection. The main subjects of this research paper focuses on whether the technology of computer simulation can extenuate the conflict between new and old materials that imposed on visual perception.The objective of this paper is to propose a standard method of visual harmony effects for materials in historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example).There are five steps in this research: 1.Categorize the materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 2.Get new materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 3.According to the mixing amount of new and old materials, determinate their proportion of the building; mixing new and old materials in a certain way. 4.Assign the mixed materials to the computer model and proceed the simulation of lighting. 5.Make experts and the citizens to evaluate the accomplished computer model in order to propose the expected standard method.According to the experiment mentioned above, we first address a procedure of material simulation of the historical architecture restoration and then offer some suggestions of how to mix new and old materials.By this procedure of simulation, we offer a better view to control the restoration of historical architecture. And, the discrepancy and discordance by new and old materials can be released. Moreover, we thus avoid to reconstructing ¡§too new¡¨ historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
email tsk.aa88g@nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id c5ec
authors Smith Shaw, Doris
year 1988
title The Conceptual Approach to CAD Education
source Computing in Design Education [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Ann Arbor (Michigan / USA) 28-30 October 1988, pp. 35-45
summary Recent research at the Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (CERL) investigated embedded computer-based instruction for AutoCAD. The results of this study, which are the focus of this paper, indicated that the only factor which correlated with success in completing the final test was previous experience with another CAD system. Those who knew another CAD system had higher scores and required less than half the time to complete the lessons. Presumably their conceptual knowledge about CAD transferred to the new software environment, even though the Corps' study showed that they were initially biased against learning the new system. Such biased attitudes have been observed when users are asked to learn a second similar software of any kind.

Architects who are deeply involved in computer-aided design have stated that one must learn to program the computer to build the conceptual framework for the creative process. We at CERL agree that an understanding of underlying graphics concepts is essential to the designer. Our research shows that giving students the freedom to explore an existing software program can result in the development of conceptual knowledge. Interviews also reveal that students can invent ways to meet individual objectives when "guided discovery" learning is encouraged.

series ACADIA
last changed 1999/01/01 18:23

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