CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 696c
authors Beheshti, M. and Monroy, M.
year 1988
title Requirements for Developing an Information System for Architecture
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 149-170
summary This paper discusses possibilities of developing new tools for architectural design. It argues that architects should meet the challenge of information technology and computer-based design techniques. One such attempt has been the first phase of the development of an architectural design information system (ADIS), also an architectural design decision support system. The system should benefit from the developments of the artificial intelligence to enable the architect to have access to information required to carry out design work. In other words: the system functions as a huge on-line electronic library of architecture, containing up-to-date architectural design information, literature, documents, etc. At the same time, the system offers necessary design aids such as computer programs for design process, drawing programs, evaluation programs, cost calculation programs, etc. The system also provides data communication between the architect and members of the design coalition team. This is found to be of vital importance in the architectural design process, because it can enable the architect to fit in changes, brought about in the project by different parties. Furthermore, they will be able, to oversee promptly the consequences of changes or decisions in a comprehensive manner. The system will offer advantages over the more commonly applied microcomputer based CAAD and IGDM (integrated graphics database management) systems, or even larger systems available to an architect. Computer programs as well as hardware change rapidly and become obsolete. Therefore, unrelenting investment pressure to up-date both software and hardware exists. The financial burden of this is heavy, in particular for smaller architectural practices (for instance an architect working for himself or herself and usually with few or no permanent staff). ADIS, as an on-line architectural design aid, is constantly up-dated by its own organisation. This task will be co-ordinated by the ADIS data- base administrator (DBA). The processing possibilities of the system are faster, therefore more complex processing tasks can be handled. Complicated large graphic data files, can be easily retrieved and manipulated by ADIS, a large system. In addition, the cost of an on-line system will be much less than any other system. The system is based on one model of the architectural design process, but will eventually contain a variety of design models, as it develops. The development of the system will be an evolutionary process, making use of its users' feed-back system. ADIS is seen as a step towards full automation of architectural design practices. Apart from being an architectural design support system, ADIS will assist the architect in his/her administrative and organisational activities.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 2fd0
authors Maher, Mary Lou, Zhao, F. and Gero, John S.
year 1989
title Creativity in Humans and Computers
source Helsinki: Acta Polytechnica Scandinavica, 1989. pp. 129-141. Also Published as : Creativity in Humans and Computers: A Discussion of Creativity in Computer-Aided Architectural Design, in J.S. Gero and T. Oksala (eds.) Symposium on Knowledge-based Design in Architecture, Helsinki University of Technology, pp. 31-44. 1988
summary This paper explores creativity from a process viewpoint. It examines various strategies employed by humans during their creative acts and posits analogous computational processes. The discussion provides a framework for the current work by the authors on knowledge-based creative design
keywords creativity, design process, architecture, knowledge base
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 651b
authors Maver, Tom and Wagter, Harry (eds.)
year 1988
title CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings]
source Second International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 0-444-42916-6 / Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, 261 p.
summary The building Industry is Europe's largest single industry employing directly or indirectly 1 in 8 of the working population; yet it is fragmented, ill-organised and unprogressive. Part at least of the cause can be attributed to a failure by the architectural profession to adopt advances in Information Technology - notably Computer Aided Design. The purpose of the series of conferences on CAAD Futures is to chart a route towards a future in which the outcome of current and continuing research and development results in design tools which are acceptable to practioners and which substantially improve the quality of design decision-making and management. The papers which are printed in these proceedings make a significant contribution to our view of the future. Together they cover the range of issues which are the legitimate concern of researchers, developers, vendors, and users of CAAD software; as might be expected, they raise as many questions as they answer and they pose problems as well as reporting progress.
series CAAD Futures
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id ea5c
authors Purcell, P.
year 1988
title The Role of Media Technology in the Design Studio
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 179-187
summary This paper refers to a program of work, which aims to integrate a range of computer-based multi-media technologies which has the overall goal of enhancing the processes of education in the design studio. The individual projects describe the development of visual information systems and intelligent design systems. The framework of support for much of the work is Project Athena, a campus wide initiative to apply new technology towards enhancing the educational process project.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id aef1
authors Rosenman, M.A., Gero, J.S. and Coyne, R.D. (et al)
year 1987
title SOLAREXPERT : A Prototype Expert System for Passive Solar Energy Design in Housing
source Canberra: Aust NZ Solar Energy Society, 1987. vol.II: pp. 361-370. Also published in People and Technology - Sun, Climate and Building, edited by V. Szokolay, Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, 1988
summary Passive solar energy design is not an exact science in which a set of analytical procedures can be followed to produce results. Rather it depends heavily on subjective parameters and experience collected over time which is heuristic by nature. At present this knowledge is available in books but while this knowledge is comprehensive, it is unstructured and not always easy to make use of. A computer-based system allows for flexible interactive dialogue and for the incorporation of analytical procedures which may be required. This paper describes work on SOLAREXPERT, a prototype expert system to aid designers in passive solar energy design for single dwellings. The system operates at a strategic level to provide basic advice on the form of construction and types of passive solar systems and at a spatial zone level to provide more detailed advice on sizes and materials. It allows for modification of the information entered so that users may explore several possibilities
keywords applications, experience, housing, expert systems, energy, design, architecture
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/17 08:17

