CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id sigradi2009_1055
id sigradi2009_1055
authors Ferreira, Jane Victal
year 2009
title Pensando o tempo e o espaço [Thinking time and space]
source SIGraDi 2009 - Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, Sao Paulo, Brazil, November 16-18, 2009
summary This paper compares the musical and architectural languages exploring the similarities between works related to Twelve-tone music and Descontruction. To do this, first looks at Opus 27 by Anton Webern whose goal was to explore the spatiality in the context of sound perception by using a topology based on a square matrix of twelve rows and columns. Next, compares these procedures to those adopted by Peter Eisenman to design the conceptual model Guardiola House (1988), demonstrating the affinity between spatial and temporal constructions in the works of these two authors.
keywords Peter Eisenman; Anton Webern; Dodecafonismo; Deconstrutivismo
series SIGRADI
email janevictal@hotmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id c057
authors Ganter, John H.
year 1988
title Interactive Graphics : Linking the Human to the Model
source GIS/LIS'88 Proceeding accessing the world (3rd. : 1988 : San Antonio). December, 1988. Vol. 1: pp. 230-239 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Discovery and innovation, which have traditionally involved thinking visually and producing images, increasingly benefit from labor-saving devices like GIS and CAD. As new visualization technologies are implemented, it is particularly important to understand the human faculties which use pictures as tools in thinking. Science and engineering define problems, explain processes, and design solutions through observation, imagination and logic. This conceptual thought relies on a cognitive `database' of sensed verbal and non-verbal information, which is retained, managed, and updated within the short and long-term human memories. Research suggests that the individual must actively manipulate a phenomenon under study and its representations to enhance and maintain this database, and to produce abstractions and generalizations. Graphics are particularly important in this process of discovering correlations, contradictions and connections, and subsequent communication to others. Graphics offer high information density, simultaneity, variable detail and the capacity for showing multivariate relations. A `gestalt' property leads to the discovery of new relationships since the graphic whole always exceeds the sum of its parts. A cycle occurs in which the individual interacts with the phenomenon and produces explicit knowledge in the form of graphics and text, testing and refining each against knowledge and abstractions held in the mind
keywords information, computer graphics, perception, user interface, visualization, cognition, abstraction
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id cf2005_2_22_193
id cf2005_2_22_193
authors HSIEH Chun-Yu
year 2005
title A Preliminary Model of Creativity in Digital Development of Architecture
source Learning from the Past a Foundation for the Future [Special publication of papers presented at the CAAD futures 2005 conference held at the Vienna University of Technology / ISBN 3-85437-276-0], Vienna (Austria) 20-22 June 2005, pp. 63-74
summary Research into the various forms and processes of creativity has been a topic of great interest in the design field for many years. Part of the view is personality, and part of the answer is behavioural. Creativity is also explained through the identity of social values and the whole creative process. This paper proposes to use the interacting creativity model of Csikszentmihalyi as the basic structure, to establish the major criteria of testing creativity in the digital era. This paper demonstrates two facts: first, it confirms that creativity in architecture is truly valuable in the digital age; second, it proves that in the digital era, individuals, cultures and societies are all under the impact of digital technologies, a fact which transforms the model of interacting creativity proposed by Csikszentmihalyi in 1988 into a new model of digital interacting creativity.
keywords creativity, digital media, society, culture
series CAAD Futures
email ch0315@arch.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/05/05 05:06

