CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 61 to 80 of 159

_id 0b4a
authors Halbert, A.R., Todd, A.J.P. and Woodwark, J.R.
year 1988
title Generalizing Active Zones for Set-Theoretic Solid Models
source 8 p. : ill Winchester, UK: IBM UK Scientific Centre, January, 1988. IBM UKSC Report 182. includes bibliography.
summary A major drawback of the set-theoretic solid model is the global and non-unique way in which it is defined. In a recent paper, Rossignac and Voelcker introduced the concept of the active zone of a primitive or sub-model, which provides a localization of a set-theoretic model which is useful for a number of purposes. A more general, but simplified, definition of the active zone is presented which exploits the properties of the symmetric difference operator. A novel application of the active zone to the interactive graphical editing of set- theoretic solid models is also outlined
keywords solid modeling, boolean operations, CSG
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 20a1
authors Hall, R.
year 1989
title Illumination and Color in Computer Generated Imagery
source New York: Springer Verlag
summary This is a discussion of the physics of illumination and the associated techniques for modeling global and local illumination in computer generated imagery. It was state-of-the-art in 1988, but is now rather outdated. It does include discussions of physics and color theory basics that have not changed, and a discussion of illumination models through ray tracing models using various specular reflectance functions and including Fresnel effects. This text is currently out of print. However, we still receive numerous requests for an electronic version of the source code in the book.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 8385
authors Holtz, Neal M. and Rasdorf, William J.
year 1988
title An Evaluation of Programming Languages and Language Features for Engineering Software Development
source International Journal of Engineering with Computers. Springer-Verlag, 1988. vol. 3: pp. 183-199
summary Also published as 'Procedural Programming Languages for the Development of CAD and CAE Systems Software,' in the proceedings of ASME International Conference on Computers in Engineering (1987 : New York, NY). The scope of engineering software has increased dramatically in the past decade. In its early years, most engineering applications were concerned solely with solving difficult numerical problems, and little attention was paid to man- machine interaction, to data management, or to integrated software systems. Now computers solve a much wider variety of problems, including those in which numerical computations are less predominant. In addition, completely new areas of engineering applications such as artificial intelligence have recently emerged. It is well recognized that the particular programming language used to develop an engineering application can dramatically affect the development cost, operating cost. reliability, and usability of the resulting software. With the increase in the variety, functionality, and complexity of engineering software, with its more widespread use, and with its increasing importance, more attention must be paid to programming language suitability so that rational decisions regarding language selection may be made. It is important that professional engineers be aware of the issues addressed in this paper, for it is they who must design, acquire, and use applications software, as well as occasionally develop or manage its development. This paper addresses the need for engineers to possess a working knowledge of the fundamentals of computer programming languages. In pursuit of this, the paper briefly reviews the history of four well known programming languages. It then attempts to identify and to look critically at the attributes of programming languages that significantly affect the production of engineering software. The four procedural programming languages chosen for review are those intended for scientific and general purpose programming, FORTRAN 77, C, Pascal, and Modula-2. These languages are compared and some general observations are made. As it is felt important that professional engineers should be able to make informed decisions about programming language selection, the emphasis throughout this paper is on a methodology of evaluation of programming languages. Choosing an appropriate language can be a complex task and many factors must be considered. Consequently, fundamentals are stressed
keywords programming, engineering, languages, software, management, evaluation, FORTRAN, C, PASCAL, MODULA-2, CAD, CAE
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id cd7b
authors Hopgood, F. and Duce, D.