_id 404e
authors Oksala , T.
year 1988
title Logical Models for Rule-based CAAD
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 107-116
summary The aim of this paper is to present the basic results of a theoretic approach to represent architectural individual forms in CAD systems. From the point of view of design methodology and problem solving these descriptions might be conceived' as parts of possible environments satisfying the laws of some design theory in logical sense. This paper describes results in a series of logical studies towards rule and knowledge based systems for design automation. The effective use of programming languages and computers as design aids in architecture presupposes certain capabilities to articulate built environment logically. The use of graphic languages in the description of environmental items e.g. buildings might be theoretically mastered by formal production systems including linguistic, geometric, and spatio-material generation. The combination of the power of formal mechanisms and logical individual calculus offers suitable framework to generate arbitrary e.g. free spatial compositions as types or unique solutions. In this frame it is natural to represent in a coherent way very complex hierarchical parsing of buildings in explicit form as needed in computer implementations. In order to simulate real design work the individual configurations of possible built forms should be designed to satisfy known rules. In the preliminary stage partial solutions to design problems may be discussed in mathematical terms using frameworks like lattices, graphs, or group theoretical considerations of structural, functional, and visual organization of buildings. The capability to produce mathematically sophisticated geometric structures allows us to generalize the approach further. The theoretical design knowhow in architecture can be partly translated in to some logic and represented in a knowledge base. These rules are used as selection criteria for geometric design candidates in the sense of logical model theory and mathematical optimization. The economy of the system can be developed by using suitable conduct mechanisms familiar e.g. from logic programming. The semantics of logic offers a frame to consider computer assisted and formal generation in design. A number of semantic and pragmatic problems, however, remain to be solved. In any case conceptual analyses based on logic are applicable in order to rationally reconstruct architectural goals contributing to the quality of environmental design, which should be the main goal in the development of design systems in near future.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 45b7
authors Oxman, R.E.
year 1988
title Expert System for Generation and Evaluation in Architectural Design
source Technion, Faculty of Architecture and Town Planing, Haifa
summary The research field, focuses on a new research area of Knowledge Based Systems for Architectural Design. The research deals with concepts and tools emerging from Artificial Intelligence, Knowledge Based Systems and Expert Systems. The research is involved with the construction of a theoretical basis for the development of approaches and methods for the representation and control of design knowledge as a reasoning process. Key questions which attempt to reconsider representation and control in design are formulated. The following questions serve as a research framework out of which new approaches, methods and tools were developed. (1.)What are the existing ideas, methods and tools in Expert Systems? (2.) What are the performance characteristics of Expert Systems in Architectural Design ? (3.) What are the desired operative characteristics and interactions for Expert Systems in design ? (4.) How is it possible to formulate and apply the diverse forms of Architectural Knowledge in Expert Systems for design? (5.) What are the problems of implementation in the development of Expert Systems for design ? The state of the art in knowledge based systems is surveyed, while emphasizing the differences between conventional systems and knowledge based systems. Representation and control methods and the components of expert systems are reviewed. Expert systems for diagnosis, interpretation, planning and design are analysed with respect to their performance characteristics. Techniques and technologies of existing tools are defined. An expert system for the generation and evaluation of ill defined architectural design problems is develped. A formalization of the concept of 'design interpretation' is proposed and developed. It is applied in the process of defining and classifying the performance characteristics of expert systems for design. This concept is based upon two sets of reasoning processes: those which enable a mapping between design requirements and solution descriptions in the generation stage of design and those between solution descriptions and performance evaluation in the evaluation stage of design. On the basis of the formalization of this concept, an expert system capable of integrating various modes of performance is proposed and developed. The system functions as a 'design generator', a 'design critic', or a' design critic-generator'. These modes, which integrate generation and evaluation in the same system, operate by employing both forward chaining and backward chaining inference mechanisms. As a result of the examination of desired forms of interactions, a new approach for dual direction interpretation between graphic and verbal modes is developed. This approach reflects the importance of both graphical and verbal expression in design. The approach is based upon a simultaneous mapping between symbolic-verbal interpretation and graphic interpretation. The work presents the mapping process through the concept of design interpretation, employing geometrical knowledge, typological knowledge and evaluation knowledge. A tool which provides communication between an expert system and a graphic system was developed and is presented. The importance of such a tool in expert systems for design resides in the provision of free choice to the user for interacting with the system either graphically or verbally