_id c7e9
authors Maver, T.W.
year 2002
title Predicting the Past, Remembering the Future
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 2-3
summary Charlas Magistrales 2There never has been such an exciting moment in time in the extraordinary 30 year history of our subject area, as NOW,when the philosophical theoretical and practical issues of virtuality are taking centre stage.The PastThere have, of course, been other defining moments during these exciting 30 years:• the first algorithms for generating building layouts (circa 1965).• the first use of Computer graphics for building appraisal (circa 1966).• the first integrated package for building performance appraisal (circa 1972).• the first computer generated perspective drawings (circa 1973).• the first robust drafting systems (circa 1975).• the first dynamic energy models (circa 1982).• the first photorealistic colour imaging (circa 1986).• the first animations (circa 1988)• the first multimedia systems (circa 1995), and• the first convincing demonstrations of virtual reality (circa 1996).Whereas the CAAD community has been hugely inventive in the development of ICT applications to building design, it hasbeen woefully remiss in its attempts to evaluate the contribution of those developments to the quality of the built environmentor to the efficiency of the design process. In the absence of any real evidence, one can only conjecture regarding the realbenefits which fall, it is suggested, under the following headings:• Verisimilitude: The extraordinary quality of still and animated images of the formal qualities of the interiors and exteriorsof individual buildings and of whole neighborhoods must surely give great comfort to practitioners and their clients thatwhat is intended, formally, is what will be delivered, i.e. WYSIWYG - what you see is what you get.• Sustainability: The power of «first-principle» models of the dynamic energetic behaviour of buildings in response tochanging diurnal and seasonal conditions has the potential to save millions of dollars and dramatically to reduce thedamaging environmental pollution created by badly designed and managed buildings.• Productivity: CAD is now a multi-billion dollar business which offers design decision support systems which operate,effectively, across continents, time-zones, professions and companies.• Communication: Multi-media technology - cheap to deliver but high in value - is changing the way in which we canexplain and understand the past and, envisage and anticipate the future; virtual past and virtual future!MacromyopiaThe late John Lansdown offered the view, in his wonderfully prophetic way, that ...”the future will be just like the past, onlymore so...”So what can we expect the extraordinary trajectory of our subject area to be?To have any chance of being accurate we have to have an understanding of the phenomenon of macromyopia: thephenomenon exhibitted by society of greatly exaggerating the immediate short-term impact of new technologies (particularlythe information technologies) but, more importantly, seriously underestimating their sustained long-term impacts - socially,economically and intellectually . Examples of flawed predictions regarding the the future application of information technologiesinclude:• The British Government in 1880 declined to support the idea of a national telephonic system, backed by the argumentthat there were sufficient small boys in the countryside to run with messages.• Alexander Bell was modest enough to say that: «I am not boasting or exaggerating but I believe, one day, there will bea telephone in every American city».• Tom Watson, in 1943 said: «I think there is a world market for about 5 computers».• In 1977, Ken Olssop of Digital said: «There is no reason for any individuals to have a computer in their home».The FutureJust as the ascent of woman/man-kind can be attributed to her/his capacity to discover amplifiers of the modest humancapability, so we shall discover how best to exploit our most important amplifier - that of the intellect. The more we know themore we can figure; the more we can figure the more we understand; the more we understand the more we can appraise;the more we can appraise the more we can decide; the more we can decide the more we can act; the more we can act themore we can shape; and the more we can shape, the better the chance that we can leave for future generations a trulysustainable built environment which is fit-for-purpose, cost-beneficial, environmentally friendly and culturally significactCentral to this aspiration will be our understanding of the relationship between real and virtual worlds and how to moveeffortlessly between them. We need to be able to design, from within the virtual world, environments which may be real ormay remain virtual or, perhaps, be part real and part virtual.What is certain is that the next 30 years will be every bit as exciting and challenging as the first 30 years.
series SIGRADI
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id 0e5d
authors Reed, Raymond D.
year 1988
title The Teaching of Computer Assisted Sustainable Architectural Design
source Computing in Design Education [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Ann Arbor (Michigan / USA) 28-30 October 1988, pp. 111-122
summary Sustainable architecture is high-tech, energy and resource conserving architecture that sustains and increases the human and natural carrying capacity of the host environment. This paper presents a computer assisted design process to teach sustainable architectural design.

The energy performance of a base case building in each of four climates and cultures is presented. The climates are: Phoenix (hotdry), Minneapolis (cold-dry), Boston (cold-humid), and New Orleans ( hot- humid). Keeping the host climate, site, building size and function constant: but varying materials, shape and design concepts, each base case is iterated through a series of computer assisted re-designs to transform each base case building into an architecture representative of its regional climate and culture.

Traditional technologies and concepts produce traditional regional architecture. New technologies and concepts produce forms expressive of an emerging high-tech, high-touch, low energy society.

