CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id diss_howe
id diss_howe
authors Howe, Alan Scott
year 1988
title A new paradigm for life-cycle management of kit-of-parts building systems
summary The research described in this dissertation brings together various technologies in manufacturing and information management and suggests a new paradigm for the design, manufacture, and lifetime use of artifacts using kit-of-parts systems and rule-based assembly. The questions are asked: If architects, designers, and users were given direct online connection to real-time design information sources and fabrication processes, and have the ability to monitor and control the current state of designed objects throughout the objects' lifetime, how would the entire life-cycle of a product be affected, and how would design processes change? During the course of the research described in this dissertation, a series of simulations and experiments were conducted which produced a computer-based simulated design, manufacture, and use environment wherein these questions could begin to be answered. A kit-of-parts model building system was devised which could be used to design model buildings in virtual form by downloading virtual representations of the components from the Internet and assembling them into a desired form. The virtual model building could then be used to order the manufacture of real components online, and remotely controlled robots used to assemble the actual building on the site. Through the use of special hardware manufactured into the components, real-time remote monitoring and control of the current state of the finished model building was affected during the building's lifetime. The research establishes the feasibility of an online life-cycle environment where a virtual representation of an artifact is created and used to both manufacture a real-world counterpart and also monitor and control the current state of the real-world object. The state-of-the-art of pertinent technologies were explored through literature searches and experiments. Data representation, rule-based design techniques, robotics, and digital control were studied, and a series of design principles established which lend themselves toward a life-cycle management paradigm. Several case studies are cited which show how the design principles and life-cycle management environment can be applied to real buildings and other artifacts such as vehicles and marine structures. Ideas for expanded research on the life-cycle management paradigm are cited.  

series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/11/20 18:57

_id 8c6d
authors Brooks, H. Gordon
year 1988
title A New Communication Model for Architecture Using Video and 3D Computer Animated Graphics
source Computing in Design Education [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Ann Arbor (Michigan / USA) 28-30 October 1988, pp. 263-274
summary The University of Arkansas School of Architecture has produced a half-hour television program describing Richard Meier's Atheneum in New Harmony, Indiana. The program uses an analysis technique developed by Dr. Geoffrey Baker, RIBA. The treatment for the material is a combination of on- site video and computer generated 3D animated graphics. An instrument was developed to evaluate the video and its 3D graphics. Based on analysis of the test data several conclusions are apparent. Students believe the video to be very helpful in understanding this building. This video appears to be paced too quickly for understanding in one viewing. Repetitive viewings of the video are helpful in understanding the content. Some students are able to understand principles presented visually better than those presented verbally, but best learning happens when information is reinforced visually and verbally.

series ACADIA
last changed 1999/01/01 18:35

_id 8403
authors Mitchell, William J., Liggett, Robin S. and Tan, Milton
year 1988
title The Topdown System and its use in Teaching - An Exploration of Structured, Knowledge-Based Design
source Computing in Design Education [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Ann Arbor (Michigan / USA) 28-30 October 1988, pp. 251-262
summary The Topdown System is a shell for use in developing simple (but we believe non-trivial) knowledge-based CAD systems. It provides a data structure, graphics capabilities, a sophisticated user interface, and programming tools for rapid construction of knowledge bases. Implementation is for Macintosh, Macintosh II, IBM PC/AT, PS12, and Sun workstations.

The basic idea is that of top-down design - beginning with a very abstract representation, and elaborating that, in step-by-step fashion, into a complete and detailed representation. The basic operations are real-time parametric variation of designs (using the mouse and slide bar) and substitution of objects. Essentially, then, a knowledge-base in Topdown implements a kind of parametric shape grammar.

The main applications of Topdown are in introductory teaching of CAD, and (since it provides a very quick and easy way for a user to develop detailed geometric models) to provide a uniform front-end for a variety of different applications. The shell, and some example knowledge-bases, are publicly available.