during the design process. An additional component in the development of knowledge-based systems for design is related to the important question of knowledge definition and the representational schemata of design knowledge. A new representational scheme for complex architectural knowledge, termed 'The generation and refinement scheme of a design prototype' is proposed and developed. Its operation as part of a total integrated design system is demonstrated. The scheme is based upon the structures of knowledge of design precedents which constitute typical situations and solutions in architectural design. This scheme provides an appropriate representation for the two types of knowledge which operate in a refinement process of a design prototype. Generative knowledge describes the solution space by predefined refinement stages; interpretive knowledge enables their selection. The examination of representational methods for the proposed scheme indicated that employing a single representational method lacked enough generalization and expressive power for the needs of the design knowledge structures. It was found that a way to represent complex structures is through the integration of multiple methods of representation, each one according to the knowledge characteristics. In order to represent the proposed scheme of design knowledge, a unique method was developed which integrates both rules and frames. The method consists of a rules-frames-rules structure for the representation of a design prototype. An approach is developed for the implementation of these concepts in an expert system for design. PRODS: A prototype based expert system shell for design is developed and demonstrated. The system consists of three basic components: a rule-based expert system shell, a frame system, and a knowledge base interface. All system interactions are controlled by the inference engine. It passes control between the rule-base and the frame-base inference engines, and provides communications between the rule-based and frame-based representations. It is suggested that expert system can interface with external CAD systems including graphics, communicating through a central representation. These concepts and developments are demonstrated in two implementations. The PREDIKT system for the preliminary design of the residential kitchen; the PROUST system for the selection and refinement of dwelling types. PREDIKT demonstrates the integration of rules and a graphical-verbal interpreter; in addition, PROUST demonstrates the significance of hybrid representation in the generation and refinement processes. The results and conlusions are summarized. Future research agenda within the field of knowledge-based systems for design is discussed, and potential research areas are defined.
series thesis:PhD
email arrro01@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 252a
authors Reich, Yoram
year 1988
title Machine Learning for Expert Systems : Motivation and Techniques
source i-iii, 51 p. : some ill Pittsburgh, PA: Engineering Design Research Center, CMU, June, 1988. EDRC 12-27-88. includes bibliography. First generation expert systems suffer from two major problems: they are brittle and their development is a long, effortful process. Few successful expert systems for real world problems have been demonstrated. In this paper, learning, the key to intelligent behavior and expertise, is described as the answer to both expert systems deficiencies. Machine learning techniques are described, with their applicability to expert systems. A framework to organize machine learning techniques is provided. The description is followed by examples taken from the structural design domain. AI / learning / expert systems / structures / techniques. 37. Requicha, Aristides A. G. 'Mathematical Models of Rigid Solid Objects -- Production Automation Project.' Rochester, NY: College of Engineering & Applied Science, University of Rochester, November, 1977. [3], 37 p. : ill.
summary Computational models of solid objects are potentially useful in a variety of scientific and engineering fields, and in particular in the field of design and manufacturing automation for the mechanical industries. In recent years a multitude of modelling systems have been implemented both by research laboratories and commercial vendors, but little attention has been paid to the fundamental theoretical issues in geometric modelling. This has led to severe difficulties in assessing current and proposed systems, and in distinguishing essential capabilities and limitations from user conveniences and efficiency considerations. This paper seeks a sharp mathematical characterization of 'rigid solids' in a manner that is suitable for studies in design and production automation. It draws heavily on established results in modern geometry and topology. Relevant results scattered throughout the mathematical literature are placed in a coherent framework and presented in a form accessible to engineers and computer scientists. A companion paper is devoted to a discussion of representational issues in the context set forth by this paper
keywords solid modeling, geometric modeling
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id c5ec
authors Smith Shaw, Doris
year 1988
title The Conceptual Approach to CAD Education
source Computing in Design Education [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Ann Arbor (Michigan / USA) 28-30 October 1988, pp. 35-45
summary Recent research at the Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (CERL) investigated embedded computer-based instruction for AutoCAD. The results of this study, which are the focus of this paper, indicated that the only factor which correlated with success in completing the final test was previous experience with another CAD system. Those who knew another CAD system had higher scores and required less than half the time to complete the lessons. Presumably their conceptual knowledge about CAD transferred to the new software environment, even though the Corps' study showed that they were initially biased against learning the new system. Such biased attitudes have been observed when users are asked to learn a second similar software of any kind.

