CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 161

_id 2a6e
authors McCullough, Malcolm
year 1988
title Representation in the Computer Aided Design Studio
source Computing in Design Education [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Ann Arbor (Michigan / USA) 28-30 October 1988, pp. 163-174
summary Application of commercial computer aided design systems to schematic design in a studio setting in a professionally oriented university provides the opportunity for observation of extensive use of CAD by designers with little or no orientation toward computing. Within a framework of studios intended to contrast media and highlight the issue of design representation, the most encouraging applications of computing have involved dynamic visual design representation. This paper presents a case study of three studios at the University of Texas at Austin together with commentary on the place of computing in this essentially artistic environment. It presents, in slide form, a body of aesthetically oriented CAD work which signals the spread of computer aided design out of the hands of researchers and into mainstream architectural design, where development of the visual and dynamic aspects of the medium may prove to be primary routes to improvement of itS power and acceptance. Much like a first design project, this paper then presents a lot of observations without yet much rigorous development of any one. It asks implicitly whether application of software constitutes research.

series ACADIA
email mmmc@umich.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id c6d5
authors Balachandran, M.B.
year 1988
title A Model for Knowledge-Based Design Optimization [PhD dissertation]
source Dept. of Architectural Science, University of Sydney
summary Unpublished. CADLINE has abstract only. This dissertation is concerned with developments in design decision methodologies applied to computer-aided design. The major aim of this research was to design and develop a knowledge-based computer-aided optimization system that has the ability to emulate some of the human performances in design decision processes. The issues and problems involved in developing a knowledge-based system for design optimization are addressed. A knowledge-based methodology to aid design optimization formulation is investigated. The major issues considered include representation of design description, the variety of knowledge required for the formulation process, recognizing optimization formulations, and selection of appropriate algorithms. It is demonstrated that the knowledge-based control of numerical processes leads to efficient and improved decisions in design. In developing knowledge-based systems for computer-aided decision applications an effective human-machine interface is essential. A model for knowledge-based graphical interfaces is proposed. This model incorporates knowledge for graphics interpretation, extraction of features of graphics objects and identification of prototypical objects. An experimental system developed in Prolog and C is demonstrated in the domain of structural design. The system shows one way of combining knowledge-based systems technology with computer graphics and indicates how knowledge-based interfaces improve the system's interactive capabilities. Finally, the system, OPTIMA, is presented. The system is designed as an integrated knowledge-based decision system using frames, rule bases, menu inputs, algebraic computation and optimization algorithms. The system has been written in LISP, Prolog and C and implemented on SUN Microsystems workstations. The performance of the system is demonstrated using two example problems from the domains of structural and architectural design respectively. The knowledge-based approach to design optimization is shown to be considerably easier and more efficient than those using conventional programs.
keywords Knowledge Base, Systems, CAD, Representation, Design, Frames, Computer Graphics, User Interface, Decision Making
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id a1a1
authors Cornick, T. and Bull, S.
year 1988
title Expert Systems for Detail Design in Building
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 117-126
summary Computer-Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) requires detailed knowledge of the construction of building elements to be effective as a complete design aid. Knowledge-based systems provide the tools for both encapsulating the "rules" of construction - i.e. the knowledge of good construction practice gained from experience - and relating those rules to geometric representation of building spaces and elements. The "rules" of construction are based upon the production and performance implications of building elements and how these satisfy various functional criteria. These building elements in turn may be related to construction materials, components and component assemblies. This paper presents two prototype knowledge-based systems, one dealing with the external envelope and the other with the internal space division of buildings. Each is "component specific" and is based upon its own model of the overall construction. This paper argues that "CAAD requires component specific knowledge bases and that integration of these knowledge bases into a knowledge-based design system for complete buildings can only occur if every knowledge base relates to a single coordinated construction model".
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id e7a8
authors Emde, H.
year 1988
title Geometrical Fundamentals for Design and Visualization of Spatial Objects
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 171-178