This paper discusses the principles of the Topdown Shell, the implementation of knowledge bases within it, and a variety of practical design applications.

series ACADIA
email wjm@MIT.EDU
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 696c
authors Beheshti, M. and Monroy, M.
year 1988
title Requirements for Developing an Information System for Architecture
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 149-170
summary This paper discusses possibilities of developing new tools for architectural design. It argues that architects should meet the challenge of information technology and computer-based design techniques. One such attempt has been the first phase of the development of an architectural design information system (ADIS), also an architectural design decision support system. The system should benefit from the developments of the artificial intelligence to enable the architect to have access to information required to carry out design work. In other words: the system functions as a huge on-line electronic library of architecture, containing up-to-date architectural design information, literature, documents, etc. At the same time, the system offers necessary design aids such as computer programs for design process, drawing programs, evaluation programs, cost calculation programs, etc. The system also provides data communication between the architect and members of the design coalition team. This is found to be of vital importance in the architectural design process, because it can enable the architect to fit in changes, brought about in the project by different parties. Furthermore, they will be able, to oversee promptly the consequences of changes or decisions in a comprehensive manner. The system will offer advantages over the more commonly applied microcomputer based CAAD and IGDM (integrated graphics database management) systems, or even larger systems available to an architect. Computer programs as well as hardware change rapidly and become obsolete. Therefore, unrelenting investment pressure to up-date both software and hardware exists. The financial burden of this is heavy, in particular for smaller architectural practices (for instance an architect working for himself or herself and usually with few or no permanent staff). ADIS, as an on-line architectural design aid, is constantly up-dated by its own organisation. This task will be co-ordinated by the ADIS data- base administrator (DBA). The processing possibilities of the system are faster, therefore more complex processing tasks can be handled. Complicated large graphic data files, can be easily retrieved and manipulated by ADIS, a large system. In addition, the cost of an on-line system will be much less than any other system. The system is based on one model of the architectural design process, but will eventually contain a variety of design models, as it develops. The development of the system will be an evolutionary process, making use of its users' feed-back system. ADIS is seen as a step towards full automation of architectural design practices. Apart from being an architectural design support system, ADIS will assist the architect in his/her administrative and organisational activities.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 0803
authors Jabri, Marwan A. and Skellern, David J.
year 1988
title Automatic Floorplan Design Using PIAF
source August, 1988. 36 p. : ill. tables
summary This paper presents PIAF (a Package for Intelligent and Algorithmic Floorplanning), developed at Sydney University Electrical Engineering (SUEE) for use in custom integrated circuit design. Floorplanning plays a crucial role in the design of custom integrated circuits. When design is approached in a top-down fashion, the function to be implemented on silicon is first decomposed in a conceptual phase into a Functional Block Diagram (FBD). This FBD has a 'blocks and buses' structure where blocks represent sub- functions and buses represent the interconnections that carry data and other information between blocks. The decomposition of the function into sub-functions is hierarchical and aims at reducing the complexity of the design problem. When the FBD is known, the floorplanning process may be performed. When this task is performed manually, the designer searches for a relative placement of the blocks and for an area and shape for each block to minimize the overall chip layout area while at the same time meeting design constraints such as design tool limitations, interconnection characteristics and technological design rules. PIAF is a knowledge-based system (KBS) that has been developed at SUEE during the last four years. It relies on a strategy that partitions the floorplanning task in a way that allows efficient use of heuristics and specialized design knowledge in the generation and pruning of the solution space. This paper presents the operation of PIAF and discusses several implementation issues including; KBS structure, knowledge representation, knowledge acquisition, current context memory design, design quality factors and explanation facility. This paper uses a running example to present the operation of each PIAF's KBS-based solving phases
keywords knowledge, representation, knowledge acquisition, electrical engineering, design, integrated circuits, knowledge base, systems, layout, synthesis
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 4904
authors Lapre, L. and Hudson, P.
year 1988
title Talking about Design: Supporting the Design Process with Different Goals
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 127-136
summary The architectural design process has more than one participant. Each participant has his own way of approaching the information embedded in a design. In the future the CAAD systems of these participants must be able to communicate and exchange information. For a communication of this kind there must be a common ground, a frame of reference, in which these different points of view can be expressed. This frame of reference or model must support participants accessing the same information with different objectives and for different purposes. We shall propose such a model based on research results obtained by the analysis of architectural knowledge and designs. The model incorporates certain aspects drawn from AI.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id c7e9
authors Maver, T.W.
year 2002
title Predicting the Past, Remembering the Future
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 2-3