The paper presents computer generated work by the author and his students. It also presents an interim evaluation of the successes and difficulties of conducting a 'paper free' design studio.

series ACADIA
last changed 1999/01/01 18:27

_id aef1
authors Rosenman, M.A., Gero, J.S. and Coyne, R.D. (et al)
year 1987
title SOLAREXPERT : A Prototype Expert System for Passive Solar Energy Design in Housing
source Canberra: Aust NZ Solar Energy Society, 1987. vol.II: pp. 361-370. Also published in People and Technology - Sun, Climate and Building, edited by V. Szokolay, Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, 1988
summary Passive solar energy design is not an exact science in which a set of analytical procedures can be followed to produce results. Rather it depends heavily on subjective parameters and experience collected over time which is heuristic by nature. At present this knowledge is available in books but while this knowledge is comprehensive, it is unstructured and not always easy to make use of. A computer-based system allows for flexible interactive dialogue and for the incorporation of analytical procedures which may be required. This paper describes work on SOLAREXPERT, a prototype expert system to aid designers in passive solar energy design for single dwellings. The system operates at a strategic level to provide basic advice on the form of construction and types of passive solar systems and at a spatial zone level to provide more detailed advice on sizes and materials. It allows for modification of the information entered so that users may explore several possibilities
keywords applications, experience, housing, expert systems, energy, design, architecture
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/17 08:17

_id 861a
authors Sedas, Sergio W. and Talukdar, Sarosh N.
year 1987
title A Disassembly Planner for Redesign
source The Winter Annual Meeting of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Symposium of Intelligent and Integrated Manufacturing Analysis and Synthesis. December, 1987. Pittsburgh, PA: Engineering Design Research Center, CMU, 1988. [6] p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary This paper describes an algorithm for generating plans for disassembling given objects. The plans are produced by a set of knowledge sources acting on a set of representations for the object. Both sets are arbitrarily expandable, so programs using the approach can grow continually in capability. Our present complement of knowledge sources and representations can tackle relatively difficult problems. Three examples are included. The first requires a good bit of geometric reasoning before appropriate subassemblies can be selected. The second and third require certain movable parts to be repositioned before disassembly can be achieved
keywords algorithms, representation, synthesis, assemblies, knowledge, reasoning, mechanical engineering
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 450c
authors Akin, Ömer
year 1990
title Computational Design Instruction: Toward a Pedagogy
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 302-316
summary The computer offers enormous potential both in and out of the classroom that is realized only in limited ways through the applications available to us today. In the early days of the computer it was generally argued that it would replace the architect. When this idea became obsolete, the prevailing opinion of proponents and opponents alike shifted to the notion of the computer as merely adding to present design capabilities. This idea is so ingrained in our thinking that we still speak of "aiding" design with computers. It is clear to those who grasp the real potential of this still new technology - as in the case of many other major technological innovations - that it continues to change the way we design, rather than to merely augment or replace human designers. In the classroom the computer has the potential to radically change three fundamental ingredients: student, instruction, and instructor. It is obvious that changes of this kind spell out a commensurate change in design pedagogy. If the computer is going to be more than a passive instrument in the design studio, then design pedagogy will have to be changed, fundamentally. While the practice of computing in the studio continues to be a significant I aspect of architectural education, articulation of viable pedagogy for use in the design studio is truly rare. In this paper the question of pedagogy in the CAD studio will be considered first. Then one particular design studio taught during Fall 1988 at Carnegie Mellon University will be presented. Finally, we shall return to issues of change in the student, instruction, and instructor, as highlighted by this particular experience.
series CAAD Futures
email oa04@andrew.cmu.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id eb5f
authors Al-Sallal, Khaled A. and Degelman, Larry 0.
year 1994
title A Hypermedia Model for Supporting Energy Design in Buildings
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 39-49
summary Several studies have discussed the limitations of the available CAAD tools and have proposed solutions [Brown and Novitski 1987, Brown 1990, Degelman and Kim 1988, Schuman et al 1988]. The lack of integration between the different tasks that these programs address and the design process is a major problem. Schuman et al [1988] argued that in architectural design many issues must be considered simultaneously before the synthesis of a final product can take place. Studies by Brown and Novitski [1987] and Brown [1990] discussed the difficulties involved with integrating technical considerations in the creative architectural process. One aspect of the problem is the neglect of technical factors during the initial phase of the design that, as the authors argued, results from changing the work environment and the laborious nature of the design process. Many of the current programs require the user to input a great deal of numerical values that are needed for the energy analysis. Although there are some programs that attempt to assist the user by setting default values, these programs distract the user with their extensive arrays of data. The appropriate design tool is the one that helps the user to easily view the principal components of the building design and specify their behaviors and interactions. Data abstraction and information parsimony are the key concepts in developing a successful design tool. Three different approaches for developing an appropriate CAAD tool were found in the literature. Although there are several similarities among them, each is unique in solving certain aspects of the problem. Brown and Novitski [1987] emphasize the learning factor of the tool as well as its highly graphical user interface. Degelman and Kim [1988] emphasize knowledge acquisition and the provision of simulation modules. The Windows and Daylighting Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) emphasizes the dynamic structuring of information, the intelligent linking of data, the integrity of the different issues of design and the design process, and the extensive use of images [Schuman et al 19881, these attributes incidentally define the word hypermedia. The LBL model, which uses hypermedia, seems to be the more promising direction for this type of research. However, there is still a need to establish a new model that integrates all aspects of the problem. The areas in which the present research departs from the LBL model can be listed as follows: it acknowledges the necessity of regarding the user as the center of the CAAD tool design, it develops a model that is based on one of the high level theories of human-computer interaction, and it develops a prototype tool that conforms to the model.