summary Every architectural object is a 3-dimensional entity of the human environment, haptically tangible and optically visible. During the architectural process of planning every object should be designed as a body and should be visualized in pictures. Thus the parts of construction get an order in space and the steps of construction get an order in time. The ideal planning object is a simulated anticipation of the real building object, which is to be performed later on. The possibility to relate the planning object immediately to the building object relies on the fact that they both have the same "geometry" This means: both can be described in the same geometric manner. Creating and visualizing spatial objects is based on geometrical fundamentals. Theoretical knowledge and practical control of these fundamentals is essential for the faultless construction and the realistic presentation of architectural objects. Therefore they have to be taught and learned thoroughly in the course of an architectural education. Geometrical design includes the forming of object- models (geometry of body boundaries), the structuring of object-hierarchies (geometry of body combinations) and the colouring of objects. Geometrical visualization includes controlling the processes of motion, of the bodies (when moving objects) and of the center of observation (when moving subjects) as well as the representation of 3-dimensional objects in 2- dimensional pictures and sequences of pictures. All these activities of architects are instances of geometrical information processing. They can be performed with the aid of computers. As for the computer this requires suitable hardware and software, as for the architect it requires suitable knowledge and capabilities to be able to talk about and to recall the perceivable objects and processes of the design with logic abstracts (language of geometry). In contrast to logical, numerical and textual informations the geometric informations concerning spatial objects are of much higher complexity. Usually these complexes of information are absorbed, processed and transmitted by the architect in a perceptive manner. The computer support in the field of geometry assumes that the processing of perceptions of the human consciousness can be converted by the computer as a framework of logical relations. Computer aided construction and representation require both suited devices for haptical and optical communication and suitable programs in particular.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 4086
authors Ervin, Stephen M.
year 1988
title Computer-Aided Diagramming and the `Generator-Test' Cycle
source 1988. 22 p.: ill. includes bibliography
summary Simon's `generator-test' model is both a metaphor and a literal prescription for the organization of computer systems for designing. In most approaches to computer-aided design, one side of the cycle - generating or testing - is reserved to the human designer, the other side delegated to the computer. A more comfortable and comprehensive approach is to support switching these roles between designer and computer. This approach underlies a prototype system for computer-aided diagramming, the CBD (Constraint-Based Diagrammer). Diagramming is an important design activity, especially in preliminary design, as diagrams play a pivotal role between graphic and symbolic knowledge. Diagrams as a medium of knowledge representation and as means of inference have an ambivalent status in the generator-test model; they may serve either purpose. Examination of CBD sheds some light on Simon's model and on the requirements for sharing generating and testing with computational design tools
keywords problem solving, CAD, constraints, evaluation, synthesis
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 4cbb
authors Gero, John S. (editor)
year 1988
title Artificial Intelligence in Engineering : Design
source 465 p. Amsterdam: Elsevier/CMP, 1988. CADLINE has abstract only
summary This volume contains the papers in the design area from the Third International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Engineering. Design is that most fundamental but least understood of engineering activities. Most current computer- aided design systems are primarily concerned with graphical representations of objects as they are being designed. The introduction of artificial intelligence into engineering has fostered the burgeoning interest in formal methods of engineering design. These methods treat design as being modelable using reasoning processes. The papers related to design can be grouped into two categories: those primarily concerned with design knowledge in its various forms and those primarily concerned with applications in specific domains. The papers in this volume are presented under the following headings: Design Knowledge and Representation; Integrated Circuit Design; Mechanical Engineering Design; Structural Engineering Design; Simultaneous Engineering Design; Architectural Design
keywords AI, design, engineering, knowledge, applications, architecture, CAD, CAE, integrated circuits, representation, structures, civil engineering
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 6c93
authors Rehg, J., Elfes, A. and Talukdar, S.N. (et al)
year 1988
title CASE : Computer-Aided Simultaneous Engineering
source 13 p. : ill
summary Pittsburgh, PA: Engineering Design Research Center, CMU, 1988. EDRC 05-22-88. This paper presents a new system for computer-aided mechanical design known as CASE, which stands for Computer- Aided Simultaneous Engineering. CASE was developed to support mechanical design at the project level, and serve as a means of integrating into the design process concerns from other parts of the lifecycle of a product. CASE is composed of an integrated framework of synthesis, analysis, and translation programs, and is designed to serve as a testbed for research in representation, problem-solving, and systems integration for computer-aided mechanical design. A prototype version of CASE has been applied to the domain of window regulator design, and is capable of automatically synthesizing regulators to meet a set of specifications and performing tolerance and stress analysis on developing designs
keywords representation, problem solving, constraints, reasoning, mechanical engineering
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:42