year 1988
title Future Developments in Graphics and Workstations
source CAAD futures 87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 217-252
summary The application of Computer Aided Design has been fragmented so far due to the lack of standards at the hardware and basic software level. The most impressive products have been turn-key systems using custom-built hardware with large software suites developed over a number of years. Such systems have often been difficult to modify and maintain. The very nature of such systems is that they are expensive to produce, have a limited market and, consequently, are expensive. Hardware and software advances over the last few years point to a change in this environment. The trend is towards hardware and software compatibility from the computer suppliers allowing software suppliers to target their offerings at a wider range of products. This produces a competitive market and the downward trend in hardware costs gives the possibility for systems of much lower cost and, consequently, opens up the market to a larger customer base. This paper will concentrate on the developments in single user workstations and graphics standards which should provide a firm base for this new environment.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id diss_howe
id diss_howe
authors Howe, Alan Scott
year 1988
title A new paradigm for life-cycle management of kit-of-parts building systems
source UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN , PhD
summary The research described in this dissertation brings together various technologies in manufacturing and information management and suggests a new paradigm for the design, manufacture, and lifetime use of artifacts using kit-of-parts systems and rule-based assembly. The questions are asked: If architects, designers, and users were given direct online connection to real-time design information sources and fabrication processes, and have the ability to monitor and control the current state of designed objects throughout the objects' lifetime, how would the entire life-cycle of a product be affected, and how would design processes change? During the course of the research described in this dissertation, a series of simulations and experiments were conducted which produced a computer-based simulated design, manufacture, and use environment wherein these questions could begin to be answered. A kit-of-parts model building system was devised which could be used to design model buildings in virtual form by downloading virtual representations of the components from the Internet and assembling them into a desired form. The virtual model building could then be used to order the manufacture of real components online, and remotely controlled robots used to assemble the actual building on the site. Through the use of special hardware manufactured into the components, real-time remote monitoring and control of the current state of the finished model building was affected during the building's lifetime. The research establishes the feasibility of an online life-cycle environment where a virtual representation of an artifact is created and used to both manufacture a real-world counterpart and also monitor and control the current state of the real-world object. The state-of-the-art of pertinent technologies were explored through literature searches and experiments. Data representation, rule-based design techniques, robotics, and digital control were studied, and a series of design principles established which lend themselves toward a life-cycle management paradigm. Several case studies are cited which show how the design principles and life-cycle management environment can be applied to real buildings and other artifacts such as vehicles and marine structures. Ideas for expanded research on the life-cycle management paradigm are cited.

series thesis:PhD
email ash@plugin-creations.com
more http://wwwlib.umi.com/dissertations/fullcit/9909905
last changed 2003/11/20 18:57

_id 0803
authors Jabri, Marwan A. and Skellern, David J.
year 1988
title Automatic Floorplan Design Using PIAF
source August, 1988. 36 p. : ill. tables
summary This paper presents PIAF (a Package for Intelligent and Algorithmic Floorplanning), developed at Sydney University Electrical Engineering (SUEE) for use in custom integrated circuit design. Floorplanning plays a crucial role in the design of custom integrated circuits. When design is approached in a top-down fashion, the function to be implemented on silicon is first decomposed in a conceptual phase into a Functional Block Diagram (FBD). This FBD has a 'blocks and buses' structure where blocks represent sub- functions and buses represent the interconnections that carry data and other information between blocks. The decomposition of the function into sub-functions is hierarchical and aims at reducing the complexity of the design problem. When the FBD is known, the floorplanning process may be performed. When this task is performed manually, the designer searches for a relative placement of the blocks and for an area and shape for each block to minimize the overall chip layout area while at the same time meeting design constraints such as design tool limitations, interconnection characteristics and technological design rules. PIAF is a knowledge-based system (KBS) that has been developed at SUEE during the last four years. It relies on a strategy that partitions the floorplanning task in a way that allows efficient use of heuristics and specialized design knowledge in the generation and pruning of the solution space. This paper presents the operation of PIAF and discusses several implementation issues including; KBS structure, knowledge representation, knowledge acquisition, current context memory design, design quality factors and explanation facility. This paper uses a running example to present the operation of each PIAF's KBS-based solving phases
keywords knowledge, representation, knowledge acquisition, electrical engineering, design, integrated circuits, knowledge base, systems, layout, synthesis
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 4da4
authors Jordan, J. Peter
year 1988
title ARCH 431: Computer-Aided Design
source Computing in Design Education [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Ann Arbor (Michigan / USA) 28-30 October 1988, pp. 187-200
summary There is a significant variance in the way computer courses are taught at various institutions around the country. Generally, it is useful to think of these courses falling either into a "tool-building" or a "tool-using" category. However, within either category, there is a variety of focus on the application of the "tool". Two courses have been developed at the University of Hawaii at Manoa which deal with computer applications. The first course is more quantitatively oriented, encouraging students to explore ways of dealing with problems in a more complex and substantial manner. This paper deals with the second course whose focus has shifted toward design issues, using the computer as a tool to explore these issues. This course exposes the student, not to training on a specific computer-aided drafting system, but to issues in computer-aided design which include hardware and software systems, human-machine interface, and the nature of the design process. This course seems to be an appropriate model for introducing computer-aided design to undergraduates in a professional design program.