summary Charlas Magistrales 2There never has been such an exciting moment in time in the extraordinary 30 year history of our subject area, as NOW,when the philosophical theoretical and practical issues of virtuality are taking centre stage.The PastThere have, of course, been other defining moments during these exciting 30 years:• the first algorithms for generating building layouts (circa 1965).• the first use of Computer graphics for building appraisal (circa 1966).• the first integrated package for building performance appraisal (circa 1972).• the first computer generated perspective drawings (circa 1973).• the first robust drafting systems (circa 1975).• the first dynamic energy models (circa 1982).• the first photorealistic colour imaging (circa 1986).• the first animations (circa 1988)• the first multimedia systems (circa 1995), and• the first convincing demonstrations of virtual reality (circa 1996).Whereas the CAAD community has been hugely inventive in the development of ICT applications to building design, it hasbeen woefully remiss in its attempts to evaluate the contribution of those developments to the quality of the built environmentor to the efficiency of the design process. In the absence of any real evidence, one can only conjecture regarding the realbenefits which fall, it is suggested, under the following headings:• Verisimilitude: The extraordinary quality of still and animated images of the formal qualities of the interiors and exteriorsof individual buildings and of whole neighborhoods must surely give great comfort to practitioners and their clients thatwhat is intended, formally, is what will be delivered, i.e. WYSIWYG - what you see is what you get.• Sustainability: The power of «first-principle» models of the dynamic energetic behaviour of buildings in response tochanging diurnal and seasonal conditions has the potential to save millions of dollars and dramatically to reduce thedamaging environmental pollution created by badly designed and managed buildings.• Productivity: CAD is now a multi-billion dollar business which offers design decision support systems which operate,effectively, across continents, time-zones, professions and companies.• Communication: Multi-media technology - cheap to deliver but high in value - is changing the way in which we canexplain and understand the past and, envisage and anticipate the future; virtual past and virtual future!MacromyopiaThe late John Lansdown offered the view, in his wonderfully prophetic way, that ...”the future will be just like the past, onlymore so...”So what can we expect the extraordinary trajectory of our subject area to be?To have any chance of being accurate we have to have an understanding of the phenomenon of macromyopia: thephenomenon exhibitted by society of greatly exaggerating the immediate short-term impact of new technologies (particularlythe information technologies) but, more importantly, seriously underestimating their sustained long-term impacts - socially,economically and intellectually . Examples of flawed predictions regarding the the future application of information technologiesinclude:• The British Government in 1880 declined to support the idea of a national telephonic system, backed by the argumentthat there were sufficient small boys in the countryside to run with messages.• Alexander Bell was modest enough to say that: «I am not boasting or exaggerating but I believe, one day, there will bea telephone in every American city».• Tom Watson, in 1943 said: «I think there is a world market for about 5 computers».• In 1977, Ken Olssop of Digital said: «There is no reason for any individuals to have a computer in their home».The FutureJust as the ascent of woman/man-kind can be attributed to her/his capacity to discover amplifiers of the modest humancapability, so we shall discover how best to exploit our most important amplifier - that of the intellect. The more we know themore we can figure; the more we can figure the more we understand; the more we understand the more we can appraise;the more we can appraise the more we can decide; the more we can decide the more we can act; the more we can act themore we can shape; and the more we can shape, the better the chance that we can leave for future generations a trulysustainable built environment which is fit-for-purpose, cost-beneficial, environmentally friendly and culturally significactCentral to this aspiration will be our understanding of the relationship between real and virtual worlds and how to moveeffortlessly between them. We need to be able to design, from within the virtual world, environments which may be real ormay remain virtual or, perhaps, be part real and part virtual.What is certain is that the next 30 years will be every bit as exciting and challenging as the first 30 years.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id ed0f
authors Moshe, R. and Shaviv, E.
year 1988
title Natural Language Interface for CAAD System
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 137-148
summary This work explores issues involved in the development of a natural interface for man-machine dialogue in architectural design processes. A hand-touch on an interactive surface is suggested as the best natural-language interface for architectural CAD systems. To allow the development of a rich range of hand-touch natural-language for communicating information and commands to the computer, it is proposed to develop a new type of a touch-panel, for which a set of specifications is presented. A conceptual design of an architectural workstation, having the described touch-panel, is presented. This workstation is characterized by the integration of the entire range of control and communication facilities required for any architectural task into a single interactive unit. The conceptual model for this workstation is the standard size drawing board, on which the architect is accustomed to spread documents, drawings, books and tools, shuffle them around and interchange them freely by using the natural-language interface developed in this work. The potential of the suggested hand-touch natural-language and the proposed workstation are demonstrated by a case-study.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id ca71
authors Noble, Douglas and Rittel, Horst W.J.
year 1988
title Issue-Based Information Systems for Design
source Computing in Design Education [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Ann Arbor (Michigan / USA) 28-30 October 1988, pp. 275-286
summary The understanding of planning and design as a process of argumentation (of the designer with himself or with others) has led to the concept of IBIS (Issue-Based Information Systems). The elements of IBIS are Issues, each of which are associated with alternative positions. These in turn are associated with arguments which support or object to a given position (or another argument). In the course of the treatment of issues, new issues come up which are treated likewise.