_id avocaad_2001_20
id avocaad_2001_20
authors Shen-Kai Tang
year 2001
title Toward a procedure of computer simulation in the restoration of historical architecture
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the field of architectural design, “visualization¨ generally refers to some media, communicating and representing the idea of designers, such as ordinary drafts, maps, perspectives, photos and physical models, etc. (Rahman, 1992; Susan, 2000). The main reason why we adopt visualization is that it enables us to understand clearly and to control complicated procedures (Gombrich, 1990). Secondly, the way we get design knowledge is more from the published visualized images and less from personal experiences (Evans, 1989). Thus the importance of the representation of visualization is manifested.Due to the developments of computer technology in recent years, various computer aided design system are invented and used in a great amount, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and collaboration, etc. (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The conventional media are greatly replaced by computer media, and the visualization is further brought into the computerized stage. The procedure of visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA), addressed by Rahman (1992), is renewed and amended for the intervention of computer (Liu, 2000). Based on the procedures above, a great amount of applied researches are proceeded. Therefore it is evident that the computer visualization is helpful to the discussion and evaluation during the design process (Hall, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998; Liu, 1997; Sasada, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1993, 1997, 1998). In addition to the process of architectural design, the computer visualization is also applied to the subject of construction, which is repeatedly amended and corrected by the images of computer simulation (Liu, 2000). Potier (2000) probes into the contextual research and restoration of historical architecture by the technology of computer simulation before the practical restoration is constructed. In this way he established a communicative mode among archeologists, architects via computer media.In the research of restoration and preservation of historical architecture in Taiwan, many scholars have been devoted into the studies of historical contextual criticism (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000). Clues that accompany the historical contextual criticism (such as oral information, writings, photographs, pictures, etc.) help to explore the construction and the procedure of restoration (Hung, 1995), and serve as an aid to the studies of the usage and durability of the materials in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998). Many clues are lost, because historical architecture is often age-old (Hung, 1995). Under the circumstance, restoration of historical architecture can only be proceeded by restricted pictures, written data and oral information (Shi, 1989). Therefore, computer simulation is employed by scholars to simulate the condition of historical architecture with restricted information after restoration (Potier, 2000). Yet this is only the early stage of computer-aid restoration. The focus of the paper aims at exploring that whether visual simulation of computer can help to investigate the practice of restoration and the estimation and evaluation after restoration.By exploring the restoration of historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example), this study aims to establish a complete work on computer visualization, including the concept of restoration, the practice of restoration, and the estimation and evaluation of restoration.This research is to simulate the process of restoration by computer simulation based on visualized media (restricted pictures, restricted written data and restricted oral information) and the specialized experience of historical architects (Potier, 2000). During the process of practicing, communicates with craftsmen repeatedly with some simulated alternatives, and makes the result as the foundation of evaluating and adjusting the simulating process and outcome. In this way we address a suitable and complete process of computer visualization for historical architecture.The significance of this paper is that we are able to control every detail more exactly, and then prevent possible problems during the process of restoration of historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
email tsk.aa88g@nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 8e77
authors Rubinger, Morton
year 1988
title Drawing Lessons from Word Processing
source Computing in Design Education [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Ann Arbor (Michigan / USA) 28-30 October 1988, pp. 235-245
summary Word processing is universally successful as a computer application whereas computer-aided design is not. What can we learn from word processing? It tells us that, to be successful, an entry-level CAD system should be basic and focus mainly on drawing and manipulation of drawings rather than on sophisticated operations and automation, it should be simple, easy to use and moderate in cost. In architectural education, it should be used in the early stages of design to enhance design quality and design learning. To do this, we need to understand the characteristics of this new drawing and design medium. Software needs to be thoroughly learned in advance of studio use, and computer-based studio projects should take a computational view of design to enhance the effective use of computers in learning to design.