series ACADIA
email jpjordan@flash.net
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id f65d
authors Kalisperis, L.N.
year 1988
title A Conceptual Framework for Computing in Architectural Design
source Pennsylvania State University
summary A brief historical overview of architectural design reveals that there has been a slow development in the conceptualization of the scope of architectural design. Advancing our understanding of the architectural design process reveals new directions for computing in architectural design. This study proposes a conceptual framework for an integrated computing environment. Design disciplines have embarked on a rigorous search for theoretical perspectives and methods that encompass a comprehensive view of architecture. Architectural design has been seen as a sequential process similar to that of industrial design. Attempts to formalize this process based on industrial design methods solved only a fraction of the overall integration problem. The resultant models are inadequate to deal with the complexity of architectural design. Emerging social problem-solving paradigms seek to construct a cognitive psychology of problem solving and have a direct relevance to architectural design. These problem-solving activities include structured, semi-structured, and ill-defined problems, which are included to varying degrees in each problem situation across a continuum of difficulty. Problem solving in architectural design involves the determination of certain objectives and also whether or not it is possible to accomplish them. Developments in computing in architecture have paralleled developments in architectural methodologies. The application of computing in architectural design has predominantly focused only on sequential process, optimum solutions, and quantifiable tasks of the design process. Qualitative, generative, tasks of architectural design were dealt with through the introduction of paradigms from linguistics and knowledge-based systems borrowed from engineering applications. Although the application of such paradigms resulted in some success, this reductionist approach to computing in architecture fragmented its integration into the design process. What is required, therefore, is a unified approach to computing in architecture based on a holistic view of the architectural design process. The model proposed in this study provides such a conceptual framework. This model shifts the focus from product to process and views the design problem as a goal-oriented problem-solving activity that allows a design team to identify strategies and methodologies in the quest for design solutions.
series thesis:PhD
email lnk@psu.edu
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 6424
authors Katz, Genevieve
year 1988
title Paint Systems as a Design Tool .... "Oh Wow!"
source Computing in Design Education [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Ann Arbor (Michigan / USA) 28-30 October 1988, pp. 224-233
summary The use of computer graphics paint systems is investigated as a primary design tool in the architecture studio. Paint programs are more conducive than CAD systems to providing a supportive environment for the exploration of design concepts.

series ACADIA
email gen@games4girls.com
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 67ac
authors Koivunen, Marja-Riitta and Mantyla, Martti
year 1988
title Hut Windows : An Improved Architecture for a User Interface Management System
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. January, 1988. vol. 8: pp. 43-52 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The design of Hut Windows, a user interface management system intended for applications in mechanical CAD, is the subject of this article. Hut Windows features a three-layered internal architecture, where the presentation, dialogue- control, and application processing layers are clearly separated from each other. This leads to increased simplicity and flexibility in user interface design over the more traditional situation where all of these layers are closely coupled
keywords user interface, CAD, windowing, mechanical engineering
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 0711
authors Kunnath, S.K., Reinhorn, A.M. and Abel, J.F.