Issue-Based Information Systems are used as a means of widening the coverage of a problem. By encouraging a greater degree of participation, particularly in the earlier phases of the process, the designer is increasing the opportunity that difficulties of his proposed solution, unseen by him, will be discovered by others. Since the problem observed by a designer can always be treated as merely a symptom of another higher-level problem, the argumentative approach also increases the likelyhood that someone will attempt to attack the problem from this point of view. Another desirable characteristic of the Issue-Based Information System is that it helps to make the design process 'transparent'. Transparency here refers tO the ability of observers as well as participants to trace back the process of decision-making.

This paper offers a description of a computer-supported IBIS (written in 'C' using the 'XWindows' user interface), including a discussion of the usefulness of IBIS in design, as well as comments on the role of the computer in IBIS implementation, and related developments in computing.

series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 98bd
authors Pea, R.
year 1993
title Practices of Distributed Intelligence and Designs for Education
source Distributed Cognitions, edited by G. Salomon. New York, NY: CambridgeUniversity Press
summary v Knowledge is commonly socially constructed, through collaborative efforts... v Intelligence may also be distributed for use in designed artifacts as diverse as physical tools, representations such as diagrams, and computer-user interfaces to complex tasks. v Leont'ev 1978 for activity theory that argues forcibly for the centrality of people-in-action, activity systems, as units of analysis for deepening our understanding of thinking. v Intelligence is distributed: the resources that shape and enable activity are distributed across people, environments, and situations. v Intelligence is accomplished rather than possessed. v Affordance refers to the perceived and actual properties of a thing, primarily those functional properties that determine how the thing could possibly be used. v Norman 1988 on design and psychology - the psychology of everyday things" v We deploy effort-saving strategies in recognition of their cognitive economy and diminished opportunity for error. v The affordances of artifacts may be more or less difficult to convey to novice users of these artifacts in the activities to which they contribute distributed intelligence. v Starts with Norman's seven stages of action Ø Forming a goal; an intention § Task desire - clear goal and intention - an action and a means § Mapping desire - unable to map goal back to action § Circumstantial desire - no specific goal or intention - opportunistic approach to potential new goal § Habitual desire - familiar course of action - rapidly cycle all seven stages of action v Differentiates inscriptional systems from representational or symbol systems because inscriptional systems are completely external, while representational or symbol systems have been used in cognitive science as mental constructs. v The situated properties of everyday cognition are highly inventive in exploiting features of the physical and social situation as resources for performing a task, thereby avoiding the need for mental symbol manipulations unless they are required by that task. v Explicit recognition of the intelligence represented and representable in design, specifically in designed artifacts that play important roles in human activities. v Once intelligence is designed into the affordances properties of artifacts, it both guides and constrains the likely contributions of that artifact to distributed intelligence in activity. v Culturally valued designs for distributed intelligence will change over time, especially as new technology becomes associated with a task domain. v If we treat distributed intelligence in action as the scientific unit of analysis for research and theory on learning and reasoning... Ø What is distributed? Ø What constraints govern the dynamics of such distributions in different time scales? Ø Through what reconfigurations of distributed intelligence might the performance of an activity system improve over time? v Intelligence is manifest in activity and distributed in nature. v Intelligent activities the real world... are often collaborative, depend on resources beyond an individual's long-term memory, and require the use of information-handling tools... v Wartofsky 1979 - the artifact is to cultural evolution what the gene is to biological evolution - the vehicle of information across generations. v Systems of activity - involving persons, environment, tools - become the locus of developmental investigation. v Disagrees with Salomon et al.'s entity-oriented approach - a language of containers holding things. v Human cognition aspires to efficiency in distributing intelligence - across individuals, environment, external symbolic representations, tools, and artifacts - as a means of coping with the complexity of activities we often cal "mental." "
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ea5c
authors Purcell, P.
year 1988
title The Role of Media Technology in the Design Studio
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 179-187
summary This paper refers to a program of work, which aims to integrate a range of computer-based multi-media technologies which has the overall goal of enhancing the processes of education in the design studio. The individual projects describe the development of visual information systems and intelligent design systems. The framework of support for much of the work is Project Athena, a campus wide initiative to apply new technology towards enhancing the educational process project.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id aef1
authors Rosenman, M.A., Gero, J.S. and Coyne, R.D. (et al)
year 1987
title SOLAREXPERT : A Prototype Expert System for Passive Solar Energy Design in Housing
source Canberra: Aust NZ Solar Energy Society, 1987. vol.II: pp. 361-370. Also published in People and Technology - Sun, Climate and Building, edited by V. Szokolay, Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, 1988
summary Passive solar energy design is not an exact science in which a set of analytical procedures can be followed to produce results. Rather it depends heavily on subjective parameters and experience collected over time which is heuristic by nature. At present this knowledge is available in books but while this knowledge is comprehensive, it is unstructured and not always easy to make use of. A computer-based system allows for flexible interactive dialogue and for the incorporation of analytical procedures which may be required. This paper describes work on SOLAREXPERT, a prototype expert system to aid designers in passive solar energy design for single dwellings. The system operates at a strategic level to provide basic advice on the form of construction and types of passive solar systems and at a spatial zone level to provide more detailed advice on sizes and materials. It allows for modification of the information entered so that users may explore several possibilities
keywords applications, experience, housing, expert systems, energy, design, architecture
series CADline
last changed 2003/05/17 08:17