series ACADIA
last changed 1999/01/01 18:34

_id avocaad_2001_09
id avocaad_2001_09
authors Yu-Tung Liu, Yung-Ching Yeh, Sheng-Cheng Shih
year 2001
title Digital Architecture in CAD studio and Internet-based competition
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary Architectural design has been changing because of the vast and creative use of computer in different ways. From the viewpoint of designing itself, computer has been used as drawing tools in the latter phase of design (Mitchell 1977; Coyne et al. 1990), presentation and simulation tools in the middle phase (Liu and Bai 2000), and even critical media which triggers creative thinking in the very early phase (Maher et al. 2000; Liu 1999; Won 1999). All the various roles that computer can play have been adopted in a number of professional design corporations and so-called computer-aided design (CAD) studio in schools worldwide (Kvan 1997, 2000; Cheng 1998). The processes and outcomes of design have been continuously developing to capture the movement of the computer age. However, from the viewpoint of social-cultural theories of architecture, the evolvement of design cannot be achieved solely by designers or design processes. Any new idea of design can be accepted socially, culturally and historically only under one condition: The design outcomes could be reviewed and appreciated by critics in the field at the time of its production (Csikszentmihalyi 1986, 1988; Schon and Wiggins 1992; Liu 2000). In other words, aspects of design production (by designers in different design processes) are as critical as those of design appreciation (by critics in different review processes) in the observation of the future trends of architecture.Nevertheless, in the field of architectural design with computer and Internet, that is, so-called computer-aided design computer-mediated design, or internet-based design, most existing studies pay more attentions to producing design in design processes as mentioned above. Relatively few studies focus on how critics act and how they interact with designers in the review processes. Therefore, this study intends to investigate some evolving phenomena of the interaction between design production and appreciation in the environment of computer and Internet.This paper takes a CAD studio and an Internet-based competition as examples. The CAD studio includes 7 master's students and 2 critics, all from the same countries. The Internet-based competition, held in year 2000, includes 206 designers from 43 counties and 26 critics from 11 countries. 3 students and the 2 critics in the CAD studio are the competition participating designers and critics respectively. The methodological steps are as follows: 1. A qualitative analysis: observation and interview of the 3 participants and 2 reviewers who join both the CAD studio and the competition. The 4 analytical criteria are the kinds of presenting media, the kinds of supportive media (such as verbal and gesture/facial data), stages of the review processes, and interaction between the designer and critics. The behavioral data are acquired by recording the design presentation and dialogue within 3 months. 2. A quantitative analysis: statistical analysis of the detailed reviewing data in the CAD studio and the competition. The four 4 analytical factors are the reviewing time, the number of reviewing of the same project, the comparison between different projects, and grades/comments. 3. Both the qualitative and quantitative data are cross analyzed and discussed, based on the theories of design thinking, design production/appreciation, and the appreciative system (Goodman 1978, 1984).The result of this study indicates that the interaction between design production and appreciation during the review processes could differ significantly. The review processes could be either linear or cyclic due to the influences from the kinds of media, the environmental discrepancies between studio and Internet, as well as cognitive thinking/memory capacity. The design production and appreciation seem to be more linear in CAD studio whereas more cyclic in the Internet environment. This distinction coincides with the complementary observations of designing as a linear process (Jones 1970; Simon 1981) or a cyclic movement (Schon and Wiggins 1992). Some phenomena during the two processes are also illustrated in detail in this paper.This study is merely a starting point of the research in design production and appreciation in the computer and network age. The future direction of investigation is to establish a theoretical model for the interaction between design production and appreciation based on current findings. The model is expected to conduct using revised protocol analysis and interviews. The other future research is to explore how design computing creativity emerge from the process of producing and appreciating.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id diss_howe
id diss_howe
authors Howe, Alan Scott
year 1988
title A new paradigm for life-cycle management of kit-of-parts building systems
source UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN , PhD
summary The research described in this dissertation brings together various technologies in manufacturing and information management and suggests a new paradigm for the design, manufacture, and lifetime use of artifacts using kit-of-parts systems and rule-based assembly. The questions are asked: If architects, designers, and users were given direct online connection to real-time design information sources and fabrication processes, and have the ability to monitor and control the current state of designed objects throughout the objects' lifetime, how would the entire life-cycle of a product be affected, and how would design processes change? During the course of the research described in this dissertation, a series of simulations and experiments were conducted which produced a computer-based simulated design, manufacture, and use environment wherein these questions could begin to be answered. A kit-of-parts model building system was devised which could be used to design model buildings in virtual form by downloading virtual representations of the components from the Internet and assembling them into a desired form. The virtual model building could then be used to order the manufacture of real components online, and remotely controlled robots used to assemble the actual building on the site. Through the use of special hardware manufactured into the components, real-time remote monitoring and control of the current state of the finished model building was affected during the building's lifetime. The research establishes the feasibility of an online life-cycle environment where a virtual representation of an artifact is created and used to both manufacture a real-world counterpart and also monitor and control the current state of the real-world object. The state-of-the-art of pertinent technologies were explored through literature searches and experiments. Data representation, rule-based design techniques, robotics, and digital control were studied, and a series of design principles established which lend themselves toward a life-cycle management paradigm. Several case studies are cited which show how the design principles and life-cycle management environment can be applied to real buildings and other artifacts such as vehicles and marine structures. Ideas for expanded research on the life-cycle management paradigm are cited.  