year 1990
title A Computational Tool for Evaluation of Seismic Performance of RC Buildings
source February, 1990. [1] 15 p. : ill. graphs, tables. includes bibliography: p. 10-11
summary Recent events have demonstrated the damaging power of earthquakes on structural assemblages resulting in immense loss of life and property (Mexico City, 1985; Armenia, 1988; San Francisco, 1989). While the present state-of-the-art in inelastic seismic response analysis of structures is capable of estimating response quantities in terms of deformations, stresses, etc., it has not established a physical qualification of these end-results into measures of damage sustained by the structure wherein system vulnerability is ascertained in terms of serviceability, repairability, and/or collapse. An enhanced computational tool is presented in this paper for evaluation of reinforced concrete structures (such as buildings and bridges) subjected to seismic loading. The program performs a series of tasks to enable a complete evaluation of the structural system: (a) elastic collapse- mode analysis to determine the base shear capacity of the system; (b) step-by-step time history analysis using a macromodel approach in which the inelastic behavior of RC structural components is incorporated; (c) reduction of the response quantities to damage indices so that a physical interpretation of the response is possible. The program is built around two graphical interfaces: one for preprocessing of structural and loading data; and the other for visualization of structural damage following the seismic analysis. This program can serve as an invaluable tool in estimating the seismic performance of existing RC buildings and for designing new structures within acceptable levels of damage
keywords seismic, structures, applications, evaluation, civil engineering, CAD
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id 7e15
authors Kvan, Thomas
year 1997
title Chips, chunks and sauces
source International Journal of Design Computing, 1, 1997 (Editorial)
summary I am sure there is an art in balancing the chunks to use with your chips. Then there is the sauce that envelops them both. I like my chips chunky and not too saucy. Not that I am obsessed with food but I don't think you can consider design computing without chunks. It's the sauce I'm not sure about. The chunks of which I write are not of course those in your salsa picante but those postulated by Chase and Simon (1973) reflecting on good chess players; the chunks of knowledge with which an expert tackles a problem in their domain of expertise. The more knowledge an expert has of complex and large configurations of typical problem situations (configurations of chess pieces), the greater range of solutions the expert can bring a wider to a particular problem. Those with more chunks have more options and arrive at better solutions. In other words, good designs come from having plenty of big chunks available. There has been a wealth of research in the field of computer-supported collaborative work in the contexts of writing, office management, software design and policy bodies. It is typically divided between systems which support decision making (GDSS: group decision support systems) and those which facilitate joint work (CSCW: computer-based systems for co-operative work) (see Dennis et al. (1988) for a discussion of the distinctions and their likely convergence). Most implementations in the world of design have been on CSCW systems, few have looked at trying to make a group design decision support system (GDDSS?). Most of the work in CSCD has been grounded in the heritage of situated cognition - the assumption that collaborative design is an act that is intrinsically grounded in the context within which it is carried out, that is, the sauce in which we find ourselves swimming daily. By sauce, therefore, I am referring to anything that is not knowledge in the domain of expertise, such as modes of interaction, gestures, social behaviours.
series journal paper
email tkvan@arch.hku.hk
last changed 2003/05/15 08:29

_id ijac20053406
id ijac20053406
authors Kvan, Thomas
year 2005
title Professor Tsuyoshi Sasada 1941-2005
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 3 - no. 4, 519-526
summary Tsuyoshi Sasada, known as Tee to so many of us, died on 30 September 2005 at the age of 64 after a long illness.Tee retired from Osaka University in 2004 upon reaching the mandatory retirement age but retained his association as Emeritus Professor.At the time of his death he held appointments as Honorary Professor, National Chiao Tung University (Taiwan) and Expert Researcher, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology. He had been with Osaka University since 1970, having earned his bachelor, master and doctoral degrees at Kyoto University. In 1988 he was appointed Professor in Osaka and established his laboratory, known as the Sasada Lab, from which over 200 students have graduated.
series journal
email t.kvan@arch.usyd.edu.au
more http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/mscp/ijac/2006/00000004/00000001/art00002
last changed 2007/03/04 06:08

_id 21b9
authors Landsdown, J.
year 1988
title Computers and Visualisation of Design Ideas: Possibilities and Promises
source CAAD futures 87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 71-80
summary Drawing in all its various forms, from freehand sketching to detailed technical layout, is a type of modelling that designers find indispensable. In many cases, indeed, drawing is the only form of external modelling a designer uses. It has two basic functions: to assist in the externalisation and development of mental concepts and to help in the presentation of these concepts to others. The current thrust of work in computer graphics - although valuable - tends to concentrate almost exclusively on the presentation aspects and it is now possible to create images almost resembling photographs of real objects as well as production drawings of great accuracy and consistency. This paper summarises some of this presentation work as well as developments which might go further in assisting the activities and processes of design.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 4904
authors Lapre, L. and Hudson, P.
year 1988
title Talking about Design: Supporting the Design Process with Different Goals
source CAAD futures 87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 127-136
summary The architectural design process has more than one participant. Each participant has his own way of approaching the information embedded in a design. In the future the CAAD systems of these participants must be able to communicate and exchange information. For a communication of this kind there must be a common ground, a frame of reference, in which these different points of view can be expressed. This frame of reference or model must support participants accessing the same information with different objectives and for different purposes. We shall propose such a model based on research results obtained by the analysis of architectural knowledge and designs. The model incorporates certain aspects drawn from AI.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id e8bb
authors Lehto, M.