series ACADIA
email l-degelman@neo.tamu.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 0697
authors Balachandran, M.B. and Gero, John S.
year 1988
title Development of a Knowledge-Based System for Structural Optimization
source Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1988. pp. 17-24
summary Optimization is a useful and challenging activity in structural design. It provides designers with tools for better designs while saving time in the design process. The features of conventional optimization tools are presented and their limitations are outlined. The impact and role of knowledge-based methodologies in structural optimization processes is discussed. Structural optimization involves a number of tasks which require human expertise, and are traditionally assisted by human designers. These include design optimization formulation, problem recognition and the selection of appropriate algorithm(s). In this representation and processing of constraints are crucial tasks. This paper presents a framework for developing a knowledge-based system to accomplish these tasks. Based on the needs and the nature of the optimization process, a conceptual architecture of an integrated knowledge-based system is presented. The structure and functions of various components of the system are described
keywords knowledge base, systems, integration, optimization, structures, engineering
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c568
authors Balachandran, M.B. and John S. Gero
year 1987
title A Model for Knowledge Based Graphical Interfaces
source AI '87: Proceedings of the Australian Joint Artificial Intelligence Conference. 1987. pp. 505-521. Also published in Artificial Intelligence Developments and Applications edited by J. S. Gero and R Stanton, North-Holland Pub. 1988. -- CADLINE has abstract only.
summary This paper describes a model for knowledge-based graphical interface which incorporates a variety of knowledge of the domain of application. The key issues considered include graphics interpretation, extraction of features of graphics objects and identification of prototype objects. The role of such knowledge-based interfaces in computer-aided design is discussed. A prototype system developed in Prolog and C is described and its application in the domain of structural engineering is demonstrated
keywords user interface, computer graphics, knowledge base, systems, civil engineering, structures
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c6d5
authors Balachandran, M.B.
year 1988
title A Model for Knowledge-Based Design Optimization [PhD dissertation]
source Dept. of Architectural Science, University of Sydney
summary Unpublished. CADLINE has abstract only. This dissertation is concerned with developments in design decision methodologies applied to computer-aided design. The major aim of this research was to design and develop a knowledge-based computer-aided optimization system that has the ability to emulate some of the human performances in design decision processes. The issues and problems involved in developing a knowledge-based system for design optimization are addressed. A knowledge-based methodology to aid design optimization formulation is investigated. The major issues considered include representation of design description, the variety of knowledge required for the formulation process, recognizing optimization formulations, and selection of appropriate algorithms. It is demonstrated that the knowledge-based control of numerical processes leads to efficient and improved decisions in design. In developing knowledge-based systems for computer-aided decision applications an effective human-machine interface is essential. A model for knowledge-based graphical interfaces is proposed. This model incorporates knowledge for graphics interpretation, extraction of features of graphics objects and identification of prototypical objects. An experimental system developed in Prolog and C is demonstrated in the domain of structural design. The system shows one way of combining knowledge-based systems technology with computer graphics and indicates how knowledge-based interfaces improve the system's interactive capabilities. Finally, the system, OPTIMA, is presented. The system is designed as an integrated knowledge-based decision system using frames, rule bases, menu inputs, algebraic computation and optimization algorithms. The system has been written in LISP, Prolog and C and implemented on SUN Microsystems workstations. The performance of the system is demonstrated using two example problems from the domains of structural and architectural design respectively. The knowledge-based approach to design optimization is shown to be considerably easier and more efficient than those using conventional programs.
keywords Knowledge Base, Systems, CAD, Representation, Design, Frames, Computer Graphics, User Interface, Decision Making
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c7f4
authors Bancroft, Pamela J. (ed.)
year 1988
title Computing in Design Education [ACADIA Conference Proceedings]
source ACADIA ‘88 Conference Proceedings /Ann Arbor (Michigan / USA) 28-30 October 1988, 311 p.
summary Progress is being made towards integrating computing into architectural design. This progress is not being made in a coordinated and systematic manner, which is actually a positive factor. Architects will never be scientists or engineers, who hold the distinguishing characteristic of being masters of the scientific method. We have never been so incumbered, although we certainly have given it our best effort.