series thesis:PhD
email ash@plugin-creations.com
more http://wwwlib.umi.com/dissertations/fullcit/9909905
last changed 2003/11/20 18:57

_id e05e
authors Schon, Donald A. and Wigging, Glenn
year 1988
title Kinds of Seeing and Their Functions in Designing
source November, 1988. 31 p. : ill
summary Architectural designing is described as a kind of experimentation that consists in reflective 'conversation' with the materials of a design situation. A designer sees, moves and sees again. Working in some visual medium -- drawing, in the article examples -- the designer sees what is 'there' in some representation of a site, draws in relation to it, and sees what has been drawn, thereby informing further designing. In all this 'seeing' the designer not only visually registers information but also constructs its meaning -- identifies patterns and gives them meaningsÔ h) 0*0*0*°° ÔŒ beyond themselves. Words like 'recognize,' 'detect,' 'discover' and 'appreciate' denote variants of seeing, as do such terms as 'seeing that,' 'seeing as' and 'seeing in.' The purpose here is to explore the kinds of seeing involved in designing and to describe their various functions. At local and global levels, and in many different ways, designing is an interaction of making and seeing, doing and discovering. On the basis of a few minuscule examples, the authors suggest some of the ways in which this sort of interaction works. Some conditions that enable it to work are described. And some of its consequences for design education and for the development of computer environments useful to designers are drawn
keywords design methods, education, architecture, cognition, perception, design process, semantics, protocol analysis
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 0dff
authors Woodbury, Robert F., Fenves, Stephen J. and Baker, Nelson C. (et al)
year 1988
title Geometric Reasoning in Computer Integrated Building Construction
source Robotics in Construction, International Symposium (5th : 1988 : Tokyo, Japan). pp. 115-124 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Geometric reasoning, the integration of geometric representation and inference in advanced computer systems, is presented as an issue at the forefront of research in construction automation. The unique demands that construction automation poses on such reasoning are discussed. An architecture that provides a structure for geometric reasoning is presented and results from a prototype implementation are shown. A project to develop geometric reasoning in the construction domain of panelized building systems is introduced. Within this project, two exemplary applications, structural/architectural design and construction sequence planning, each supported by the same geometric reasoning facility, are being demonstrated
keywords geometry, reasoning, representation, inference, construction, automation, applications, architecture, engineering
series CADline
email rob_woodbury@sfu.ca
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 450c
authors Akin, Ömer
year 1990
title Computational Design Instruction: Toward a Pedagogy
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 302-316
summary The computer offers enormous potential both in and out of the classroom that is realized only in limited ways through the applications available to us today. In the early days of the computer it was generally argued that it would replace the architect. When this idea became obsolete, the prevailing opinion of proponents and opponents alike shifted to the notion of the computer as merely adding to present design capabilities. This idea is so ingrained in our thinking that we still speak of "aiding" design with computers. It is clear to those who grasp the real potential of this still new technology - as in the case of many other major technological innovations - that it continues to change the way we design, rather than to merely augment or replace human designers. In the classroom the computer has the potential to radically change three fundamental ingredients: student, instruction, and instructor. It is obvious that changes of this kind spell out a commensurate change in design pedagogy. If the computer is going to be more than a passive instrument in the design studio, then design pedagogy will have to be changed, fundamentally. While the practice of computing in the studio continues to be a significant I aspect of architectural education, articulation of viable pedagogy for use in the design studio is truly rare. In this paper the question of pedagogy in the CAD studio will be considered first. Then one particular design studio taught during Fall 1988 at Carnegie Mellon University will be presented. Finally, we shall return to issues of change in the student, instruction, and instructor, as highlighted by this particular experience.
series CAAD Futures
email oa04@andrew.cmu.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id c568
authors Balachandran, M.B. and John S. Gero
year 1987
title A Model for Knowledge Based Graphical Interfaces
source AI '87: Proceedings of the Australian Joint Artificial Intelligence Conference. 1987. pp. 505-521. Also published in Artificial Intelligence Developments and Applications edited by J. S. Gero and R Stanton, North-Holland Pub. 1988. -- CADLINE has abstract only.
summary This paper describes a model for knowledge-based graphical interface which incorporates a variety of knowledge of the domain of application. The key issues considered include graphics interpretation, extraction of features of graphics objects and identification of prototype objects. The role of such knowledge-based interfaces in computer-aided design is discussed. A prototype system developed in Prolog and C is described and its application in the domain of structural engineering is demonstrated