Architects who are deeply involved in computer-aided design have stated that one must learn to program the computer to build the conceptual framework for the creative process. We at CERL agree that an understanding of underlying graphics concepts is essential to the designer. Our research shows that giving students the freedom to explore an existing software program can result in the development of conceptual knowledge. Interviews also reveal that students can invent ways to meet individual objectives when "guided discovery" learning is encouraged.

series ACADIA
last changed 1999/01/01 18:23

_id 450c
authors Akin, Ömer
year 1990
title Computational Design Instruction: Toward a Pedagogy
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 302-316
summary The computer offers enormous potential both in and out of the classroom that is realized only in limited ways through the applications available to us today. In the early days of the computer it was generally argued that it would replace the architect. When this idea became obsolete, the prevailing opinion of proponents and opponents alike shifted to the notion of the computer as merely adding to present design capabilities. This idea is so ingrained in our thinking that we still speak of "aiding" design with computers. It is clear to those who grasp the real potential of this still new technology - as in the case of many other major technological innovations - that it continues to change the way we design, rather than to merely augment or replace human designers. In the classroom the computer has the potential to radically change three fundamental ingredients: student, instruction, and instructor. It is obvious that changes of this kind spell out a commensurate change in design pedagogy. If the computer is going to be more than a passive instrument in the design studio, then design pedagogy will have to be changed, fundamentally. While the practice of computing in the studio continues to be a significant I aspect of architectural education, articulation of viable pedagogy for use in the design studio is truly rare. In this paper the question of pedagogy in the CAD studio will be considered first. Then one particular design studio taught during Fall 1988 at Carnegie Mellon University will be presented. Finally, we shall return to issues of change in the student, instruction, and instructor, as highlighted by this particular experience.
series CAAD Futures
email oa04@andrew.cmu.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id c6d5
authors Balachandran, M.B.
year 1988
title A Model for Knowledge-Based Design Optimization [PhD dissertation]
source Dept. of Architectural Science, University of Sydney
summary Unpublished. CADLINE has abstract only. This dissertation is concerned with developments in design decision methodologies applied to computer-aided design. The major aim of this research was to design and develop a knowledge-based computer-aided optimization system that has the ability to emulate some of the human performances in design decision processes. The issues and problems involved in developing a knowledge-based system for design optimization are addressed. A knowledge-based methodology to aid design optimization formulation is investigated. The major issues considered include representation of design description, the variety of knowledge required for the formulation process, recognizing optimization formulations, and selection of appropriate algorithms. It is demonstrated that the knowledge-based control of numerical processes leads to efficient and improved decisions in design. In developing knowledge-based systems for computer-aided decision applications an effective human-machine interface is essential. A model for knowledge-based graphical interfaces is proposed. This model incorporates knowledge for graphics interpretation, extraction of features of graphics objects and identification of prototypical objects. An experimental system developed in Prolog and C is demonstrated in the domain of structural design. The system shows one way of combining knowledge-based systems technology with computer graphics and indicates how knowledge-based interfaces improve the system's interactive capabilities. Finally, the system, OPTIMA, is presented. The system is designed as an integrated knowledge-based decision system using frames, rule bases, menu inputs, algebraic computation and optimization algorithms. The system has been written in LISP, Prolog and C and implemented on SUN Microsystems workstations. The performance of the system is demonstrated using two example problems from the domains of structural and architectural design respectively. The knowledge-based approach to design optimization is shown to be considerably easier and more efficient than those using conventional programs.
keywords Knowledge Base, Systems, CAD, Representation, Design, Frames, Computer Graphics, User Interface, Decision Making
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id caadria2011_061
id caadria2011_061