Architects are creative problem solvers, primarily driven by intuition, while coming from a sense of the past and the logic of the present. Our initial attempts at integrating computing into the studio, as evidenced by this collection of papers, is very diverse, based on differing pedagogical assumptions, and the achieving of significantly different results. This would appear to be evidence of a revolutionary approach to the problem rather than a scientific evolutionary approach. Terrific! This is when we as architects are at our best. Although we reach a great number of emphatically dead ends, the successes and discoveries achieved along the way are significant.

The diversity and quality of papers submitted suggest that we are indeed pursuing the task of integration in our typical, individual, intuitive, logical manner. I commend all of the authors who submitted proposals and thank them for expanding the envelope of integration into their personal exploration.

series ACADIA
last changed 1999/01/01 18:21

_id 696c
authors Beheshti, M. and Monroy, M.
year 1988
title Requirements for Developing an Information System for Architecture
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 149-170
summary This paper discusses possibilities of developing new tools for architectural design. It argues that architects should meet the challenge of information technology and computer-based design techniques. One such attempt has been the first phase of the development of an architectural design information system (ADIS), also an architectural design decision support system. The system should benefit from the developments of the artificial intelligence to enable the architect to have access to information required to carry out design work. In other words: the system functions as a huge on-line electronic library of architecture, containing up-to-date architectural design information, literature, documents, etc. At the same time, the system offers necessary design aids such as computer programs for design process, drawing programs, evaluation programs, cost calculation programs, etc. The system also provides data communication between the architect and members of the design coalition team. This is found to be of vital importance in the architectural design process, because it can enable the architect to fit in changes, brought about in the project by different parties. Furthermore, they will be able, to oversee promptly the consequences of changes or decisions in a comprehensive manner. The system will offer advantages over the more commonly applied microcomputer based CAAD and IGDM (integrated graphics database management) systems, or even larger systems available to an architect. Computer programs as well as hardware change rapidly and become obsolete. Therefore, unrelenting investment pressure to up-date both software and hardware exists. The financial burden of this is heavy, in particular for smaller architectural practices (for instance an architect working for himself or herself and usually with few or no permanent staff). ADIS, as an on-line architectural design aid, is constantly up-dated by its own organisation. This task will be co-ordinated by the ADIS data- base administrator (DBA). The processing possibilities of the system are faster, therefore more complex processing tasks can be handled. Complicated large graphic data files, can be easily retrieved and manipulated by ADIS, a large system. In addition, the cost of an on-line system will be much less than any other system. The system is based on one model of the architectural design process, but will eventually contain a variety of design models, as it develops. The development of the system will be an evolutionary process, making use of its users' feed-back system. ADIS is seen as a step towards full automation of architectural design practices. Apart from being an architectural design support system, ADIS will assist the architect in his/her administrative and organisational activities.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 887e
authors Belajcic, N. D.
year 1988
title Computer Implementation of Shape Grammars
source Department of Architectural Science, University of Sydney
summary An approach is taken that shape grammars can be used as a possible vehicle for automated design generation. Historical background of shape grammars is discussed with emphasis on vocabulary/syntax aspect of the design process and significance of class solutions to problems. Similarities with expert system mechanics and structure is highlighted and advantages and disadvantages of rule-based and frame-based systems are considered. These concepts are implemented in a computer program written in LISP employing icon driven graphic interface with tools for creating shapes and rules. Finally, problems associated with adopted reasoning strategies are reported and areas of further development and improvement suggested. [UNPUBLISHED. CADLINE has abstract only]
keywords Shape Grammars, Design Process
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2002/12/14 18:10