_id 0e42
authors Rouse, W., Geddes, N. and Curry, R.
year 1998
title An Architecture for Intelligent Interfaces: Outline of an Approach to Supporting Operators of Complex Systems Articles
source Human-Computer Interaction 1987-1988 v.3 n.2 pp. 87-122
summary The conceptual design of a comprehensive support system for operators of complex systems is presented. Key functions within the support system architecture include information management, error monitoring, and adaptive aiding. One of the central knowledge sources underlying this functionality is an operator model that involves a combination of algorithmic and symbolic models for assessing and predicting an operator's activities, awareness, intentions, resources, and performance. Functional block diagrams are presented for the overall architecture as well as the key elements within this architecture. A variety of difficult design issues are discussed, and ongoing efforts aimed at resolving these issues are noted.
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id 47e7
authors Segal, Mark and Sequin, Carlo H.
year 1988
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. January, 1988. vol. 8: pp. 53-67 : ill. some col. includes bibliography
summary The article describes an algorithm for partitioning intersecting polyhedrons into disjoint pieces and, more generally, removing intersections from sets of planar polygons embedded in three space. Polygons, or faces, need not be convex and may contain multiple holes. Intersections are removed by considering pairs of faces and slicing the faces apart along their regions of intersection. To reduce the number of face pairs examined, bounding boxes around groups of faces are checked for overlap. The intersection algorithm also computes set theoretic operations on polyhedrons. Information gathered during face cutting is used to determine which portions of the original boundaries may be present in the result of an intersection, a union, or a difference of solids. The method includes provisions to detect, and in some cases overcome, the effects of numerical inaccuracy on the topological decisions that the algorithm must make. The regions in which ambiguous results are possible are flagged so that the user can take appropriate action.
keywords geometric modeling, computer graphics, objects, programming, hidden surfaces, hidden lines, business, practice, systems, user interface, UNIX
series CADline
type normal paper
last changed 2005/10/05 05:39

_id fbe9
authors Sharit, Joseph and Cuomo, Donna L.
year 1988
title A Cognitively Based Methodology for Evaluating Human Performance in the Computer-Aided Design Task Domain
source Behaviour and Information Technology 1988 v.7 n.4 p.373-397
summary This article describes a methodology for evaluating human performance in the computer aided design (CAD) task environment. The methodology is based primarily on cognitive theoretic frameworks that are consistent with processes presumed to underlie human design activities. The motivation for its development stems from rapid software and hardware advances in CAD systems and our relative lack of understanding of how these enhancements affect human design performance for (1) fundamentally different types of tasks and (2) different levels of complexity for a particular task. This methodology is currently being applied to computer aided architectural design, an area where artificial intelligence (AI), enhanced geometric modelling and other system features are being debated in terms of their usefulness in aiding the human's design activities.
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id a81e
authors Van Andel, Joost
year 1988
title Expert Systems in Environmental Psychology
source JAPS10 conference. 1988. includes bibliography
summary The knowledge gathered through research in environmental psychology is not optimally used by designers and other people working in applied settings such as politicians and civil servants. In this paper a number of causes and possible improvements of this situation are discussed. Two aspects are highlighted in particular: the structure and the presentation of information. A recent development to present knowledge from environmental psychology is the use of computerized information systems or expert systems. Limitations and possibilities of expert systems in general and for environmental psychology in particular are discussed. The issue is illustrated with parts of an expert system on the design of children's play environments using the pattern language as a structure to present information efficiently and attractively to designers