keywords user interface, computer graphics, knowledge base, systems, civil engineering, structures
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id cf2011_p127
id cf2011_p127
authors Benros, Deborah; Granadeiro Vasco, Duarte Jose, Knight Terry
year 2011
title Integrated Design and Building System for the Provision of Customized Housing: the Case of Post-Earthquake Haiti
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 247-264.
summary The paper proposes integrated design and building systems for the provision of sustainable customized housing. It advances previous work by applying a methodology to generate these systems from vernacular precedents. The methodology is based on the use of shape grammars to derive and encode a contemporary system from the precedents. The combined set of rules can be applied to generate housing solutions tailored to specific user and site contexts. The provision of housing to shelter the population affected by the 2010 Haiti earthquake illustrates the application of the methodology. A computer implementation is currently under development in C# using the BIM platform provided by Revit. The world experiences a sharp increase in population and a strong urbanization process. These phenomena call for the development of effective means to solve the resulting housing deficit. The response of the informal sector to the problem, which relies mainly on handcrafted processes, has resulted in an increase of urban slums in many of the big cities, which lack sanitary and spatial conditions. The formal sector has produced monotonous environments based on the idea of mass production that one size fits all, which fails to meet individual and cultural needs. We propose an alternative approach in which mass customization is used to produce planed environments that possess qualities found in historical settlements. Mass customization, a new paradigm emerging due to the technological developments of the last decades, combines the economy of scale of mass production and the aesthetics and functional qualities of customization. Mass customization of housing is defined as the provision of houses that respond to the context in which they are built. The conceptual model for the mass customization of housing used departs from the idea of a housing type, which is the combined result of three systems (Habraken, 1988) -- spatial, building system, and stylistic -- and it includes a design system, a production system, and a computer system (Duarte, 2001). In previous work, this conceptual model was tested by developing a computer system for existing design and building systems (Benr__s and Duarte, 2009). The current work advances it by developing new and original design, building, and computer systems for a particular context. The urgent need to build fast in the aftermath of catastrophes quite often overrides any cultural concerns. As a result, the shelters provided in such circumstances are indistinct and impersonal. However, taking individual and cultural aspects into account might lead to a better identification of the population with their new environment, thereby minimizing the rupture caused in their lives. As the methodology to develop new housing systems is based on the idea of architectural precedents, choosing existing vernacular housing as a precedent permits the incorporation of cultural aspects and facilitates an identification of people with the new housing. In the Haiti case study, we chose as a precedent a housetype called “gingerbread houses”, which includes a wide range of houses from wealthy to very humble ones. Although the proposed design system was inspired by these houses, it was decided to adopt a contemporary take. The methodology to devise the new type was based on two ideas: precedents and transformations in design. In architecture, the use of precedents provides designers with typical solutions for particular problems and it constitutes a departing point for a new design. In our case, the precedent is an existing housetype. It has been shown (Duarte, 2001) that a particular housetype can be encoded by a shape grammar (Stiny, 1980) forming a design system. Studies in shape grammars have shown that the evolution of one style into another can be described as the transformation of one shape grammar into another (Knight, 1994). The used methodology departs takes off from these ideas and it comprises the following steps (Duarte, 2008): (1) Selection of precedents, (2) Derivation of an archetype; (3) Listing of rules; (4) Derivation of designs; (5) Cataloguing of solutions; (6) Derivation of tailored solution.
keywords Mass customization, Housing, Building system, Sustainable construction, Life cycle energy consumption, Shape grammar
series CAAD Futures
email deborahbenros@gmail.com
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id 8d41
authors Bourque, Paul N.
year 1988
title Computer-Aided Learning of Structural Behavior
source Computing in Design Education [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Ann Arbor (Michigan / USA) 28-30 October 1988, pp. 135-146
summary Computer-aided learning of structural behavior can be very effective and motivating. Students are able to analyse structures in far less time than by traditional methods and address problems of much greater complexity. They do so without the burden of manual computation.