authors Celani, Gabriela; José P. Duarte and Carlos V. Vaz
year 2011
title The gardens revisited: The link between technology, meaning and logic?
source Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / The University of Newcastle, Australia 27-29 April 2011, pp. 643-652
summary The objective of this paper is to compare the computational concepts present in three books published by Mitchell between 1987 and 1990: The art of computer-graphics programming (1987), which has Robin Liggett and Thomas Kvan as co-authors, The logic of architecture (1990), probably his most influential work, and The poetics of gardens (1988), which has Charles Moore and William Turnbull as coauthors. By looking at the concepts that are presented in the three books and establishing a comparison between them, we expect to show that The poetics of Gardens should not be seen as a detour from Mitchell´s line of research, but rather as a key piece for understanding the relationship between technology, meaning and logic in his very coherent body of work.
keywords Computational design concepts; technology; meaning; logic
series CAADRIA
email celani@fec.unicamp.br
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id 819d
authors Eiteljorg, H.
year 1988
title Computing Assisted Drafting and Design: new technologies for old problems
source Center for the study of architecture, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania
summary In past issues of the Newsletter, George Tressel and I have written about virtual reality and renderings. We have each discussed particular problems with the technology, and both of us mentioned how compelling computer visualizations can be. In my article ("Virtual Reality and Rendering," February, 1995, Vol. 7, no. 4), I indicated my concerns about the quality of the scholarship and the level of detail used in making renderings or virtual worlds. Mr. Tressel (in "Visualizing the Ancient World," November, 1996, Vol. IX, no. 3) wrote about the need to distinguish between real and hypothetical parts of a visualization, the need to differentiate materials, and the difficulties involved in creating the visualizations (some of which were included in the Newsletter in black-and-white and on the Web in color). I am returning to this topic now, in part because the quality of the images available to us is improving so fast and in part because it seems now that neither Mr. Tressel nor I treated all the issues raised by the use of high-quality visualizations. The quality may be illustrated by new images of the older propylon that were created by Mr. Tressel (Figs. 1 - 3); these images are significantly more realistic than the earlier ones, but they do not represent the ultimate in quality, since they were created on a personal computer.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 85b9
authors Haglund, Bruce and Sumption, Brian
year 1988
title Toward a Computer Integrated Design Studio
source Computing in Design Education [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Ann Arbor (Michigan / USA) 28-30 October 1988, pp. 291-299
summary The formation of our vision for a computer-integrated design studio is outlined. The ways in which our experience in teaching with computers in a variety of settings and in developing our own computer tools has contributed to this is explained. The next step in actualization of our vision is the creation of a design curriculum and a computerized studio which support the integration of this new technology into the traditions of architectural education.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/01/01 18:37

_id cf2005_2_22_193
id cf2005_2_22_193
authors HSIEH Chun-Yu
year 2005
title A Preliminary Model of Creativity in Digital Development of Architecture
source Learning from the Past a Foundation for the Future [Special publication of papers presented at the CAAD futures 2005 conference held at the Vienna University of Technology / ISBN 3-85437-276-0], Vienna (Austria) 20-22 June 2005, pp. 63-74
summary Research into the various forms and processes of creativity has been a topic of great interest in the design field for many years. Part of the view is personality, and part of the answer is behavioural. Creativity is also explained through the identity of social values and the whole creative process. This paper proposes to use the interacting creativity model of Csikszentmihalyi as the basic structure, to establish the major criteria of testing creativity in the digital era. This paper demonstrates two facts: first, it confirms that creativity in architecture is truly valuable in the digital age; second, it proves that in the digital era, individuals, cultures and societies are all under the impact of digital technologies, a fact which transforms the model of interacting creativity proposed by Csikszentmihalyi in 1988 into a new model of digital interacting creativity.
keywords creativity, digital media, society, culture
series CAAD Futures
email ch0315@arch.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/05/05 05:06