keywords expert systems, design process, psychology, patterns, languages
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id 6a1d
authors Woodbury, Robert F.
year 1988
title The knowledge based representation and manipulation of geometry
source Carnegie Mellon University
summary An approach to the integration of geometric information in knowledge based systems is described as an architecture for geometric reasoning. The general requirements for this integration arise from the need for rich geometry representations in engineering domains and the conflicting demands of current geometric modelling and knowledge based systems. Four concepts are used as a basis: (1) Classes of spatial sets, which act by inheritance as a means for incremental definition by specialization, (2) Features, which denote evaluated portions of a geometric model, (3) Abstractions, which provide partial representations of geometric objects, and (4) Constraints through which spatial relationships are expressed. These four concepts combine in a synergistic manner to define the complete architecture. A prototype implementation of the architecture, built using object oriented programming techniques and a boundary based solid modeller, has been achieved and demonstrated through examples in the domains of robot task planning and automotive parts design.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 6ca4
authors Woodbury, Robert F. and Oppenheim, Irving R.
year 1988
title An Approach to Geometric Reasoning
source 20 p. : ill. Pittsburgh, PA: Engineering Design Research Center, CMU, June, 1988. EDRC-48-06-88. includes bibliography
summary An approach to the integration of geometric information in knowledge based CAD systems is described as an architecture for geometric reasoning. The general requirements for this integration arise from the need for rich geometry representations in engineering domains and the conflicting demands of current geometric modelling and knowledge based systems. Four concepts are used as a basis: (1) Classes of spatial sets, which act by inheritance as a means for incremental definition by specialization; (2) features, which denote evaluated portions of a geometric model; (3) abstractions, which provide partial representations of geometric objects; and (4) constraints through which spatial relationships are expressed. These four concepts combine in a synergistic manner to define the complete architecture. A prototype implementation of the architecture, built using object oriented programming techniques and a boundary based solid modeler, has been achieved and demonstrated. In this paper each of the concepts and their integration into a whole are described
keywords geometric modeling, knowledge base, systems, constraints, design, knowledge, architecture, methods, reasoning, integration
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 11cb
id 11cb
authors Oguzhan Özcan
year 2004
source Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference of Mathematics & Design, Special Edition of the Journal of Mathematics & Design, Volume 4, No.1, pp. 199-203.
summary Many people believe that mathematical thought is an essential element of creativity. The origin of this idea in art dates back to Plato. Asserting that aesthetics is based on logical and mathematical rules, Plato had noticed that geometrical forms were “forms of beauty” in his late years. Unlike his contemporaries, he had stressed that the use of geometrical forms such as lines, circles, planes, cubes in a composition would aid to form an aesthetics. The rational forms of Plato and the rules of geometry have formed the basis of antique Greek art, sculpture and architecture and have influenced art and design throughout history in varying degrees. This emphasis on geometry has continued in modern design, reflected prominently by Kandinsky’s geometric classifications .