Computer programs exist that are well suited for this purpose, two of which are described. They offer a broad range of design capabilities, and are easy to master because of their intuitive and graphically oriented approach.

A number of examples are given to illustrate the potential of computer-aided learning as a complement to traditional methods either in the classroom or in coursework.

series ACADIA
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id a19d
authors Brown, G.Z. and Novitski, Barbara-Jo
year 1988
title A Macintosh Design Studio
source Computing in Design Education [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Ann Arbor (Michigan / USA) 28-30 October 1988, pp. 151-162
summary During the past year at the University of Oregon, we have conducted an experimental design studio in which each student had an Apple Macintosh SE microcomputer on his or her studio desk. Each term we experimented with a variety of software, furniture arrangements, and pedagogical approaches to integrating computers in design teaching. Like most others who have conducted such experiments, we encountered problems in trying to use hardware and software which is fundamentally inappropriate for the intuitive, graphic, and creative processes characteristic of preliminary design. However, we solved many of these problems and have produced useful techniques that may form the beginnings of a new approach to the use of computers in architecture schools.

Our results fall in three major categories: 1) pedagogical discoveries about learning to design with a computer, which is greater than the sum of learning to design and learning about computers; 2) design exercises based on the Macintosh environment, exploiting the unique graphic qualities of the machine while simultaneously developing the ideas and drawing skills needed in the preliminary stages of design; 3) descriptions of the studio environment, including hardware, software, workstation layouts, security solutions, and other practical information that might be useful to others who are contemplating a similar project.

series ACADIA
email novitski@architectureweek.com
last changed 2003/05/15 19:17

_id caadria2011_061
id caadria2011_061
authors Celani, Gabriela; José P. Duarte and Carlos V. Vaz
year 2011
title The gardens revisited: The link between technology, meaning and logic?
source Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / The University of Newcastle, Australia 27-29 April 2011, pp. 643-652
summary The objective of this paper is to compare the computational concepts present in three books published by Mitchell between 1987 and 1990: The art of computer-graphics programming (1987), which has Robin Liggett and Thomas Kvan as co-authors, The logic of architecture (1990), probably his most influential work, and The poetics of gardens (1988), which has Charles Moore and William Turnbull as coauthors. By looking at the concepts that are presented in the three books and establishing a comparison between them, we expect to show that The poetics of Gardens should not be seen as a detour from Mitchell´s line of research, but rather as a key piece for understanding the relationship between technology, meaning and logic in his very coherent body of work.
keywords Computational design concepts; technology; meaning; logic
series CAADRIA
email celani@fec.unicamp.br
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id caadria2007_659
id caadria2007_659
authors Chen, Zi-Ru
year 2007
title The Combination of Design Media and Design Creativity _ Conventional and Digital Media
source CAADRIA 2007 [Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Nanjing (China) 19-21 April 2007
summary Creativity is always interested in many fields, in particular, creativity and design creativity have many interpretations (Boden, 1991; Gero and Maher, 1992, 1993; Kim, 1990; Sternberg, 1988; Weisberg, 1986). In early conceptual design process, designers used large number of sketches and drawings (Purcell and Gero, 1998). The sketch can inspire the designer to increase the creativity of the designer’s creations(Schenk, 1991; Goldschmidt, 1994; Suwa and Tversky, 1997). The freehand sketches by conventional media have been believed to play important roles in processes of the creative design thinking(Goldschmidt, 1991; Schon and Wiggins, 1992; Goel, 1995; Suwa et al., 2000; Verstijnen et al., 1998; Elsas van and Vergeest, 1998). Recently, there are many researches on inspiration of the design creativity by digital media(Liu, 2001; Sasada, 1999). The digital media have been used to apply the creative activities and that caused the occurrenssce of unexpected discovery in early design processes(Gero and Maher, 1993; Mitchell, 1993; Schmitt, 1994; Gero, 1996, 2000; Coyne and Subrahmanian, 1993; Boden, 1998; Huang, 2001; Chen, 2001; Manolya et al. 1998; Verstijinen et al., 1998; Lynn, 2001). In addition, there are many applications by combination of conventional and digital media in the sketches conceptual process. However, previous works only discussed that the individual media were related to the design creativity. The cognitive research about the application of conceptual sketches design by integrating both conventional and digital media simultaneously is absent.
series CAADRIA
email Ru.zero@gmail.com
last changed 2008/06/16 08:48

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