_id 2a36
authors Ben-Moshe, R. and Sorgen, A.
year 1988
title Parametric Shape Definition by Example
source 12, [13] p., [7] p. of ill. Israel: MICROCAD, 1988(?). includes bibliography
summary Incorporation of parametric design facilities into CAD systems presents some serious problems. The major issues are: (1) functionality - the need to cater for a great variety of designs, (2) natural user interface, with no need for the user to acquire programming skills, (3) integration and consistency with the 'host' CAD environment
keywords parametrization, user interface, CAD, geometric modeling, mechanical engineering, CAM
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id cf2011_p127
id cf2011_p127
authors Benros, Deborah; Granadeiro Vasco, Duarte Jose, Knight Terry
year 2011
title Integrated Design and Building System for the Provision of Customized Housing: the Case of Post-Earthquake Haiti
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 247-264.
summary The paper proposes integrated design and building systems for the provision of sustainable customized housing. It advances previous work by applying a methodology to generate these systems from vernacular precedents. The methodology is based on the use of shape grammars to derive and encode a contemporary system from the precedents. The combined set of rules can be applied to generate housing solutions tailored to specific user and site contexts. The provision of housing to shelter the population affected by the 2010 Haiti earthquake illustrates the application of the methodology. A computer implementation is currently under development in C# using the BIM platform provided by Revit. The world experiences a sharp increase in population and a strong urbanization process. These phenomena call for the development of effective means to solve the resulting housing deficit. The response of the informal sector to the problem, which relies mainly on handcrafted processes, has resulted in an increase of urban slums in many of the big cities, which lack sanitary and spatial conditions. The formal sector has produced monotonous environments based on the idea of mass production that one size fits all, which fails to meet individual and cultural needs. We propose an alternative approach in which mass customization is used to produce planed environments that possess qualities found in historical settlements. Mass customization, a new paradigm emerging due to the technological developments of the last decades, combines the economy of scale of mass production and the aesthetics and functional qualities of customization. Mass customization of housing is defined as the provision of houses that respond to the context in which they are built. The conceptual model for the mass customization of housing used departs from the idea of a housing type, which is the combined result of three systems (Habraken, 1988) -- spatial, building system, and stylistic -- and it includes a design system, a production system, and a computer system (Duarte, 2001). In previous work, this conceptual model was tested by developing a computer system for existing design and building systems (Benr__s and Duarte, 2009). The current work advances it by developing new and original design, building, and computer systems for a particular context. The urgent need to build fast in the aftermath of catastrophes quite often overrides any cultural concerns. As a result, the shelters provided in such circumstances are indistinct and impersonal. However, taking individual and cultural aspects into account might lead to a better identification of the population with their new environment, thereby minimizing the rupture caused in their lives. As the methodology to develop new housing systems is based on the idea of architectural precedents, choosing existing vernacular housing as a precedent permits the incorporation of cultural aspects and facilitates an identification of people with the new housing. In the Haiti case study, we chose as a precedent a housetype called “gingerbread houses”, which includes a wide range of houses from wealthy to very humble ones. Although the proposed design system was inspired by these houses, it was decided to adopt a contemporary take. The methodology to devise the new type was based on two ideas: precedents and transformations in design. In architecture, the use of precedents provides designers with typical solutions for particular problems and it constitutes a departing point for a new design. In our case, the precedent is an existing housetype. It has been shown (Duarte, 2001) that a particular housetype can be encoded by a shape grammar (Stiny, 1980) forming a design system. Studies in shape grammars have shown that the evolution of one style into another can be described as the transformation of one shape grammar into another (Knight, 1994). The used methodology departs takes off from these ideas and it comprises the following steps (Duarte, 2008): (1) Selection of precedents, (2) Derivation of an archetype; (3) Listing of rules; (4) Derivation of designs; (5) Cataloguing of solutions; (6) Derivation of tailored solution.