_id c70a
authors Lindgren, Christina Axelsson
year 1988
title Forest Visual Variation as a Recreative Force
source Knowledge-Based Design in Architecture, Tips-88 (pre-proceedings) (1988 : Otaniemi). editors. John S Gero and T. Oksala. Espoo, Finland: Research Institute for Built Environment, Helsinki University of Technology, Department of Architecture, pp. 149-157. includes bibliography.
summary --- A revised version of this paper has been published in the Acta Polytechnica Scandinavica series. The article presents some findings concerning the importance of forest visual variation and the possibilities to create a Forest Visual Opportunity Spectrum. In the light of suggestions on theory of recreation and of the actual multiple use planning situation of forests, the possibilities and limits of empirical studies as a tool to receive knowledge of visual aspects of forests are discussed
keywords planning, knowledge, applications, landscape
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id b0f7
authors Martens, Bob
year 1992
title A FINISHING TOUCH TO THE FULL-SCALE LABORATORY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY IN VIENNA
source Proceedings of the 4rd European Full-Scale Modelling Conference / Lausanne (Switzerland) 9-12 September 1992, Part A, pp. 7-14
summary The development planning of the full-scale laboratory at the Vienna University of Technology was already presented to the third E.F.A. Conference in Lund (1990). Exchange of experience has greatly encouraged us to take all measures necessary for an immediate provisional operation. Working experience was of considerable significance regarding reconstruction work having repeatedly been postponed ever since 1988. This paper deals with the Vienna full-scale laboratory in its ultimate form and all the equipment designed therefore. Summarizingly, the further measures for operation are being considered.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
email b.martens@tuwien.ac.at
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 13:30