Mathematics and especially geometry have found increasing application in the computer-based design environment of our day. The computer has become the central tool in the modern design environment, replacing the brush, the paints, the pens and pencils of the artist. However, if the artist does not master the internal working of this new tool thoroughly, he can neither develop nor express his creativity. If the designer merely learns how to use a computer-based tool, he risks producing designs that appear to be created by a computer. From this perspective, many design schools have included computer courses, which teach not only the use of application programs but also programming to modify and create computer-based tools.

In the current academic educational structure, different techniques are used to show the interrelationship of design and programming to students. One of the best examples in this area is an application program that attempts to teach the programming logic to design students in a simple way. One of the earliest examples of such programs is the Topdown Programming Shell developed by Mitchell, Liggett and Tan in 1988 . The Topdown system is an educational CAD tool for architectural applications, where students program in Pascal to create architectural objects. Different examples of such educational programs have appeared since then. A recent fine example of these is the book and program called “Design by Number” by John Maeda . In that book, students are led to learn programming by coding in a simple programming language to create various graphical primitives.

However, visual programming is based largely on geometry and one cannot master the use of computer-based tools without a through understanding of the mathematical principles involved. Therefore, in a model for design education, computer-based application and creativity classes should be supported by "mathematics for design" courses. The definition of such a course and its application in the multimedia design program is the subject of this article.

series other
type normal paper
last changed 2005/04/07 13:36

_id ed75
authors Ullman, Jeffrey D.
year 1988
title Principles of Database and Knowledge-base Systems
source Computer Science Press, Maryland
summary This book goes into the details of database conception and use, it tells you everything on relational databases. from theory to the actual used algorithms.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

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