keywords Mass customization, Housing, Building system, Sustainable construction, Life cycle energy consumption, Shape grammar
series CAAD Futures
email deborahbenros@gmail.com
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ea6a
authors Bentley, Jon L.
year 1988
title More Programming Pearls : Confessions of a Coder
source 207 p. : ill. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1988. includes index
summary A collection of essays demonstrating the various aspects of programming. Some cover programming techniques using the C and AWK languages, other essays discuss making I/O fit for humans and several sub routines
keywords programming, algorithms, techniques
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c57b
authors Bier, Eric A.
year 1988
title Snap-Dragging. Interactive Geometric design in Two and Three Dimensions
source University of California, Berkeley
summary Graphic artists, mechanical designers, architects, animators, authors of technical papers and others create geometric designs (illustrations and solid models) as a major part of their daily efforts. Some part of this shape construction must be done with precision. For instance, certain line segments should be horizontal, parallel or congruent. In recent years, interactive computer programs have been used to speed up the production of precise geometric designs. These programs take advantage of high-speed graphics, equation solving, and computer input peripherals to reduce the time needed to describe point positions to the machine. Previous techniques include rounding the cursor to points on a rectangular grid, solving networks of constraints, and supporting step-by-step drafting-style constructions. Snap-dragging is a modification of the drafting approach that takes advantage of powerful workstations to reduce the time needed to make precise illustrations. Using a single gravity mapping, a cursor can be snapped to either points, lines or surface. The gravity algorithm achieves good performance by computing intersection points on the fly. To aid precise construction, a set of lines, circles, planes, and spheres, called alignment objects, are constructed by the system at a set of slopes, angles, and distances specified by the user. These alignments objects are constructed at each vertex or edge that the user has declared to be hot (of interest). Vertices and edges can also be made hot by the system through the action of an automatic hotness rule. When snap-dragging is used, shapes can often be constructed using a few more keystrokes than would be needed to sketch them freehand. Objects can be edited at arbitrary orientations and sizes. The number of primitive operations is small, making it possible to provide keyboard combinations for quickly activating most of these operations. The user interface works nearly identically in two or three dimensions. In three dimensions, snap-dragging works with a two-dimensional pointing device in a single perspective view.  
series thesis:PhD
email bier@parc.com
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id c9e4
authors Birmingham, William P. and Siewiorek, Daniel P.
year 1988
title Automated knowledge Acquisition for a Computer Hardware Synthesis System
source 19 p. : ill. Engineering Design Research Center, CMU, June, 1988. EDRC 18-06-88. includes bibliography
summary The MICON Synthesizer Version 1 (M1) is a rule-based system which produces a complete small computer design from a set of abstract specifications. The ability of M1 to produce designs depends on the encoding of large amounts of domain knowledge. An automated knowledge acquisition tool, CGEN, works symbiotically with M1 by gathering the knowledge required by M1. CGEN acquires knowledge about how to build and when to use various computer structures. This paper overviews the operation of CGEN by providing an example of the types of knowledge acquired and the mechanisms employed. A novel knowledge-intensive generalization scheme is presented. Generalization is a pragmatic necessity for knowledge acquisition in this domain. A series of experiments to test CGEN's capabilities are explained. A description of the architecture and knowledge-base of M1 is also provided
keywords electrical engineering, automation, knowledge acquisition, knowledge base, systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

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