_id c7e9
authors Maver, T.W.
year 2002
title Predicting the Past, Remembering the Future
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 2-3
summary Charlas Magistrales 2There never has been such an exciting moment in time in the extraordinary 30 year history of our subject area, as NOW,when the philosophical theoretical and practical issues of virtuality are taking centre stage.The PastThere have, of course, been other defining moments during these exciting 30 years:• the first algorithms for generating building layouts (circa 1965).• the first use of Computer graphics for building appraisal (circa 1966).• the first integrated package for building performance appraisal (circa 1972).• the first computer generated perspective drawings (circa 1973).• the first robust drafting systems (circa 1975).• the first dynamic energy models (circa 1982).• the first photorealistic colour imaging (circa 1986).• the first animations (circa 1988)• the first multimedia systems (circa 1995), and• the first convincing demonstrations of virtual reality (circa 1996).Whereas the CAAD community has been hugely inventive in the development of ICT applications to building design, it hasbeen woefully remiss in its attempts to evaluate the contribution of those developments to the quality of the built environmentor to the efficiency of the design process. In the absence of any real evidence, one can only conjecture regarding the realbenefits which fall, it is suggested, under the following headings:• Verisimilitude: The extraordinary quality of still and animated images of the formal qualities of the interiors and exteriorsof individual buildings and of whole neighborhoods must surely give great comfort to practitioners and their clients thatwhat is intended, formally, is what will be delivered, i.e. WYSIWYG - what you see is what you get.• Sustainability: The power of «first-principle» models of the dynamic energetic behaviour of buildings in response tochanging diurnal and seasonal conditions has the potential to save millions of dollars and dramatically to reduce thedamaging environmental pollution created by badly designed and managed buildings.• Productivity: CAD is now a multi-billion dollar business which offers design decision support systems which operate,effectively, across continents, time-zones, professions and companies.• Communication: Multi-media technology - cheap to deliver but high in value - is changing the way in which we canexplain and understand the past and, envisage and anticipate the future; virtual past and virtual future!MacromyopiaThe late John Lansdown offered the view, in his wonderfully prophetic way, that ...”the future will be just like the past, onlymore so...”So what can we expect the extraordinary trajectory of our subject area to be?To have any chance of being accurate we have to have an understanding of the phenomenon of macromyopia: thephenomenon exhibitted by society of greatly exaggerating the immediate short-term impact of new technologies (particularlythe information technologies) but, more importantly, seriously underestimating their sustained long-term impacts - socially,economically and intellectually . Examples of flawed predictions regarding the the future application of information technologiesinclude:• The British Government in 1880 declined to support the idea of a national telephonic system, backed by the argumentthat there were sufficient small boys in the countryside to run with messages.• Alexander Bell was modest enough to say that: «I am not boasting or exaggerating but I believe, one day, there will bea telephone in every American city».• Tom Watson, in 1943 said: «I think there is a world market for about 5 computers».• In 1977, Ken Olssop of Digital said: «There is no reason for any individuals to have a computer in their home».The FutureJust as the ascent of woman/man-kind can be attributed to her/his capacity to discover amplifiers of the modest humancapability, so we shall discover how best to exploit our most important amplifier - that of the intellect. The more we know themore we can figure; the more we can figure the more we understand; the more we understand the more we can appraise;the more we can appraise the more we can decide; the more we can decide the more we can act; the more we can act themore we can shape; and the more we can shape, the better the chance that we can leave for future generations a trulysustainable built environment which is fit-for-purpose, cost-beneficial, environmentally friendly and culturally significactCentral to this aspiration will be our understanding of the relationship between real and virtual worlds and how to moveeffortlessly between them. We need to be able to design, from within the virtual world, environments which may be real ormay remain virtual or, perhaps, be part real and part virtual.What is certain is that the next 30 years will be every bit as exciting and challenging as the first 30 years.
series SIGRADI
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id ec36
authors Meurant, Robert C.
year 1988
title Some Metaphysical Considerations Raised by the Computer-Generated Electronic Environment
source Computing in Design Education [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Ann Arbor (Michigan / USA) 28-30 October 1988, pp. 59-70
summary The effects of the computer on the designer are profound, and affect design methodology and habitation. The computer-aided designer experiences within the electronic environment a freedom from certain important constraints of real-world modelling of physical reality. Electronic configurations are not bound by the constructional, material, or structural constraints operating in the physical world. This freedom is liberating, in that the imagination is given a powerful tool with which to develop external representations of ideal environments. But there is also the potential of destructive tendencies. Is the increasing sophistication of external tools of the imagination at the expense of the ability of the individual to master the internal imagination - are we externalizing at the price of inner vision? There is also the possibility of greater alienation from the physical world. We loose the tactile sensitivity, and the spatial and structural intuition with which we draw and make physical models. These are essential parts of the design of the physical environment.

We are left on the horns of a dilemma. The rapid response and exciting images of the computergenerated video environment suggest we are entering an era when architecture itself becomes electronic. The physical built-form recedes in importance, and may even become redundant. But we must also ask: Are we entering a post-computer age? Will we realize the potential profundity of our innate human biocomputers - to the point where we renounce the hard technology of the material for the soft technology of consciousness?

series ACADIA
last changed 1999/01/01 18:24

_id 0350
authors Norman, Richard B.
year 1988
title The Role of Color in Architectural Pedagogy Computation as a Creative Tool
source Computing in Design Education [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Ann Arbor (Michigan / USA) 28-30 October 1988, pp. 217-223
summary From among the possible ways of introducing graphic computing in the design studio, it is customary to develop an argument from point, to line, to shape and finally to colon The logic of this process is undeniable as technology and perhaps as history, but it should be questioned as pedagogy. A designer, tuned to the visual focus of the studio and searching for creative self-expression is not overly stimulated by drawing lines, at first laboriously, in imitation of what he can do by hand.

Using color is among the more difficult of traditional studio chores -- it is not difficult on a computer. The manipulation of color can be a simple task if one is given reasonable software and a good graphic computer. Once introduced to students, the techniques for coloring elements on a computer find acceptance as a design tool. Methods can be quickly found for modifying the perception of space and form through the use of colon

Modern architecture is rooted in the study of color as a generator of form. This idea permeated the teachings of its founders. Yet modernist concern for color has over time evolved into a pedagogy of space and form at the exclusion of color, so much so that the modern movement today stands accused by its detractors as being formed in many shades of grey.

Modern architecture is not grey! This paper will illustrate how, using the modern graphic computer, color may be introduced to the studio and discovered as an element of design and as the substance of architectural form giving.

series ACADIA
email rnorman@CLEMSON.EDU
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

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