year 1988
title Optical Discs - Their Application in Mass Data Storage
source CAAD futures 87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 189-198
summary Much of the building designer's time is taken up correlating the various sources of information so as to incorporate it in the design within a limited time span. The building information service should be able to provide him or her by the up-to-date information in a user friendly format. Optical disc technology makes it possible to combine different forms of building data into images which can be mass stored and randomly accessed on a single disc, with the minimal response time by personal computer or CAD- workstation. In this paper the use of various forms of optical disc technology in construction industry and the prototype video disc produced by VTT are described.
keywords Construction, Optical Discs, Interactive Video Disc, Mass Storage
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id c70a
authors Lindgren, Christina Axelsson
year 1988
title Forest Visual Variation as a Recreative Force
source Knowledge-Based Design in Architecture, Tips-88 (pre-proceedings) (1988 : Otaniemi). editors. John S Gero and T. Oksala. Espoo, Finland: Research Institute for Built Environment, Helsinki University of Technology, Department of Architecture, pp. 149-157. includes bibliography.
summary --- A revised version of this paper has been published in the Acta Polytechnica Scandinavica series. The article presents some findings concerning the importance of forest visual variation and the possibilities to create a Forest Visual Opportunity Spectrum. In the light of suggestions on theory of recreation and of the actual multiple use planning situation of forests, the possibilities and limits of empirical studies as a tool to receive knowledge of visual aspects of forests are discussed
keywords planning, knowledge, applications, landscape
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id 4744
authors Livingstone, Margaret and Hubel, David
year 1988
title Segregation of Form, Color, Movement, and Depth : Anatomy, Physiology, and Perception
source Science. May, 1988. vol. 240: pp. 740-750 : ill. some col. includes bibliography
summary Anatomical and physiological observations in monkeys indicate that the primate visual system consists of several separate and independent subdivisions that analyze different aspects of the same retinal image: cells in cortical visual areas 1 and 2 and higher visual areas are segregated into three interdigitating subdivisions that differ in their selectivity for color, stereopsis, movement, and orientation. The pathways selective for form and color seem to be derived mainly from the parvocellular geniculate subdivisions, the depth- and movement-selective components from the magnocellular. At lower levels, in the retina and in the geniculate, cells in these two subdivisions differ in their color selectivity, contrast sensitivity, temporal properties, and spatial resolution. These major differences in the properties of cells at lower levels in each of the subdivisions led to the prediction that different visual functions, such as color, depth, movement, and form perception, should exhibit corresponding differences. Human perceptual experiments are remarkably consistent with these predictions. Moreover, perceptual experiments can be designed to ask which subdivisions of the system are responsible for particular visual abilities, such as figure/ground discrimination or perception of depth from perspective or relative movement-functions that might be difficult to deduce from single-cell response properties
keywords color, theory, perception
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 8a1b
authors Mackenzie, C.A.
year 1987
title Inducing Relational Grammars From Design Interpretations
source AI'87 : Proceeding of the Australian Joint Artificial Intelligence Conference. 1987. pp. 207-220 CADLINE has abstract only.
summary --- Also published in Artificial Intelligence Developments and Applications edited by J. S. Gero and R. Stanton, North-Holland Pub. 1988. The combination of a heuristic driven search and a tree systems inference technique to induce context-free design grammars is presented. This is achieved by searching for the most useful interpretations of each design in a sample set and discovering regularities in their tree systems representation. The knowledge induced is represented as an accepting tree systems automation and generative grammar. Examples from the domain of architectural design are given
keywords heuristics, inference, search, shape grammars, knowledge, representation, architecture
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 0149
authors Mackenzie, C.A.
year 1988
title Heuristic Search and Tree Systems Inference for Structural Pattern Recognition
source Knowledge based systems. 1988. vol. 1: pp. 78-89
summary An experiment is reported that combines the use of a heuristic search and a tree systems inference technique to induce context-free relational grammars that generate patterns in the style embodied in a sample set. This is achieved by searching for concise structural representations of each pattern in a sample set and discovering regularities in their tree systems representation. The knowledge induced is represented as an accepting tree systems automation and generative grammar, and is used to classify extant patterns and generate novel ones. Examples are given to illustrate the methodology, and to lend support to the hypothesis that the style of a pattern can be partially characterized by a unique generative process
keywords algorithms, heuristics, search, pattern recognition, inference, shape grammars
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

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